ResearchPad - the-journal-of-gerontology:-biological-sciences https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Neuropeptide Y Enhances Progerin Clearance and Ameliorates the Senescent Phenotype of Human Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10134 Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, or classical progeria) is a rare genetic disorder, characterized by premature aging, and caused by a de novo point mutation (C608G) within the lamin A/C gene (LMNA), producing an abnormal lamin A protein, termed progerin. Accumulation of progerin causes nuclear abnormalities and cell cycle arrest ultimately leading to cellular senescence. Autophagy impairment is a hallmark of cellular aging, and the rescue of this proteostasis mechanism delays aging progression in HGPS cells. We have previously shown that the endogenous Neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases autophagy in hypothalamus, a brain area already identified as a central regulator of whole-body aging. We also showed that NPY mediates caloric restriction-induced autophagy. These results are in accordance with other studies suggesting that NPY may act as a caloric restriction mimetic and plays a role as a lifespan and aging regulator. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate if NPY could delay HGPS premature aging phenotype. Herein, we report that NPY increases autophagic flux and progerin clearance in primary cultures of human dermal fibroblasts from HGPS patients. NPY also rescues nuclear morphology and decreases the number of dysmorphic nuclei, a hallmark of HGPS cells. In addition, NPY decreases other hallmarks of aging as DNA damage and cellular senescence. Altogether, these results show that NPY rescues several hallmarks of cellular aging in HGPS cells, suggesting that NPY can be considered a promising strategy to delay or block the premature aging of HGPS.

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<![CDATA[Allele-Specific Transcript Abundance: A Pilot Study in Healthy Centenarians]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10132 The genetic basis of healthy aging and longevity remains largely unexplained. One hypothesis as to why long-lived individuals do not appear to have a lower number of common-complex disease variants, is that despite carrying risk variants, they express disease-linked alleles at a lower level than the wild-type alleles. Allele-specific abundance (ASA) is the different transcript abundance of the two haplotypes of a diploid individual. We sequenced the transcriptomes of four healthy centenarians and four mid-life controls. CIBERSORT was used to estimate blood cell fractions: neutrophils were the most abundant source of RNA, followed by CD8+ T cells, resting NK cells, and monocytes. ASA variants were more common in noncoding than coding regions. Centenarians and controls had a comparable distribution of ASA variants by predicted effect, and we did not observe an overall bias in expression toward major or minor alleles. Immune pathways were most highly represented among the gene set that showed ASA. Although we found evidence of ASA in disease-associated genes and transcription factors, we did not observe any differences in the pattern of expression between centenarians and controls in this small pilot study.

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<![CDATA[Glutathione Serum Levels and Rate of Multimorbidity Development in Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10131 We aimed to investigate the association between baseline levels of total serum glutathione (tGSH) and rate of chronic disease accumulation over time. The study population (n = 2,596) was derived from a population-based longitudinal study on ≥60-year-olds living in Stockholm. Participants were clinically assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-year follow-ups. Multimorbidity was measured as the number of chronic conditions from a previously built list of 60 diseases. Linear mixed models were applied to analyze the association between baseline tGSH levels and the rate of multimorbidity development over 6 years. We found that at baseline, participants with ≥4 diseases had lower tGSH levels than participants with no chronic conditions (3.3 vs 3.6 µmol/L; p < .001). At follow-up, baseline levels of tGSH were inversely associated with the rate of multimorbidity development (β * time: −0.044, p < .001) after adjusting for age, sex, education, levels of serum creatinine, C-reactive protein, albumin, body mass index, smoking, and time of dropout or death. In conclusion, serum levels of tGSH are inversely associated with multimorbidity development; the association exists above and beyond the link between tGSH and specific chronic conditions. Our findings support the hypothesis that tGSH is a biomarker of multisystem dysregulation that eventually leads to multimorbidity.

