ResearchPad - tata-box Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[How global DNA unwinding causes non-uniform stress distribution and melting of DNA]]> DNA unwinding is an important process that controls binding of proteins, gene expression and melting of double-stranded DNA. In a series of all-atom MD simulations on two DNA molecules containing a transcription start TATA-box sequence we demonstrate that application of a global restraint on the DNA twisting dramatically changes the coupling between helical parameters and the distribution of deformation energy along the sequence. Whereas only short range nearest-neighbor coupling is observed in the relaxed case, long-range coupling is induced in the globally restrained case. With increased overall unwinding the elastic deformation energy is strongly non-uniformly distributed resulting ultimately in a local melting transition of only the TATA box segment during the simulations. The deformation energy tends to be stored more in cytidine/guanine rich regions associated with a change in conformational substate distribution. Upon TATA box melting the deformation energy is largely absorbed by the melting bubble with the rest of the sequences relaxing back to near B-form. The simulations allow us to characterize the structural changes and the propagation of the elastic energy but also to calculate the associated free energy change upon DNA unwinding up to DNA melting. Finally, we design an Ising model for predicting the local melting transition based on empirical parameters. The direct comparison with the atomistic MD simulations indicates a remarkably good agreement for the predicted necessary torsional stress to induce a melting transition, for the position and length of the melted region and for the calculated associated free energy change between both approaches.

<![CDATA[Analysis of a new begomovirus unveils a composite element conserved in the CP gene promoters of several Geminiviridae genera: Clues to comprehend the complex regulation of late genes]]>

A novel bipartite begomovirus, Blechum interveinal chlorosis virus (BleICV), was characterized at the genome level. Comparative analyses revealed that BleICV coat protein (CP) gene promoter is highly divergent from the equivalent region of other begomoviruses (BGVs), with the single exception of Tomato chino La Paz virus (ToChLPV) with which it shares a 23-bp phylogenetic footprint exhibiting dyad symmetry. Systematic examination of the homologous CP promoter segment of 132 New World BGVs revealed the existence of a quasi-palindromic DNA segment displaying a strongly conserved ACTT-(N7)-AAGT core. The spacer sequence between the palindromic motifs is constant in length, but its sequence is highly variable among viral species, presenting a relaxed consensus (TT)GGKCCCY, which is similar to the Conserved Late Element or CLE (GTGGTCCC), a putative TrAP-responsive element. The homologous CP promoter region of Old World BGVs exhibited a distinct organization, with the putative TATA-box overlapping the left half of the ACTT-N7 composite element. Similar CP promoter sequences, dubbed “TATA-associated composite element” or TACE, were found in viruses belonging to different Geminiviridae genera, hence hinting unsuspected evolutionary relationships among those lineages. To get cues about the TACE function, the regulatory function of the CLE was explored in distinct experimental systems. Transgenic tobacco plants harboring a GUS reporter gene driven by a promoter composed by CLE multimers expressed high beta-glucuronidase activity in absence of viral factors, and that expression was increased by begomovirus infection. On the other hand, the TrAP-responsiveness of a truncated CP promoter of Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) was abolished by site-directed mutation of the only CLE present in it, whereas the artificial addition of one CLE to the -125 truncated promoter strongly enhanced the transactivation level in tobacco protoplasts. These results indicate that the CLE is a TrAP-responsive element, hence providing valuable clues to interpret the recurrent association of the CLE with the TACE. On the basis of the aforesaid direct evidences and the insights afforded by the extensive comparative analysis of BleICV CP promoter, we propose that the TACE might be involved in the TrAP-mediated derepression of CP gene in vascular tissues.

<![CDATA[Classification of Promoters Based on the Combination of Core Promoter Elements Exhibits Different Histone Modification Patterns]]>

Four different histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4; two subunits each) constitute a histone octamer, around which DNA wraps to form histone-DNA complexes called nucleosomes. Amino acid residues in each histone are occasionally modified, resulting in several biological effects, including differential regulation of transcription. Core promoters that encompass the transcription start site have well-conserved DNA motifs, including the initiator (Inr), TATA box, and DPE, which are collectively called the core promoter elements (CPEs). In this study, we systematically studied the associations between the CPEs and histone modifications by integrating the Drosophila Core Promoter Database and time-series ChIP-seq data for histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3) during development in Drosophila melanogaster via the modENCODE project. We classified 96 core promoters into four groups based on the presence or absence of the TATA box or DPE, calculated the histone modification ratio at the core promoter region, and transcribed region for each core promoter. We found that the histone modifications in TATA-less groups were static during development and that the core promoters could be clearly divided into three types: i) core promoters with continuous active marks (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac), ii) core promoters with a continuous inactive mark (H3K27me3) and occasional active marks, and iii) core promoters with occasional histone modifications. Linear regression analysis and non-linear regression by random forest showed that the TATA-containing groups included core promoters without histone modifications, for which the measured RNA expression values were not predictable accurately from the histone modification status. DPE-containing groups had a higher relative frequency of H3K27me3 in both the core promoter region and transcribed region. In summary, our analysis showed that there was a systematic link between the existence of the CPEs and the dynamics, frequency and influence on transcriptional activity of histone modifications.

