ResearchPad - therapeutic-perspectives-in-neurology Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Long-term outcomes of monascin – a novel dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ/nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor-2 agonist in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage]]> Hematoma is the chief culprit in brain injury following intracranial cerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Noninvasive hematoma clearance could be an option to prevent and alleviate early brain injury after ICH. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) facilitate removal of hematoma in ICH. Monascin acts as the natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR-γ agonist, and the long-term effects of monascin following ICH have not been elucidated.Methods:ICH in rats was induced by stereotactic, intrastriatal injection of type IV collagenase. Monascin was administered twice daily by gastric perfusion for 14 days after ICH induction. Long-term neurological scores (T maze, Garcia scales, rotor rod test, and Morris water maze), hematoma volume, as well as iron overload around hematoma and brain atrophy were evaluated at 7, 14, and 28 days after ICH.Results:The results showed that monascin improved long-term neurological deficits, spatial memory performance, learning ability, and brain shrinkage after ICH. Monascin also reduced hematoma volume at 7 days and iron content at 7 and 14 days after ICH.Conclusion:PPAR γ and Nrf2 play a crucial role in hematoma clearance after ICH in rat. As a dual agonist of PPAR γ and Nrf2, monascin improved long-term outcomes by facilitating hematoma clearance, and by attenuating iron overload and brain atrophy after experimental ICH. ]]> <![CDATA[Intrathecal nusinersen administration in adult spinal muscular atrophy patients with complex spinal anatomy]]>


Intrathecal administration of nusinersen in adult spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients presents challenges owing to severe scoliosis and previous spinal surgery with metal implantation. In patients with a complex spinal situation, the potential risks of the intrathecal administration may lead to delayed treatment initiation.


In this study, we analyzed 53 CT-guided lumbar punctures of 11 adult nonambulatory SMA type 2 and 3 patients. All patients had scoliosis and six patients had previously undergone metal implantation.


Drug administration was successful in 100% of the patients and none of the patients opted for treatment discontinuation. Complete osseous fusion precluded conventional posterior interlaminar access in eight lumbar punctures in four patients, which required alternative routes including transforaminal punctures and translaminar drilling. Median duration of all lumbar punctures was 9 min and median radiation exposure was 100 mGy* cm. The most common adverse event was post-lumbar puncture syndrome that occurred in five lumbar punctures (9.4%).


Our data demonstrate that nusinersen can be successfully, safely, and rapidly administered in adult SMA patients with complex spinal conditions and suggest the translaminar drilling technique as an alternative delivery route. Therefore, intrathecal nusinersen treatment should not be withheld from patients because of severe spine deformities, however, drug efficacy in adult SMA patients needs to be investigated in further studies.