ResearchPad - tetraploidy https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Polyploidy breaks speciation barriers in Australian burrowing frogs <i>Neobatrachus</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16332 Polyploidy or whole genome duplication is rare in animals and usually polyploid animals reproduce asexually. The Australian burrowing frogs of the genus Neobatrachus form an interesting exception amongst vertebrates with multiple independently originated autotetraploid sexual species. We generated population genomic data from 87 animals representing all six diploid and three tetraploid species of Neobatrachus. We show that, while diploid Neobatrachus species seem to be isolated from each other, their sister tetraploid species experience substantial levels of gene flow, and have wider distributions. Furthermore, we observe asymmetric gene flow from diploids to tetraploids. Based on our genomic and climate analyses we suggest that such inter-specific hybridization mediated by whole genome duplication rescues species diversity and allows tetraploids to more easily avoid impacts of climate-induced habitat loss.

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<![CDATA[Origin and Evolution of Allopolyploid Wheatgrass Elymus fibrosus (Schrenk) Tzvelev (Poaceae: Triticeae) Reveals the Effect of Its Origination on Genetic Diversity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da44ab0ee8fa60b8b158

Origin and evolution of tetraploid Elymus fibrosus (Schrenk) Tzvelev were characterized using low-copy nuclear gene Rpb2 (the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II), and chloroplast region trnLtrnF (spacer between the tRNA Leu (UAA) gene and the tRNA-Phe (GAA) gene). Ten accessions of E. fibrosus along with 19 Elymus species with StH genomic constitution and diploid species in the tribe Triticeae were analyzed. Chloroplast trnLtrnF sequence data suggested that Pseudoroegneria (St genome) was the maternal donor of E. fibrosus. Rpb2 data confirmed the presence of StH genomes in E. fibrosus, and suggested that St and H genomes in E. fibrosus each is more likely originated from single gene pool. Single origin of E. fibrosus might be one of the reasons causing genetic diversity in E. fibrosus lower than those in E. caninus and E. trachycaulus, which have similar ecological preferences and breeding systems with E. fibrosus, and each was originated from multiple sources. Convergent evolution of St and H copy Rpb2 sequences in some accessions of E. fibrosus might have occurred during the evolutionary history of this allotetraploid.

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<![CDATA[Exploiting repetitive sequences and BAC clones in Festuca pratensis karyotyping]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5dab0ee8fa60be040e

The Festuca genus is thought to be the most numerous genus of the Poaceae family. One of the most agronomically important forage grasses, Festuca pratensis Huds. is treated as a model plant to study the molecular mechanisms associated with tolerance to winter stresses, including frost. However, the precise mapping of the genes governing stress tolerance in this species is difficult as its karyotype remains unrecognized. Only two F. pratensis chromosomes with 35S and 5S rDNA sequences can be easily identified, but its remaining chromosomes have not been distinguished to date. Here, two libraries derived from F. pratensis nuclear DNA with various contents of repetitive DNA sequences were used as sources of molecular probes for fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH), a BAC library and a library representing sequences most frequently present in the F. pratensis genome. Using FISH, six groups of DNA sequences were revealed in chromosomes on the basis of their signal position, including dispersed-like sequences, chromosome painting-like sequences, centromeric-like sequences, knob-like sequences, a group without hybridization signals, and single locus-like sequences. The last group was exploited to develop cytogenetic maps of diploid and tetraploid F. pratensis, which are presented here for the first time and provide a remarkable progress in karyotype characterization.

