ResearchPad - teeth https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Zinc isotope variations in archeological human teeth (Lapa do Santo, Brazil) reveal dietary transitions in childhood and no contamination from gloves]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14585 Zinc (Zn) isotope ratios of dental enamel are a promising tracer for dietary reconstruction in archeology, but its use is still in its infancy. A recent study demonstrated a high risk of Zn contamination from nitrile, and latex gloves used during chemical sample preparation. Here we assess the potential impact of the use of such gloves during enamel sampling on the Zn isotope composition of teeth from a population of early Holocene hunter gatherers from Lapa do Santo, Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We first examined the amount of Zn and its isotopic composition released from the gloves used in this study by soaking them in weak nitric acid and water. We compared Zn isotope ratios obtained from teeth that were sampled wearing nitrile, latex or no gloves. Finally, we performed a linear mixed model (LMM) to investigate post hoc the relationship between the gloves used for sampling and the Zn isotope variability in dental enamel. We found that the gloves used in this study released a similar amount of Zn compared to previous work, but only in acidic solution. Zn isotope ratios of teeth and the LMM identified no sign of significant Zn coming from the gloves when teeth were handled for enamel sampling. We hypothesize that Zn in gloves is mostly released by contact with acids. We found that the main source of Zn isotope variability in the Lapa do Santo population was related to the developmental stage of the tooth tissues sampled. We report identical results for two individuals coming from a different archeological context. Tooth enamel formed in utero and/or during the two first years of life showed higher Zn isotope ratios than enamel formed after weaning. More work is required to systematically investigate if Zn isotopes can be used as a breastfeeding tracer.

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<![CDATA[Dysregulated biodynamics in metabolic attractor systems precede the emergence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd64c8bc4-d849-4cf6-88a9-792b4ee4d346

Evolutionarily conserved mechanisms maintain homeostasis of essential elements, and are believed to be highly time-variant. However, current approaches measure elemental biomarkers at a few discrete time-points, ignoring complex higher-order dynamical features. To study dynamical properties of elemental homeostasis, we apply laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to tooth samples to generate 500 temporally sequential measurements of elemental concentrations from birth to 10 years. We applied dynamical system and Information Theory-based analyses to reveal the longest-known attractor system in mammalian biology underlying the metabolism of nutrient elements, and identify distinct and consistent transitions between stable and unstable states throughout development. Extending these dynamical features to disease prediction, we find that attractor topography of nutrient metabolism is altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as early as childhood, suggesting these pathways are involved in disease risk. Mechanistic analysis was undertaken in a transgenic mouse model of ALS, where we find similar marked disruptions in elemental attractor systems as in humans. Our results demonstrate the application of a phenomological analysis of dynamical systems underlying elemental metabolism, and emphasize the utility of these measures in characterizing risk of disease.

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<![CDATA[Anatomy of the dinosaur Pampadromaeus barberenai (Saurischia—Sauropodomorpha) from the Late Triassic Santa Maria Formation of southern Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe1bd5eed0c484e5b4e9

Sauropodomorphs are the most abundant and diverse clade of Triassic dinosaurs, but the taxonomy of their earliest (Carnian) representatives is still poorly understood. One such taxon is Pampadromaeus barberenai, represented by a nearly complete disarticulated skeleton recovered from the upper part of the Santa Maria Formation of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Here, the osteology of Pam. barberenai is fully described for the first time. Detailed comparisons with other Carnian sauropodomorphs reveal a unique anatomy, corroborating its status as a valid species. Potential autapomorphies of Pam. barberenai can be seen in the articulation of the sacral zygapophyses, the length of the pectoral epipodium, the shape of the distal articulation of the femur and the proximal articulation of metatarsal 1. A novel phylogenetic study shows that relationships among the Carnian sauropodomorphs are poorly constrained, possibly because they belong to a “zone of variability”, where homoplasy abounds. Yet, there is some evidence that Pam. barberenai may nest within Saturnaliidae, along with Saturnalia tupiniquim and Chromogisaurus novasi, which represents the sister group to the larger sauropodomorphs, i.e. Bagualosauria.