<![CDATA[Full-Length Isoform Sequencing Reveals Novel Transcripts and Substantial Transcriptional Overlaps in a Herpesvirus]]>

Whole transcriptome studies have become essential for understanding the complexity of genetic regulation. However, the conventionally applied short-read sequencing platforms cannot be used to reliably distinguish between many transcript isoforms. The Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) RS II platform is capable of reading long nucleic acid stretches in a single sequencing run. The pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an excellent system to study herpesvirus gene expression and potential interactions between the transcriptional units. In this work, non-amplified and amplified isoform sequencing protocols were used to characterize the poly(A+) fraction of the lytic transcriptome of PRV, with the aim of a complete transcriptional annotation of the viral genes. The analyses revealed a previously unrecognized complexity of the PRV transcriptome including the discovery of novel protein-coding and non-coding genes, novel mono- and polycistronic transcription units, as well as extensive transcriptional overlaps between neighboring and distal genes. This study identified non-coding transcripts overlapping all three replication origins of the PRV, which might play a role in the control of DNA synthesis. We additionally established the relative expression levels of gene products. Our investigations revealed that the whole PRV genome is utilized for transcription, including both DNA strands in all coding and intergenic regions. The genome-wide occurrence of transcript overlaps suggests a crosstalk between genes through a network formed by interacting transcriptional machineries with a potential function in the control of gene expression.

<![CDATA[Linking Core Promoter Classes to Circadian Transcription]]>

Circadian rhythms in transcription are generated by rhythmic abundances and DNA binding activities of transcription factors. Propagation of rhythms to transcriptional initiation involves the core promoter, its chromatin state, and the basal transcription machinery. Here, I characterize core promoters and chromatin states of genes transcribed in a circadian manner in mouse liver and in Drosophila. It is shown that the core promoter is a critical determinant of circadian mRNA expression in both species. A distinct core promoter class, strong circadian promoters (SCPs), is identified in mouse liver but not Drosophila. SCPs are defined by specific core promoter features, and are shown to drive circadian transcriptional activities with both high averages and high amplitudes. Data analysis and mathematical modeling further provided evidence for rhythmic regulation of both polymerase II recruitment and pause release at SCPs. The analysis provides a comprehensive and systematic view of core promoters and their link to circadian mRNA expression in mouse and Drosophila, and thus reveals a crucial role for the core promoter in regulated, dynamic transcription.

<![CDATA[New Developments of RNAi in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Prospects for High-Throughput, Genome-Wide, Functional Genomics]]>


The Fungal Genome Initiative of the Broad Institute, in partnership with the Paracoccidioides research community, has recently sequenced the genome of representative isolates of this human-pathogen dimorphic fungus: Pb18 (S1), Pb03 (PS2) and Pb01. The accomplishment of future high-throughput, genome-wide, functional genomics will rely upon appropriate molecular tools and straightforward techniques to streamline the generation of stable loss-of-function phenotypes. In the past decades, RNAi has emerged as the most robust genetic technique to modulate or to suppress gene expression in diverse eukaryotes, including fungi. These molecular tools and techniques, adapted for RNAi, were up until now unavailable for P. brasiliensis.

Methodology/Principal Findings

In this paper, we report Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of yeast cells for high-throughput applications with which higher transformation frequencies of 150±24 yeast cell transformants per 1×106 viable yeast cells were obtained. Our approach is based on a bifunctional selective marker fusion protein consisted of the Streptoalloteichus hindustanus bleomycin-resistance gene (Shble) and the intrinsically fluorescent monomeric protein mCherry which was codon-optimized for heterologous expression in P. brasiliensis. We also report successful GP43 gene knock-down through the expression of intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) from a Gateway-adapted cassette (cALf) which was purpose-built for gene silencing in a high-throughput manner. Gp43 transcript levels were reduced by 73.1±22.9% with this approach.


We have a firm conviction that the genetic transformation technique and the molecular tools herein described will have a relevant contribution in future Paracoccidioides spp. functional genomics research.

<![CDATA[Gdown1 Associates Efficiently with RNA Polymerase II after Promoter Clearance and Displaces TFIIF during Transcript Elongation]]>

Pausing during the earliest stage of transcript elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a nearly universal control point in metazoan gene expression. The substoichiometric Pol II subunit Gdown1 facilitates promoter proximal pausing in vitro in extract-based transcription reactions, out-competes the initiation/elongation factor TFIIF for binding to free Pol II and co-localizes with paused Pol II in vivo. However, we have shown that Gdown1 cannot functionally associate with the Pol II preinitiation complex (PIC), which contains TFIIF. In the present study, we determined at what point after initiation Gdown1 can associate with Pol II and how rapidly this competition with TFIIF occurs. We show that, as with the PIC, Gdown1 cannot functionally load into open complexes or complexes engaged in abortive synthesis of very short RNAs. Gdown1 can load into early elongation complexes (EECs) with 5–9 nt RNAs, but efficient association with EECs does not take place until the point at which the upstream segment of the long initial transcription bubble reanneals. Tests of EECs assembled on a series of promoter variants confirm that this bubble collapse transition, and not transcript length, modulates Gdown1 functional affinity. Gdown1 displaces TFIIF effectively from all complexes downstream of the collapse transition, but this displacement is surprisingly slow: complete loss of TFIIF stimulation of elongation requires 5 min of incubation with Gdown1. The relatively slow functional loading of Gdown1 in the presence of TFIIF suggests that Gdown1 works in promoter-proximal pausing by locking in the paused state after elongation is already antagonized by other factors, including DSIF, NELF and possibly the first downstream nucleosome.