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<![CDATA[GBS-Based Deconvolution of the Surviving North American Collection of Cold-Hardy Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) Germplasm]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdba57

Plant germplasm collections can be invaluable resources to plant breeders, provided they are well-characterized. After 140 years of acquisition and curation efforts by a wide and largely non-coordinated array of private and institutional actors, the current US collection of cold-hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is rife with misclassifications, misnomers, and mix-ups. To facilitate the systematic improvement and resource-efficient curation of these species of long-recognized horticultural potential, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data to deconvolute this historic collection. Evaluation of a total of 138 accessions (103 A. arguta, 28 A. kolomikta, and 7 A. polygama) with an interspecific set of 1,040 high-quality SNPs resulted in clear resolution of the three species. Intraspecific analysis (2,964 SNPs) within A. arguta revealed a significant level of redundancy (41.7%; only 60 unique genotypes out of 103 analyzed) and a sub-population structure reflecting likely geographic provenance, phenotypic classes, and hybrid pedigree. For A. kolomikta (3,425 SNPs), the level of accession redundancy was even higher (53.6%; 13 unique genotypes out of 28 analyzed); but no sub-structure was detected. Numerous instances were discovered of distinct genotypes sharing a common name, different names assigned to the same genotype, mistaken species assignments, and incorrect gender records, all critical information for both breeders and curators. In terms of method, this study demonstrates the practical and cost-effective use of GBS data to characterize plant genetic resources, despite ploidy differences and the lack of reference genomes. With the recent prohibition on further imports of Actinidia plant material into the country and with the active eradication of historic vines looming, this analysis of the US cold-hardy kiwifruit germplasm collection provides a timely assessment of the genetic resource base of an emerging, high-value specialty crop.

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<![CDATA[Ploidy Level and DNA Content of Erianthus arundinaceus as Determined by Flow Cytometry and the Association with Biological Characteristics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da40ab0ee8fa60b89c83

Erianthus arundinaceus is not only an important germplasm resource for sugarcane breeding but also a potential bioenergy plant. Making clear the distribution of the chromosome ploidy of wild E. arundinaceus in china is the premise of the research and utilization of this species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the ploidy level and DNA content of the 55 E. arundinaceus accessions using flow cytometry and to identify the correlation between ploidy and phenotypic traits. Among the 55 accessions, four tetraploids and 51 hexaploids were identified. The four tetraploids originated from Mengma Yunnan, Shuangjiang Yunnan, Gaozhou Guangdong and Chengle Sichuan. The mean DNA content was 4.82 pg/2C for the tetraploid and 7.30 pg/2C for the hexaploid plants. The ploidy was negatively correlated with cellulose content and positively correlated (P<0.05) with plant height, stem diameter, leaf width, dry weight per plant, fresh weight per plant and hemicellulose content. However, ploidy was not correlated with leaf length, tiller number and the ratio of dry weight and fresh weight. This study will be useful for revealing the distribution of the ploidy of wild E. arundinaceus in Chin, traits markers analysis, and utilization of this species, such as cultivar improvement and sugarcane breeding in the future.

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<![CDATA[Learning causal networks with latent variables from multivariate information in genomic data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ab073b6463d7e2c6cde10cf

Learning causal networks from large-scale genomic data remains challenging in absence of time series or controlled perturbation experiments. We report an information- theoretic method which learns a large class of causal or non-causal graphical models from purely observational data, while including the effects of unobserved latent variables, commonly found in many genomic datasets. Starting from a complete graph, the method iteratively removes dispensable edges, by uncovering significant information contributions from indirect paths, and assesses edge-specific confidences from randomization of available data. The remaining edges are then oriented based on the signature of causality in observational data. The approach and associated algorithm, miic, outperform earlier methods on a broad range of benchmark networks. Causal network reconstructions are presented at different biological size and time scales, from gene regulation in single cells to whole genome duplication in tumor development as well as long term evolution of vertebrates. Miic is publicly available at https://github.com/miicTeam/MIIC.

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<![CDATA[DNA Sequence Evolution and Rare Homoeologous Conversion in Tetraploid Cotton]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7eab0ee8fa60b998e4

Allotetraploid cotton species are a vital source of spinnable fiber for textiles. The polyploid nature of the cotton genome raises many evolutionary questions as to the relationships between duplicated genomes. We describe the evolution of the cotton genome (SNPs and structural variants) with the greatly improved resolution of 34 deeply re-sequenced genomes. We also explore the evolution of homoeologous regions in the AT- and DT-genomes and especially the phenomenon of conversion between genomes. We did not find any compelling evidence for homoeologous conversion between genomes. These findings are very different from other recent reports of frequent conversion events between genomes. We also identified several distinct regions of the genome that have been introgressed between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, which presumably resulted from breeding efforts targeting associated beneficial alleles. Finally, the genotypic data resulting from this study provides access to a wealth of diversity sorely needed in the narrow germplasm of cotton cultivars.