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<![CDATA[A new African Titanosaurian Sauropod Dinosaur from the middle Cretaceous Galula Formation (Mtuka Member), Rukwa Rift Basin, Southwestern Tanzania]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca2ad5eed0c48452a874

The African terrestrial fossil record has been limited in its contribution to our understanding of both regional and global Cretaceous paleobiogeography, an interval of significant geologic and macroevolutionary change. A common component in Cretaceous African faunas, titanosaurian sauropods diversified into one of the most specious groups of dinosaurs worldwide. Here we describe the new titanosaurian Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia gen. et sp. nov. from the Mtuka Member of the Galula Formation in southwest Tanzania. The new specimen preserves teeth, elements from all regions of the postcranial axial skeleton, parts of both appendicular girdles, and portions of both limbs including a complete metatarsus. Unique traits of M. moyowamkia include the lack of an interpostzygapophyseal lamina in posterior dorsal vertebrae, pronounced posterolateral expansion of middle caudal centra, and an unusually small sternal plate. Phylogenetic analyses consistently place M. moyowamkia as either a close relative to lithostrotian titanosaurians (e.g., parsimony, uncalibrated Bayesian analyses) or as a lithostrotian and sister taxon to Malawisaurus dixeyi from the nearby Aptian? Dinosaur Beds of Malawi (e.g., tip-dating Bayesian analyses). M. moyowamkia shares a few features with M. dixeyi, including semi-spatulate teeth and a median lamina between the neural canal and interpostzygapophyseal lamina in anterior dorsal vertebrae. Both comparative morphology and phylogenetic analyses support Mnyamawamtuka as a distinct and distant relative to Rukwatitan bisepultus and Shingopana songwensis from the younger Namba Member of the Galula Formation with these results largely congruent with newly constrained ages for the Mtuka Member (Aptian–Cenomanian) and Namba Member (Campanian). Coupled with recent discoveries from the Dahkla Oasis, Egypt (e.g., Mansourasaurus shahinae) and other parts of continental Afro-Arabia, the Tanzania titanosaurians refine perspectives on the development of African terrestrial faunas throughout the Cretaceous—a critical step in understanding non-marine paleobiogeographic patterns of Africa that have remained elusive until the past few years.

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<![CDATA[C-shaped canals in first and second mandibular molars from Brazilian individuals: A prevalence study using cone-beam computed tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9d2d5eed0c48452a238

Introduction

The study aimed to evaluate, through in vivo tomographic analysis, the prevalence of C-shaped canals in mandibular first and second molars of Brazilian individuals, analyzing its frequency by thirds of the roots, and in contralateral teeth.

Methods

Images of 801 mandibular molars (379 first molars and 422 second molars) from 334 Brazilian individuals (142 men and 192 women) were identified through 1544 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) exams, obtained from a private oral radiologic clinic. The cross-sectional configurations were analyzed to determine the frequency of C-shaped canals at three different axial levels and classified in categories by three experienced endodontists independently.

Results

The incidence of C-shaped canals was 181 (23%). Considering the type of tooth, 91 (24.01%) were identified in the first molars, and 90 (21.32%) were found in the second molars. The incidence was significantly higher in female individuals (P < 0.05) for both first and second molars. The most common C-shaped canal configurations were: C1 (89.01% for first molars and 90% second molars), followed by C2 (8.79% for first molars and 6.66% for second molars) and C4 (2.19% for the first molars and 3.33% for the second molars). Bilateral C-shaped canals were significantly higher than unilateral for both first and second molars (P < 0.01).

Conclusions

The prevalence of C-shaped canals in mandibular molars of the Brazilian individuals was higher than previously reported for both mandibular first (24.01%) and second molars (21.32%). The incidence was significantly higher in female individuals and the coronal portion of the roots. The classic C-shaped format “C1” was the most frequent anatomical configuration. Furthermore, the prevalence of bilateral C-shaped canals was higher for the first molar (61.70%) and lower for the second molar (38.29%).