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<![CDATA[Is Rapamycin a Dietary Restriction Mimetic?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncd7026d0-5c27-4bbc-bf6d-cba65bae5d67

Abstract

Since the initial suggestion that rapamycin, an inhibitor of target of rapamycin (TOR) nutrient signaling, increased lifespan comparable to dietary restriction, investigators have viewed rapamycin as a potential dietary restriction mimetic. Both dietary restriction and rapamycin increase lifespan across a wide range of evolutionarily diverse species (including yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice) as well as reducing pathology and improving physiological functions that decline with age in mice. The purpose of this article is to review the research comparing the effect of dietary restriction and rapamycin in mice. The current data show that dietary restriction and rapamycin have different effects on many pathways and molecular processes. In addition, these interventions affect the lifespan of many genetically manipulated mouse models differently. In other words, while dietary restriction and rapamycin may have similar effects on some pathways and processes; overall, they affect many pathways/processes quite differently. Therefore, rapamycin is likely not a true dietary restriction mimetic. Rather dietary restriction and rapamycin appear to be increasing lifespan and retarding aging largely through different mechanisms/pathways, suggesting that a combination of dietary restriction and rapamycin will have a greater effect on lifespan than either manipulation alone.

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<![CDATA[Branched-Chain Amino Acids Have Equivalent Effects to Other Essential Amino Acids on Lifespan and Aging-Related Traits in Drosophila]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na097743c-e6f0-455f-9718-d64fc261f915

Abstract

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been suggested to be particularly potent activators of Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling. Moreover, increased circulating BCAAs are associated with higher risk of insulin resistance and diabetes in both mice and humans, and with increased mortality in mice. However, it remains unknown if BCAAs play a more prominent role in longevity than do other essential amino acids (EAAs). To test for a more prominent role of BCAAs in lifespan and related traits in Drosophila, we restricted either BCAAs or a control group of three other EAAs, threonine, histidine and lysine (THK). BCAA restriction induced compensatory feeding, lipid accumulation, stress resistance and amelioration of age-related gut pathology. It also extended lifespan in a dietary-nitrogen-dependent manner. Importantly, the control restriction of THK had similar effects on these phenotypes. Our control diet was designed to have every EAA equally limiting for growth and reproduction, and our findings therefore suggest that the level of the most limiting EAAs in the diet, rather than the specific EAAs that are limiting, determines the response of these phenotypes to EAA restriction.

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<![CDATA[The Effects of Graded Levels of Calorie Restriction: XIII. Global Metabolomics Screen Reveals Graded Changes in Circulating Amino Acids, Vitamins, and Bile Acids in the Plasma of C57BL/6 Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c26b52bd5eed0c484764e5d

Abstract

Calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust intervention to extend life span and improve health span. Using a global mass spectrometry–based metabolomics approach, we identified metabolites that were significantly differentially expressed in the plasma of C57BL/6 mice, fed graded levels of calorie restriction (10% CR, 20% CR, 30% CR, and 40% CR) compared with mice fed ad libitum for 12 hours a day. The differential expression of metabolites increased with the severity of CR. Pathway analysis revealed that graded CR had an impact on vitamin E and vitamin B levels, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and fatty acid pathways. The majority of amino acids correlated positively with fat-free mass and visceral fat mass, indicating a strong relationship with body composition and vitamin E metabolites correlated with stomach and colon size, which may allude to the beneficial effects of investing in gastrointestinal organs with CR. In addition, metabolites that showed a graded effect, such as the sphinganines, carnitines, and bile acids, match our previous study on liver, which suggests not only that CR remodels the metabolome in a way that promotes energy efficiency, but also that some changes are conserved across tissues.

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<![CDATA[DNA Hydroxymethylation Levels Are Altered in Blood Cells From Down Syndrome Persons Enrolled in the MARK-AGE Project]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b599be5463d7e77ce8a4a2f

Abstract

Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the presence of part or an entire extra copy of chromosome 21, a phenomenon that can cause a wide spectrum of clinically defined phenotypes of the disease. Most of the clinical signs of DS are typical of the aging process including dysregulation of immune system. Beyond the causative genetic defect, DS persons display epigenetic alterations, particularly aberrant DNA methylation patterns that can contribute to the heterogeneity of the disease. In the present work, we investigated the levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and of the Ten-eleven translocation dioxygenase enzymes, which are involved in DNA demethylation processes and are often deregulated in pathological conditions as well as in aging. Analyses were carried out on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of DS volunteers enrolled in the context of the MARK-AGE study, a large-scale cross-sectional population study with subjects representing the general population in eight European countries. We observed a decrease in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, TET1, and other components of the DNA methylation/demethylation machinery in DS subjects, indicating that aberrant DNA methylation patterns in DS, which may have consequences on the transcriptional status of immune cells, may be due to a global disturbance of methylation control in DS.

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