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<![CDATA[How genetic variation is affected by geographic environments and ploidy level in Erianthus arundinaceus?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be00b6

Erianthus arundinaceus is not only a candidate plant for sugarcane breeding programs, but also a potential bioenergy grass. Genetic variation that is affected by geographic environments and ploidy level is very important for the utilization of Erianthus arundinaceus. In this study, effects of geographic environments and ploidy level on genetic variation were studied through analyzing the genetic diversity, genetic similarity and cluster analysis of 46 E. arundinaceus materials from natural habitats in China by using 7 ISSRs and 15 SSRs. Results showed that: 1) Seven ISSRs generated total 66 bands, of which 77% were polymorphic bands, the Nei's genetic similarity coefficient of tested materials ranged from 0.642 to 0.904 with an average value of 0.765. Fifteen SSRs generated 138 bands, of which 81% were polymorphic bands, the Nei's genetic similarity coefficient of tested materials ranged from 0.634 to 0.963 with an average value of 0.802. The results indicated great genetic diversity existed in the tested materials. 2)The tested materials were clustered into 3 groups and 7 subgroups, which demonstrated a strong geographic effect on variation of the local E. arundinaceus, and weak relationship was found between genetic distance and geographic distance. Five tetraploid materials were not clustered together, and were clustered together with materials from similar geographical location. 3) The genetic variation and cluster results were affected by geographic landforms and environments, the gene flow was blocked by Ocean and mountains, and promoted by river. The effect of ploidy level on genetic variation was little.

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<![CDATA[Linking Genetic Variation in Adaptive Plant Traits to Climate in Tetraploid and Octoploid Basin Wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love] in the Western U.S.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad9ab0ee8fa60bb8f6a

Few studies have assessed how ploidy type within a species affects genetic variation among populations in relation to source climates. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love) is a large bunchgrass common in the intermountain Western U.S. found in both octoploid and tetraploid types. In common gardens at two sites over two years differences in both ploidy type and genetic variation within ploidy were observed in phenology, morphology, and production traits on 57 octoploid and 52 tetraploid basin wildrye from the intermountain Western U.S. (P<0.01). Octoploids had larger leaves, longer culms, and greater crown circumference than tetraploids but the numerical ranges of plant traits and their source climates overlapped between ploidy types. Still, among populations octoploids often had greater genetic variation for traits and occupied more diverse climates than tetraploids. Genetic variation for both ploidy types was linked to source climates in canonical correlation analysis, with the first two variates explaining 70% of the variation. Regression of those canonical variates with seed source climate variables produced models that explained 64% and 38% of the variation, respectively, and were used to map 15 seed zones covering 673258 km2. Utilization of these seed zones will help ensure restoration with adaptive seed sources for both ploidy types. The link between genetic traits and seed source climates suggests climate driven natural selection and adaptive evolution in basin wildrye. The more diverse climates occupied by octoploids and higher trait variation suggests a higher capacity for ecological differentiation than tetraploids in the intermountain Western U.S.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Diversity and Genome Wide Association Study of β-Glucan Content in Tetraploid Wheat Grains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9dcab0ee8fa60b67c86

Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) have many health benefits, including immunomodulatory activity, lowering serum cholesterol, a faecal bulking effect, enhanced absorption of certain minerals, prebiotic effects and the amelioration of type II diabetes. The principal components of the NSP in cereal grains are (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans and arabinoxylans. Although (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (hereafter called β-glucan) is not the most representative component of wheat cell walls, it is one of the most important types of soluble fibre in terms of its proven beneficial effects on human health. In the present work we explored the genetic variability of β-glucan content in grains from a tetraploid wheat collection that had been genotyped with a 90k-iSelect array, and combined this data to carry out an association analysis. The β-glucan content, expressed as a percentage w/w of grain dry weight, ranged from 0.18% to 0.89% across the collection. Our analysis identified seven genomic regions associated with β-glucan, located on chromosomes 1A, 2A (two), 2B, 5B and 7A (two), confirming the quantitative nature of this trait. Analysis of marker trait associations (MTAs) in syntenic regions of several grass species revealed putative candidate genes that might influence β-glucan levels in the endosperm, possibly via their participation in carbon partitioning. These include the glycosyl hydrolases endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase (cellulase), β-amylase, (1,4)-β-xylan endohydrolase, xylanase inhibitor protein I, isoamylase and the glycosyl transferase starch synthase II.

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<![CDATA[Comparative Analysis and Identification of miRNAs and Their Target Genes Responsive to Salt Stress in Diploid and Tetraploid Paulownia fortunei Seedlings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4aab0ee8fa60b8ca00

Salt stress is a global environmental problem that affects plant growth and development. Paulownia fortunei is an adaptable and fast-growing deciduous tree native to China that is environmentally and economically important. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in growth, development, and stress responses in plants. MiRNAs that respond to biotic stresses have been identified; however, how miRNAs in P. fortunei respond to salt stress has not yet been reported. To identify salt-stress-responsive miRNAs and predict their target genes, four small RNA and four degradome libraries were constructed from NaCl-treated and NaCl-free leaves of P. fortunei seedlings. The results indicated that salt stress had different physiological effects on diploid and tetraploid P. fortunei. We detected 53 conserved miRNAs belonging to 17 miRNA families and 134 novel miRNAs in P. fortunei. Comparing their expression levels in diploid and tetraploid P. fortunei, we found 10 conserved and 10 novel miRNAs that were significantly differentially expressed under salt treatment, among them eight were identified as miRNAs probably associated with higher salt tolerance in tetraploid P. fortunei than in diploid P. fortunei. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses were performed to predict the functions of the target genes of the conserved and novel miRNAs. The expressions of 10 differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This is the first report on P. fortunei miRNAs and their target genes under salt stress. The results provided information at the physiological and molecular levels for further research into the response mechanisms of P. fortunei to salt stress.

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<![CDATA[Genetic diversity and association mapping in the Colombian Central Collection of Solanum tuberosum L. Andigenum group using SNPs markers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbc58

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the fourth most important crop food in the world and Colombia has one of the most important collections of potato germplasm in the world (the Colombian Central Collection-CCC). Little is known about its potential as a source of genetic diversity for molecular breeding programs. In this study, we analyzed 809 Andigenum group accessions from the CCC using 5968 SNPs to determine: 1) the genetic diversity and population structure of the Andigenum germplasm and 2) the usefulness of this collection to map qualitative traits across the potato genome. The genetic structure analysis based on principal components, cluster analyses, and Bayesian inference revealed that the CCC can be subdivided into two main groups associated with their ploidy level: Phureja (diploid) and Andigena (tetraploid). The Andigena population was more genetically diverse but less genetically substructured than the Phureja population (three vs. five subpopulations, respectively). The association mapping analysis of qualitative morphological data using 4666 SNPs showed 23 markers significantly associated with nine morphological traits. The present study showed that the CCC is a highly diverse germplasm collection genetically and phenotypically, useful to implement association mapping in order to identify genes related to traits of interest and to assist future potato genetic breeding programs.