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<![CDATA[Modeling Edar expression reveals the hidden dynamics of tooth signaling center patterning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dcd2d5eed0c484dec2fa

When patterns are set during embryogenesis, it is expected that they are straightly established rather than subsequently modified. The patterning of the three mouse molars is, however, far from straight, likely as a result of mouse evolutionary history. The first-formed tooth signaling centers, called MS and R2, disappear before driving tooth formation and are thought to be vestiges of the premolars found in mouse ancestors. Moreover, the mature signaling center of the first molar (M1) is formed from the fusion of two signaling centers (R2 and early M1). Here, we report that broad activation of Edar expression precedes its spatial restriction to tooth signaling centers. This reveals a hidden two-step patterning process for tooth signaling centers, which was modeled with a single activator–inhibitor pair subject to reaction–diffusion (RD). The study of Edar expression also unveiled successive phases of signaling center formation, erasing, recovering, and fusion. Our model, in which R2 signaling center is not intrinsically defective but erased by the broad activation preceding M1 signaling center formation, predicted the surprising rescue of R2 in Edar mutant mice, where activation is reduced. The importance of this R2–M1 interaction was confirmed by ex vivo cultures showing that R2 is capable of forming a tooth. Finally, by introducing chemotaxis as a secondary process to RD, we recapitulated in silico different conditions in which R2 and M1 centers fuse or not. In conclusion, pattern formation in the mouse molar field relies on basic mechanisms whose dynamics produce embryonic patterns that are plastic objects rather than fixed end points.

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<![CDATA[Description of a new species of the Neotropical cichlid genus Gymnogeophagus Miranda Ribeiro, 1918 (Teleostei: Cichliformes) from the Middle Paraná basin, Misiones, Argentina]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca38d5eed0c48452a8e8

Gymnogeophagus jaryi, new species, is described from Southern tributaries of the Middle Paraná basin in Misiones. It can be distinguished from all other members of the genus, except from G. australis and G. caaguazuensis, by the presence of a hyaline to grey anterior portion of the dorsal fin. Gymnogeophagus jaryi differs from G. caaguazuensis by a longer caudal peduncle, caudal fin not lyrate, central portion of scales on dorsal portion of trunk light iridescent blue and by white spots in soft portion of dorsal fin in adult males, and from G. australis by the light iridescent blue coloration of central portion of scales on the dorsal portion of trunk and tail, and by the lack of scales on the soft portion of the dorsal fin. Additionally, it can be diagnosed by the following unique combination of characters: 10–11 dorsal-fin branched rays, 27–30 E1 scales, absence of lips thickening, and, in males, by the possession of a hump in adults, caudal fin not lyrate, presence of large white spots forming transversal stripes distally and in anterior area of the dorsal fin’s soft portion, central area of scales on the dorsal portion of the trunk light iridescent blue, lack of scales on the base of the dorsal fin’s soft portion, absence of a conspicuous and oblique dark band from the eye to the anterior border of the head, anterior portion of dorsal fin hyaline to grey, scales of the midlateral spot each bearing a semicircular light blue blotch, head hump starting at the horizontal through the eyes, concave anterior profile in lateral view, base of unpaired fins yellow, and whitish hyaline spots on caudal fin. The new species, based on mtDNA phylogeny, is the sister species of G. caaguazuensis from the Paraguay basin and is closely related to G. australis.

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<![CDATA[Prevention of tooth extraction-triggered bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws with basic fibroblast growth factor: An experimental study in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c67306cd5eed0c484f37ad3

