ResearchPad - technical-paper https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Parametric study of 3D printed microneedle (MN) holders for interstitial fluid (ISF) extraction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9934 The need for novel, minimally invasive diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomedical devices has garnered increased interest in recent years. Microneedle (MN) technology has stood out as a promising new method for drug delivery, as well as extraction of interstitial fluid (ISF). ISF comprises a large portion of the extracellular fluid in living organisms yet remains inadequately characterized for clinical applications. Current MN research has focused on the fabrication of needles with different materials like silicone, carbon, and metals. However, little effort has been put forth into improving MN holders and patches that can be used with low cost MNs, which could effectively change how MNs are attached to the human body. Here, we describe different 3D-printed MN holders, printed using an MJP Pro 2500 3D printer, and compare the ISF extraction efficiencies in CD Hairless rats. We varied design parameters that may affect the skin-holder interface, such as throat thickness, tip curvature, and throat diameter. MN arrays, with insertion depths of 1500 μm, had extraction efficiencies of 0.44 ± 0.35, 0.85 ± 0.64, 0.32 ± 0.21, or 0.44 ± 0.46 µl/min when designed with flat, concave, convex, or bevel profile geometries, respectively. Our results suggest ISF extraction is influenced by MN holder design parameters and that a concave tip design is optimal for extracting ISF from animals. The future direction of this research aims to enable a paradigm in MN design that maximizes its efficiency and engineering performance in terms of volume, pressure, and wearability, thereby automatizing usage and reducing patient intervention to ultimately benefit remote telemedicine.

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<![CDATA[Differing Modes of Biotic Connectivity within Freshwater Ecosystem Mosaics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf75f7eab-6f34-4015-885c-af5ce71fa6b1

Abstract

We describe a collection of aquatic and wetland habitats in an inland landscape, and their occurrence within a terrestrial matrix, as a “freshwater ecosystem mosaic” (FEM). Aquatic and wetland habitats in any FEM can vary widely, from permanently ponded lakes, to ephemerally ponded wetlands, to groundwater‐fed springs, to flowing rivers and streams. The terrestrial matrix can also vary, including in its influence on flows of energy, materials, and organisms among ecosystems. Biota occurring in a specific region are adapted to the unique opportunities and challenges presented by spatial and temporal patterns of habitat types inherent to each FEM. To persist in any given landscape, most species move to recolonize habitats and maintain mixtures of genetic materials. Species also connect habitats through time if they possess needed morphological, physiological, or behavioral traits to persist in a habitat through periods of unfavorable environmental conditions. By examining key spatial and temporal patterns underlying FEMs, and species‐specific adaptations to these patterns, a better understanding of the structural and functional connectivity of a landscape can be obtained. Fully including aquatic, wetland, and terrestrial habitats in FEMs facilitates adoption of the next generation of individual‐based models that integrate the principles of population, community, and ecosystem ecology.

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