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<![CDATA[The Evolution of Vicia ramuliflora (Fabaceae) at Tetraploid and Diploid Levels Revealed with FISH and RAPD]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb9b4

Vicia ramuliflora L. is a widely distributed species in Eurasia with high economic value. For past 200 years, it has evolved a tetraploid cytotype and new subspecies at the diploid level. Based on taxonomy, cytogeography and other lines of evidence, previous studies have provided valuable information about the evolution of V. ramuliflora ploidy level, but due to the limited resolution of traditional methods, important questions remain. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to analyze the evolution of V. ramuliflora at the diploid and tetraploid levels. Our aim was to reveal the genomic constitution and parents of the tetraploid V. ramuliflora and the relationships among diploid V. ramuliflora populations. Our study showed that the tetraploid cytotype of V. ramuliflora at Changbai Mountains (M) has identical 18S and 5S rDNA distribution patterns with the diploid Hengdaohezi population (B) and the diploid Dailing population (H). However, UPGMA clustering, Neighbor-Joining clustering and principal coordinates analysis based on RAPD showed that the tetraploid cytotype (M) has more close relationships with Qianshan diploid population T. Based on our results and the fact that interspecific hybridization among Vicia species is very difficult, we think that the tetraploid V. ramuliflora is an autotetraploid and its genomic origin still needs further study. In addition, our study also found that Qianshan diploid population (T) had evolved distinct new traits compared with other diploid populations, which hints that V. ramuliflora evolved further at diploid level. We suggest that diploid population T be re-classified as a new subspecies.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Diversity and Association Mapping for Agromorphological and Grain Quality Traits of a Structured Collection of Durum Wheat Landraces Including subsp. durum, turgidum and diccocon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d7ab0ee8fa60b6636e

Association mapping was performed for 18 agromorphological and grain quality traits in a set of 183 Spanish landraces, including subspecies durum, turgidum and dicoccon, genotyped with 749 DArT (Diversity Array Technology) markers. Large genetic and phenotypic variability was detected, being the level of diversity among the chromosomes and genomes heterogeneous, and sometimes complementary, among subspecies. Overall, 356 were monomorphic in at least one subspecies, mainly in dicoccon, and some of them coincidental between subspecies, especially between turgidum and dicoccon. Several of those fixed markers were associated to plant responses to environmental stresses or linked to genes subjected to selection during tetraploid wheat domestication process. A total of 85 stable MTAs (marker–trait associations) have been identified for the agromorphological and quality parameters, some of them common among subspecies and others subspecies-specific. For all the traits, we have found MTAs explaining more than 10% of the phenotypic variation in any of the three subspecies. The number of MTAs on the B genome exceeded that on the A genome in subsp. durum, equalled in turgidum and was below in dicoccon. The validation of several adaptive and quality trait MTAs by combining the association mapping with an analysis of the signature of selection, identifying the putative gene function of the marker, or by coincidences with previous reports, showed that our approach was successful for the detection of MTAs and the high potential of the collection to identify marker–trait associations. Novel MTAs not previously reported, some of them subspecies specific, have been described and provide new information about the genetic control of complex traits.

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<![CDATA[Chromosome divergence during evolution of the tetraploid clawed frogs, Xenopus mellotropicalis and Xenopus epitropicalis as revealed by Zoo-FISH]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdfe81

Whole genome duplication (WGD) generates new species and genomic redundancy. In African clawed frogs of the genus Xenopus, this phenomenon has been especially important in that (i) all but one extant species are polyploid and (ii) whole genome sequences of some species provide an evidence for genomic rearrangements prior to or after WGD. Within Xenopus in the subgenus Silurana, at least one allotetraploidization event gave rise to three extant tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) species–Xenopus mellotropicalis, X. epitropicalis, and X. calcaratus–but it is not yet clear the degree to which these tetraploid genomes experienced rearrangements prior to or after allotetraploidization. To explore genome evolution during diversification of these species, we performed cytogenetic analyses of X. mellotropicalis, including assessment of the localization of nucleolar organizer region, chromosome banding, and determination of the p/q arm ratios for each chromosome pair. We compared these data to a previously characterized karyotype of X. epitropicalis. Morphometric, C-banding and Zoo-FISH data support a previously hypothesized common allotetraploid predecessor of these species. Zoo-FISH with whole chromosome painting (WCP) probes derived from the closely related diploid species X. tropicalis confirmed the existence of ten chromosomal quartets in X. mellotropicalis somatic cells, as expected by its ploidy level and tetraploid ancestry. The p/q arm ratio of chromosome 2a was found to be substantially different between X. mellotropicalis (0.81) and X. epitropicalis (0.67), but no substantial difference between these two species was detected in this ratio for the homoeologous chromosome pair 2b, or for other chromosome pairs. Additionally, we identified variation between these two species in the locations of a heterochromatic block on chromosome pair 2a. These results are consistent with a dynamic history of genomic rearrangements before and/or after genome duplication, a surprising finding given the otherwise relatively conserved genomic structure of most frogs.