Osteonecrosis of the jaw induced by administration of bisphosphonates (BPs), BP-related osteonecrosis (BRONJ), typically develops after tooth extraction and is medically challenging. As BPs inhibit oral mucosal cell growth, we hypothesized that suppression of the wound healing-inhibiting effects could prevent BRONJ onset after tooth extraction. Since basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes wound healing, but has a short half-life, we examined whether the initiation of BRONJ could be prevented by applying a bFGF-containing gelatin hydrogel over the extraction sockets of BRONJ model rats. Forty-three rats, received two intravenous injections of zoledronic acid 60 μg/kg, once per week for a period of 2 weeks, underwent extraction of a unilateral lower first molar. The rats here were randomly assigned to the bFGF group (n = 15 rats, gelatin hydrogel sheets with incorporated bFGF applied over the sockets); the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group (n = 14 rats, gelatin hydrogel sheets without bFGF applied over the sockets); or the control group (n = 14 rats, nothing applied over the sockets). One rat in the bFGF group was sacrificed immediately after tooth extraction. Twenty-one rats were sacrificed at 3 weeks, and the remaining 21 rats were sacrificed at 8 weeks after tooth extractions. The harvested mandibles were analyzed using micro-computed tomography and sections were evaluated qualitatively for mucosal disruption and osteonecrosis. The incidence of osteonecrosis at 8 weeks after tooth extraction was 0% in the bFGF group, 100% in the PBS group, and 85.7% in the control group. The frequency of complete coverage of the extraction socket by mucosal tissue was significantly greater in the bFGF group than in the other groups. These results suggest that application of bFGF in the extraction socket promoted socket healing, which prevented BRONJ development. The growth-stimulating effects of bFGF may have offset the inhibition of wound healing by BP.

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<![CDATA[Dissecting the pathways coordinating patterning and growth by plant boundary domains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536af0d5eed0c484a47c21

Boundary domains play important roles during morphogenesis in plants and animals, but how they contribute to patterning and growth coordination in plants is not understood. The CUC genes determine the boundary domains in the aerial part of the plants and, in particular, they have a conserved role in regulating leaf complexity across Angiosperms. Here, we used tooth formation at the Arabidopsis leaf margin controlled by the CUC2 transcription factor to untangle intertwined events during boundary-controlled morphogenesis in plants. Combining conditional restoration of CUC2 function with morphometrics as well as quantification of gene expression and hormone signaling, we first established that tooth morphogenesis involves a patterning phase and a growth phase. These phases can be separated, as patterning requires CUC2 while growth can occur independently of CUC2. Next, we show that CUC2 acts as a trigger to promote growth through the activation of three functional relays. In particular, we show that KLUH acts downstream of CUC2 to modulate auxin response and that expressing KLUH can compensate for deficient CUC2 expression during tooth growth. Together, we reveal a genetic and molecular network that allows coordination of patterning and growth by CUC2-defined boundaries during morphogenesis at the leaf margin.

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<![CDATA[An interventional study for improving the manual dexterity of dentistry students]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df320d5eed0c484580d5f

Objectives

Traditionally, the acquisition of manual skills in most dental schools worldwide is based on exercises on plastic teeth placed in a "phantom head simulator". No manual trainings are done at home. Studies revealed that preliminary training of one motoric task leads to significant improvement in performance of the required motoric task that has similar components. Performing tasks indirectly via a dental mirror are complicated for the young dental students. We hypothesized that instructed training of basic skills required in dentistry at home on a tool simulating the phantom laboratory will improve the capabilities of the students and will be reflected by their clinical grades.

Methods

We developed a portable tool PhantHome which is composed of jaws, gingival tissue, rubber cover and a compatible stand. Specific teeth produced by a 3D printer with drills in different directions were placed in both jaws. Students were requested to insert pins by using tweezers and dental mirror according to instructions initiating with easy tasks and continue to ones that are more complicated. 106 first clinical year dental students participated in the study; 65 trained only in the traditional phantom lab (control). 41 trained at home by the PhantHome tool two weeks before and 2 months during the initial stage of phantom lab. The students grades routinely provided in the phantom laboratory at different stages were compared.

Results

Students who trained with the portable tool performed better than the control group in the first direct and second indirect preparations (p<0.05). These exams were taken when the PhantHome was available to the students. Then, the tool was returned and the phantom course continued regularly. We believe that this is why no differences between the grades of the groups were observed further on.

Conclusions

Training by the PhantHome improves motor skills and consequently the clinical performances.