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<![CDATA[Genotyping-by-Sequencing in a Species Complex of Australian Hummock Grasses (Triodia): Methodological Insights and Phylogenetic Resolution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb915

Next-generation sequencing is becoming increasingly accessible to researchers asking biosystematic questions, but current best practice in both choosing a specific approach and effectively analysing the resulting data set is still being explored. We present a case study for the use of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to resolve relationships in a species complex of Australian arid and semi-arid grasses (Triodia R.Br.), highlighting our solutions to methodological challenges in the use of GBS data. We merged overlapping paired-end reads then optimised locus assembly in the program PyRAD to generate GBS data sets for phylogenetic and distance-based analyses. In addition to traditional concatenation analyses in RAxML, we also demonstrate the novel use of summary species tree analyses (taking gene trees as input) with GBS loci. We found that while species tree analyses were relatively robust to variation in PyRAD assembly parameters, our RAxML analyses resulted in well-supported but conflicting topologies under different assembly settings. Despite this conflict, multiple clades in the complex were consistently supported as distinct across analyses. Our GBS data assembly and analyses improve the resolution of taxa and phylogenetic relationships in the Triodia basedowii complex compared to our previous study based on Sanger sequencing of nuclear (ITS/ETS) and chloroplast (rps16-trnK spacer) markers. The genomic results also partly support previous evidence for hybridization between species in the complex. Our methodological insights for analysing GBS data will assist researchers using similar data to resolve phylogenetic relationships within species complexes.

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<![CDATA[Allopolyploid Origin of Chenopodium album s. str. (Chenopodiaceae): A Molecular and Cytogenetic Insight]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da46ab0ee8fa60b8bd52

Reticulate evolution is characterized by occasional hybridization between two species, creating a network of closely related taxa below and at the species level. In the present research, we aimed to verify the hypothesis of the allopolyploid origin of hexaploid C. album s. str., identify its putative parents and estimate the frequency of allopolyploidization events. We sampled 122 individuals of the C. album aggregate, covering most of its distribution range in Eurasia. Our samples included putative progenitors of C. album s. str. of both ploidy levels, i.e. diploids (C. ficifolium, C. suecicum) and tetraploids (C. striatiforme, C. strictum). To fulfil these objectives, we analysed sequence variation in the nrDNA ITS region and the rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer of cpDNA and performed genomic in-situ hybridization (GISH). Our study confirms the allohexaploid origin of C. album s. str. Analysis of cpDNA revealed tetraploids as the maternal species. In most accessions of hexaploid C. album s. str., ITS sequences were completely or nearly completely homogenized towards the tetraploid maternal ribotype; a tetraploid species therefore served as one genome donor. GISH revealed a strong hybridization signal on the same eighteen chromosomes of C. album s. str. with both diploid species C. ficifolium and C. suecicum. The second genome donor was therefore a diploid species. Moreover, some individuals with completely unhomogenized ITS sequences were found. Thus, hexaploid individuals of C. album s. str. with ITS sequences homogenized to different degrees may represent hybrids of different ages. This proves the existence of at least two different allopolyploid lineages, indicating a polyphyletic origin of C. album s. str.