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<![CDATA[Does hard mast production affect patterns of cementum annuli formation in premolar teeth of Asian black bears (Ursus thibetanus)?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8cdd5eed0c48496f1b0

Cementum annuli widths in mammals are is influenced by the nutrition of mammals. Reproductive stress has been is suggested to reduce the width of lead to narrower cementum annuli widths in female Asian black bears (Ursus thibetanus); however, food availability in autumn strongly impacts bear nutrition and likely impacts cementum widths as well. This study aimed to test how cementum annuli widths and the formation of false annuli were influenced by hard mast production. We established two hypotheses: (1) cementum annuli widths become narrower in poor mast years owing to inadequate nutritional conditions and (2) false annuli occur more frequently in poor mast years. We used teeth samples from male bears to avoid reproductive influences and separated width data into “adult” and “subadult” groups. We calculated the proportional width index (PWI) and used linear mixed models to estimate the masting effects on PWI. Generalized linear mixed models estimated the masting effects on false annuli frequency. True annuli widths and false annuli formation showed no significant relationship with mast production in adults. In subadults, poor mast production weak negative influence on false annuli formation. These new data resolve previous questions, allowing us to deduce that cementum annuli widths are a reliable index of reproductive success in female bears.

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<![CDATA[Oral health behavior of children and guardians’ beliefs about children’s dental caries in Vientiane, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6c9d5eed0c484ef3dbd

Dental caries is considered a major health problem among schoolchildren in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). According to Health Belief Model (HBM)-based research, children’s oral health behavior can be determined by their guardians’ beliefs. This study aimed to describe children’s oral health behavior and its association with childhood dental caries, as well as to assess associations between children’s tooth-brushing behavior and guardians’ beliefs in an urban area of Lao PDR, using HBM. Data were collected from ten primary schools in the Sisattanak district, the Vientiane capital, between 2013 and 2014. Ten dentists with the help of dental hygienists and schoolteachers conducted dental health check-ups at the schools that diagnosed dental caries based on visual inspection. They also conducted a questionnaire-based survey with the schoolchildren’s guardians to collect data including socio-economic and demographic information, their children’s oral health behavior, and guardians’ beliefs derived from HBM, including perceived susceptibility to and perceived severity of child dental caries, perceived benefit of and perceived barrier to child’s tooth brushing, and self-efficacy in making their children brush their teeth twice daily. A mixed-effects logistic regression model assessed the association between dental caries and children’s oral health behavior and between children’s tooth-brushing behavior and guardians’ beliefs. Data from 1161 of 1304 (89.0%) children registered at the schools were used. The prevalence of dental caries was 82%. Children who brushed their teeth ≥ twice/day were significantly less likely to have dental caries than those brushing once or seldom (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.91). The number of children who brushed twice daily also significantly increased with the increased level of guardians’ self-efficacy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.91 to 2.41). In conclusion, childhood dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing. Children’s tooth-brushing behavior was associated with guardians’ self-efficacy in making their children brush twice daily.

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<![CDATA[Development and validation of two questionnaires: Dental home care and dental health in Swedish dogs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644887d5eed0c484c2e86e

Background

Dental disease is one of the most common health problems in dogs. However, no studies have investigated the attitudes, opinions and practices of dog owners, veterinarians and veterinary nurses regarding dental health and preventative dental home care in dogs. The objective of this study was therefore to develop and validate questionnaires for this purpose, in accordance with survey methodology guidelines.

Methods

Questionnaire items were determined based on the authors’ academic knowledge and clinical experience, and modified throughout the validation process. Several measures were taken to reduce sampling, coverage, measurement and non-response errors. Content validity was assessed by Subject-Matter Experts (SME) and cognitive interviews were conducted in accordance with the “think-aloud protocol”. Non-response analysis was performed using several methods.