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<![CDATA[A Ploidy-Sensitive Mechanism Regulates Aperture Formation on the Arabidopsis Pollen Surface and Guides Localization of the Aperture Factor INP1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1eab0ee8fa60b7dd62

Pollen presents a powerful model for studying mechanisms of precise formation and deposition of extracellular structures. Deposition of the pollen wall exine leads to the generation of species-specific patterns on pollen surface. In most species, exine does not develop uniformly across the pollen surface, resulting in the formation of apertures–openings in the exine that are species-specific in number, morphology and location. A long time ago, it was proposed that number and positions of apertures might be determined by the geometry of tetrads of microspores–the precursors of pollen grains arising via meiotic cytokinesis, and by the number of last-contact points between sister microspores. We have tested this model by characterizing Arabidopsis mutants with ectopic apertures and/or abnormal geometry of meiotic products. Here we demonstrate that contact points per se do not act as aperture number determinants and that a correct geometric conformation of a tetrad is neither necessary nor sufficient to generate a correct number of apertures. A mechanism sensitive to pollen ploidy, however, is very important for aperture number and positions and for guiding the aperture factor INP1 to future aperture sites. In the mutants with ectopic apertures, the number and positions of INP1 localization sites change depending on ploidy or ploidy-related cell size and not on INP1 levels, suggesting that sites for aperture formation are specified before INP1 is brought to them.

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<![CDATA[A genome-wide identification and analysis of the DYW-deaminase genes in the pentatricopeptide repeat gene family in cotton (Gossypium spp.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcd4e

The RNA editing occurring in plant organellar genomes mainly involves the change of cytidine to uridine. This process involves a deamination reaction, with cytidine deaminase as the catalyst. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins with a C-terminal DYW domain are reportedly associated with cytidine deamination, similar to members of the deaminase superfamily. PPR genes are involved in many cellular functions and biological processes including fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants. In this study, we identified 227 and 211 DYW deaminase-coding PPR genes for the cultivated tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum and G. barbadense (2n = 4x = 52), respectively, as well as 126 and 97 DYW deaminase-coding PPR genes in the ancestral diploid species G. raimondii and G. arboreum (2n = 26), respectively. The 227 G. hirsutum PPR genes were predicted to encode 52–2016 amino acids, 203 of which were mapped onto 26 chromosomes. Most DYW deaminase genes lacked introns, and their proteins were predicted to target the mitochondria or chloroplasts. Additionally, the DYW domain differed from the complete DYW deaminase domain, which contained part of the E domain and the entire E+ domain. The types and number of DYW tripeptides may have been influenced by evolutionary processes, with some tripeptides being lost. Furthermore, a gene ontology analysis revealed that DYW deaminase functions were mainly related to binding as well as hydrolase and transferase activities. The G. hirsutum DYW deaminase expression profiles varied among different cotton tissues and developmental stages, and no differentially expressed DYW deaminase-coding PPRs were directly associated with the male sterility and restoration in the CMS-D2 system. Our current study provides an important piece of information regarding the structural and evolutionary characteristics of Gossypium DYW-containing PPR genes coding for deaminases and will be useful for characterizing the DYW deaminase gene family in cotton biology and breeding.

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<![CDATA[Experimental Evolution Reveals Interplay between Sch9 and Polyploid Stability in Yeast]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf0ab0ee8fa60bc0ceb

Polyploidization has crucial impacts on the evolution of different eukaryotic lineages including fungi, plants and animals. Recent genome data suggest that, for many polyploidization events, all duplicated chromosomes are maintained and genome reorganizations occur much later during evolution. However, newly-formed polyploid genomes are intrinsically unstable and often quickly degenerate into aneuploidy or diploidy. The transition between these two states remains enigmatic. In this study, laboratory evolution experiments were conducted to investigate this phenomenon. We show that robust tetraploidy is achieved in evolved yeast cells by increasing the abundance of Sch9—a protein kinase activated by the TORC1 (Target of Rapamycin Complex 1) and other signaling pathways. Overexpressing SCH9, but not TOR1, allows newly-formed tetraploids to exhibit evolved phenotypes and knocking out SCH9 diminishes the evolved phenotypes. Furthermore, when cells were challenged with conditions causing ancestral cells to evolve aneuploidy, tetraploidy was maintained in the evolved lines. Our results reveal a determinant role for Sch9 during the early stage of polyploid evolution.

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