Results

Constructs were identified using exploratory factor analysis and two predefined constructs from the dog owner questionnaire were confirmed “Dog owners’ attitudes towards brushing their dog’s teeth” (Cronbach’s α = 0.86) and “Dog owners’ assessment of their dog’s dental health” (α = 0.76). Additionally, exploratory factor analysis identified three potential constructs. In the veterinary health practitioner questionnaire, two constructs were identified: “Veterinary health practitioners’ attitudes towards dental chews and dental feed” (α = 0.78) and “Veterinary health practitioners’ attitudes and opinions on dental problems and dental cleaning” (α = 0.73). Non-response analysis showed a higher proportion of women in the sample of dog owners and veterinarians compared to the target populations. Veterinarians in the sample were also younger. In contrast, gender and age distributions in veterinary nurses did not differ between sample and target.

Conclusion

The validation presented in this work showed that the developed questionnaires could be used as accurate and reliable tools for measuring attitudes and practices regarding dental home care in dogs among Swedish dog owners, veterinarians and veterinary nurses.

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<![CDATA[Incidence of deformities and variation in shape of mentum and wing of Chironomus columbiensis (Diptera, Chironomidae) as tools to assess aquatic contamination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f776d5eed0c4843861ef

Constantly, aquatic ecosystems are under pressure by complex mixtures of contaminants whose effects are not always easy to evaluate. Due to this, organisms are sought in which early warning signs may be detected upon the presence of potentially toxic xenobiotic substances. Thereby, the study evaluated the incidence of deformities and other morphometric variations in the mentum and wing of Chironomus columbiensis exposed to water from some of the Colombian Andes affected by mining, agriculture, and cattle raising. Populations of C. columbiensis were subjected throughout their life cycle (24 days) for two generations (F1 and F2). Five treatments were carried out in controlled laboratory conditions (water from the site without impact, site of mining mercury, mining mercury + cyanide, cattle raising, and agriculture) and the respective control (reconstituted water). Thereafter, the percentage of deformities in the mentum was calculated, and for the morphometric analysis 29 landmarks were digitized for the mentum and 12 for the wing. As a result, four types of deformities were registered in the C. columbiensis mentum, like absence of teeth, increased number of teeth, fusion and space between teeth, none of them detected in the individuals from the control. Additionally, the highest incidence of deformity in F1 occurred in the treatment of mining mercury, while for F2 this took place in the treatments of mining mercury + cyanide, cattle raising and agriculture. Differences were also found with respect to the morphometric variations of the mentum and wing of C. columbiensis among the control and the treatments with water from the creeks intervened. The treatments of mining mercury + cyanide and agriculture had the highest morphological variation in the mentum and wing of C. columbiensis. The results suggest that the anthropogenic impacts evaluated generate alterations in the oral apparatus of the larval state of C. columbiensis and in the adult state provoke alterations in the wing shape (increased width and reduced basal area). These deformities may be related to multiple stress factors, among them the xenobiotics metabolized by the organisms under conditions of environmental contamination.

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<![CDATA[Oral health status of the disabled compared with that of the non-disabled in Korea: A propensity score matching analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46658fd5eed0c484519c96

Background

There are many types of disabilities, and each type has a variety related to socioeconomic factors. Such factors affect to many health problems of the disabled. However, surveys of the oral health status of the disabled in Korea are rare.

Objective

The purpose of this study was to estimate oral health disparity through comparing oral health status of the disabled to the non-disabled, adjusted for the net effect of the disability on oral health status.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted among the disabled in urban and suburban areas in Korea from June to September 2016. People with physical, mental, and multiple disabilities took part in this survey. The clinical examinations were carried out by trained dentists. Statistical analysis was performed to quantify the association between oral health and socioeconomic status after restricting the analysis using a propensity score matching method.

Results

The disabled had more DMFT, DT, and MT, fewer FT, and fewer teeth than the non-disabled based on entire groups (P<0.01). No difference in the ratio of periodontitis was observed. The subjects with mental disabilities (MD) scored 3.09 (95% CI, 1.07–8.97), and those with multiple disabilities scored 4.37 (95% CI, 1.16–16.37) for edentulous status. The MD had an odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.03–1.74), and those with multiple disabilities had an odds ratio of 1.75 (95% CI, 1.11–2.76) for the DMFT index.

Conclusions

These results represent poor oral health status of the disabled compared to the non-disabled. Consequentially, we can verify that not only the existence of disability but also the type of disability has a decisive effect on oral health condition. This comparison is necessary to widen our approach to evaluate the actual status condition of the disabled.

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<![CDATA[Pulp response of rats submitted to bleaching and the use of different anti-inflammatory drugs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e503ad5eed0c484d7f09c

This study aimed to evaluate neuropeptide expression after bleaching treatment using histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses and the effects of hydrocortisone and acetaminophen on pulp inflammation, sine dental bleaching and inflammation first occur, and only then, the treatmentt. Sixty-three rats were divided into three groups (n = 21) according to the pain-relieving therapy used: I-control; II-topical application of Otosporin for 10 min after the bleaching treatment; III-oral administration of paracetamol 30 min before whitening and then every 12h. In all the study groups, placebo gel was applied to the left upper jaw (control) and a 35% H2O2-based whitening gel was applied to the right upper jaw for 45 min. Seven animals from each group were euthanized at different time points: 0h after treatment, 24h, and 48h. After euthanasia, the first molar on each side was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry to assess the degree of inflammation and verify the presence of the neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The data were analyzed using the statistical nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test for individual comparisons. Extensive areas of necrosis were observed in the groups that received bleaching treatment only, whereas reduced damage were obtained in the group treated with Otosporin. The immunohistochemical analysis showed positive immunolabeling in all groups, including the control, but this was stronger in the groups that received bleaching treatment. The best results were obtained in the group that received treatment with Otosporin. The use of Otosporin after dental bleaching minimized the side effects of this treatment.

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<![CDATA[Flows of people in villages and large centres in Bronze Age Italy through strontium and oxygen isotopes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5e7d5eed0c484ca9ecb

This study investigates to what extent Bronze Age societies in Northern Italy were permeable accepting and integrating non-local individuals, as well as importing a wide range of raw materials, commodities, and ideas from networks spanning continental Europe and the Mediterranean.

During the second millennium BC, the communities of Northern Italy engaged in a progressive stabilization of settlements, culminating in the large polities of the end of the Middle/beginning of the Late Bronze Age pivoted around large defended centres (the Terramare). Although a wide range of exotic archaeological materials indicates that the inhabitants of the Po plain increasingly took part in the networks of Continental European and the Eastern Mediterranean, we should not overlook the fact that the dynamics of interaction were also extremely active on local and regional levels.

Mobility patterns have been explored for three key-sites, spanning the Early to Late Bronze Age (1900–1100 BC), namely Sant’Eurosia, Casinalbo and Fondo Paviani, through strontium and oxygen isotope analysis on a large sample size (more than 100 individuals). The results, integrated with osteological and archaeological data, document for the first time in this area that movements of people occurred mostly within a territorial radius of 50 km, but also that larger nodes in the settlement system (such as Fondo Paviani) included individuals from more distant areas. This suggests that, from a demographic perspective, the process towards a more complex socio-political system in Bronze Age Northern Italy was triggered by a largely, but not completely, internal process, stemming from the dynamics of intra-polity networks and local/regional power relationships.

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<![CDATA[Lost before found: A new species of whaler shark Carcharhinus obsolerus from the Western Central Pacific known only from historic records]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667ccd5eed0c4841a6492

Carcharhinus obsolerus is described based on three specimens from Borneo, Thailand and Vietnam in the Western Central Pacific. It belongs to the porosus subgroup which is characterised by having the second dorsal-fin insertion opposite the anal-fin midbase. It most closely resembles C. borneensis but differs in tooth morphology and counts and a number of morphological characters, including lack of enlarged hyomandibular pores which are diagnostic of C. borneensis. The historic range of C. obsolerus sp. nov. is under intense fishing pressure and this species has not been recorded anywhere in over 80 years. There is an urgent need to assess its extinction risk status for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. With so few known records, there is a possibility that Carcharhinus obsolerus sp. nov. has been lost from the marine environment before any understanding could be gained of its full historic distribution, biology, ecosystem role, and importance in local fisheries.

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<![CDATA[Differential profiles of soluble and cellular toll like receptor (TLR)-2 and 4 in chronic periodontitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2544f9d5eed0c48442bc3a

Chronic periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease initiated by a complex microbial biofilm and mediated by the host response causing destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Host recognition of pathogens is mediated by toll-like receptors (TLRs) that bind conserved molecular patterns shared by large groups of microorganisms. The oral epithelial cells respond to most periodontopathic bacteria via TLR-2 and TLR-4. In addition to the membrane-associated receptors, soluble forms of TLR-2 (sTLR-2) and TLR-4 (sTLR-4) have been identified and are thought to play a regulatory role by binding microbial ligands. sTLR-2 has been shown to arise from ectodomain shedding of the extracellular domain of the membrane receptor and sTLR-4 is thought to be an alternate spliced form. Many studies have previously reported the presence of elevated numbers of viable exfoliated epithelial cells in the saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential value of salivary sTLR-2 and sTLR-4 together with the paired epithelial cell-associated TLR-2/4 mRNA as diagnostic markers for chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected after obtaining informed consent from 40 individuals with either periodontitis or gingivitis. The sTLR-2 and sTLR4 in saliva was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The TLR-2 and TLR-4 transcript in the epithelial cells in saliva was measured by real time polymerase chain reaction. While levels of sTLR-2 exhibited an inverse correlation, sTLR-4 positively correlated with clinical parameters in the gingivitis cohort. Interestingly, both correlations were lost in the periodontitis cohort indicating a dysregulated host response. On the other hand, while the sTLR-2 and the paired epithelial cell associated TLR-2 mRNA exhibited a direct correlation (r2 = 0.62), that of sTLR4 and TLR-4 mRNA exhibited an inverse correlation (r2 = 0.53) in the periodontitis cohort. Collectively, assessments of salivary sTLR2 and sTLR4 together with the respective transcripts in the epithelial cells could provide clinically relevant markers of disease progression from gingivitis to periodontitis.

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<![CDATA[Perinatal death and exposure to dental amalgam fillings during pregnancy in the population-based MoBa cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ed9d5eed0c484d2886a

Objectives

The aim was to gain knowledge regarding the risk of perinatal death related to exposure to dental amalgam fillings in the mother.

Design

Population-based observational cohort study.

Setting

The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, a Norwegian birth cohort of children born in 1999–2008 conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.

Participants

72,038 pregnant women with data on the number of teeth filled with dental amalgam.

Main outcome measures

Data on perinatal death (stillbirth ≥ 22 weeks plus early neonatal death 0–7 days after birth) were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway.

Results

The absolute risk of perinatal death ranged from 0.20% in women with no amalgam-filled teeth to 0.67% in women with 13 or more teeth filled with amalgam. Analyses including the number of teeth filled with amalgam as a continuous variable indicated an increased risk of perinatal death by increasing number of teeth filled with dental amalgam (crude OR 1.065, 95% CI 1.034 to 1.098, p<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders (mothers' age, education, body mass index, parity, smoking during pregnancy, alcohol consumption during pregnancy) included as categorical variables, there was still an increased risk for perinatal death associated with increasing number of teeth filled with amalgam (ORadj 1.041, 95% CI 1.008 to 1.076, p = 0.015). By an increased exposure from 0 to 16 teeth filled with amalgam, the model predicted an almost doubled odds ratio (ORadj 1.915, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.28). In groups with 1 to 12 teeth filled with amalgam the adjusted odds ratios were slightly, but not significantly, increased. The group with the highest exposure (participants with 13 or more teeth filled with amalgam) had an adjusted OR of 2.34 (95% CI 1.27 to 4.32; p = 0.007).

Conclusion

The current findings suggest that the risk of perinatal death could increase in a dose-dependent way based on the mother’s number of teeth filled with dental amalgam. However, we cannot exclude that the relatively modest odds ratios could be a result of residual confounding. Additional studies on the relationship between exposure to dental amalgam fillings during pregnancy and perinatal death are warranted.

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