ResearchPad - therapeutics-molecular-medicine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Post-translational modifications and stress adaptation: the paradigm of FKBP51]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9189 Adaptation to stress is a fundamental requirement to cope with changing environmental conditions that pose a threat to the homeostasis of cells and organisms. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins represent a possibility to quickly produce proteins with new features demanding relatively little cellular resources. FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 is a pivotal stress protein that is involved in the regulation of several executers of PTMs. This mini-review discusses the role of FKBP51 in the function of proteins responsible for setting the phosphorylation, ubiquitination and lipidation of other proteins. Examples include the kinases Akt1, CDK5 and GSK3β, the phosphatases calcineurin, PP2A and PHLPP, and the ubiquitin E3-ligase SKP2. The impact of FKBP51 on PTMs of signal transduction proteins significantly extends the functional versatility of this protein. As a stress-induced protein, FKBP51 uses re-setting of PTMs to relay the effect of stress on various signaling pathways.

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<![CDATA[Involvement of p53-dependent apoptosis signal in antitumor effect of Colchicine on human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive human cervical cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf252f75d-f123-460d-be01-4a92f19e6b11

Abstract

Colchicine, a plant-derived alkaloid with relatively low toxicity on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKn), has selective inhibitory effect on the growth of CaSki (HPV16-positive) and HeLa (HPV18-positive) human cervical cancer cell lines via the induction of apoptosis. Colchicine (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ng/ml) significantly reduced the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 mRNA and protein in CaSki and HeLa cells. Moreover, reduced expression of E6 and E7 induced by Colchicine resulted in the up-regulation of tumor suppressor proteins, p53 and Rb, as well as down-regulation of phospho Rb (pRb) protein. In addition, Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 protein were increased while Bcl-2 protein was decreased significantly by 48 h of Colchicine treatment. These results implied that Colchicine could be explored as a potent candidate agent for the treatment and prevention of HPV-associated cervical cancer without deleterious effects.

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<![CDATA[Sappanone A alleviates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocytes injury through inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of PI3K–Akt–Gsk-3β pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6dd7e059-3ecb-44b6-a063-cbcecf746dfd

Abstract

Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is a complex pathophysiological process involved with the activation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Sappanone A (SA), a homoisoflavanone isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L., could exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. Therefore, we assumed that SA has a potential use for preventing against MIRI. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of SA treatment on MIRI and its mechanism. Cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cells) were treated with SA for 1 h, followed by 6 h of hypoxia/3 h of reoxygenation. Cell viability assay was detected by CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and Hoechst staining. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured by spectrophotometry and JC-1 staining. The changes of mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins and PI3K–Akt–Gsk-3β signaling pathway were evaluated by Western blotting. The results showed that SA pretreatment enhanced the cell viability and decreased the activity of myocardial enzyme in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SA pretreatment significantly inhibited apoptosis, blocked mPTP opening, suppressed the release of ΔΨm, prevented the cytochrome c releasing from mitochondria into cytoplasm, and repressed the cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, SA pretreatment increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt and Gsk-3β but not of Stat-3. Meanwhile, the protective effect of SA was abrogated by PI3K inhibitor (LY294002). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that SA could prevent hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocytes injury through inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of PI3K–Akt–Gsk-3β pathway. Thus, SA may have a potential use for the prevention of MIRI.

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<![CDATA[Proteostasis regulators modulate proteasomal activity and gene expression to attenuate multiple phenotypes in Fabry disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncb67bb93-58cf-4196-99ee-9f62076d3ef2

The lysosomal storage disorder Fabry disease is characterized by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-Galactosidase A. The observation that missense variants in the encoding GLA gene often lead to structural destabilization, endoplasmic reticulum retention and proteasomal degradation of the misfolded, but otherwise catalytically functional enzyme has resulted in the exploration of alternative therapeutic approaches. In this context, we have investigated proteostasis regulators (PRs) for their potential to increase cellular enzyme activity, and to reduce the disease-specific accumulation of the biomarker globotriaosylsphingosine in patient-derived cell culture. The PRs also acted synergistically with the clinically approved 1-deoxygalactonojirimycine, demonstrating the potential of combination treatment in a therapeutic application. Extensive characterization of the effective PRs revealed inhibition of the proteasome and elevation of GLA gene expression as paramount effects. Further analysis of transcriptional patterns of the PRs exposed a variety of genes involved in proteostasis as potential modulators. We propose that addressing proteostasis is an effective approach to discover new therapeutic targets for diseases involving folding and trafficking-deficient protein mutants.

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<![CDATA[Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α accumulation by glyceryl trinitrate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1b004ac6-ccf9-4123-a526-0404519c4776

Abstract

A key mechanism mediating cellular adaptive responses to hypoxia involves the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a transcription factor composed of HIF-1α, and HIF-1β subunits. The classical mechanism of regulation of HIF-1 activity involves destabilisation of HIF-1α via oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of proline residues and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Studies from our laboratory revealed that nitric oxide (NO)-mediated activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling inhibits the acquisition of hypoxia-induced malignant phenotypes in tumour cells. The present study aimed to elucidate a mechanism of HIF-1 regulation involving NO/cGMP signalling. Using human DU145 prostate cancer cells, we assessed the effect of the NO mimetic glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and the cGMP analogue 8-Bromo-cGMP on hypoxic accumulation of HIF-1α. Concentrations of GTN known to primarily activate the NO/cGMP pathway (100 nM–1 µM) inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation in a time-dependent manner. Incubation with 8-Bromo-cGMP (1 nM–10 µM) also attenuated HIF-1α accumulation, while levels of HIF-1α mRNA remained unaltered by exposure to GTN or 8-Bromo-cGMP. Furthermore, treatment of cells with the calpain (Ca2+-activated proteinase) inhibitor calpastatin attenuated the effects of GTN and 8-Bromo-cGMP on HIF-1α accumulation. However, since calpain activity was not affected by incubation of DU145 cells with various concentrations of GTN or 8-Bromo-cGMP (10 nM or 1 µM) under hypoxic or well-oxygenated conditions, it is unlikely that NO/cGMP signalling inhibits HIF-1α accumulation via regulation of calpain activity. These findings provide evidence for a role of NO/cGMP signalling in the regulation of HIF-1α, and hence HIF-1-mediated hypoxic responses, via a mechanism dependent on calpain.

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<![CDATA[Eupatilin alleviates airway remodeling via regulating phenotype plasticity of airway smooth muscle cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N10cbf5a0-a8e6-4bdb-86ba-06cb0cedf942

Abstract

Childhood asthma is a common chronic airway disease, and its severe form remains a challenge. Eupatilin is a bioactive natural flavone that has been found to possess potential anti-asthma activity. However, the roles of eupatilin in asthma remain to be elucidated. In the present study, airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) were applied for the in vitro investigation since their phenotype plasticity make great contribution to airway remodeling during asthma pathogenesis. Our results showed that eupatilin suppressed the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-induced proliferation and migration of ASMCs. Exposure of ASMCs to eupatilin increased the expressions of contractile markers smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and myocardin, whereas expressions of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins type I collagen (Coll I) and fibronectin were reduced. Furthermore, eupatilin treatment reversed the activation of nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and AKT pathways caused by TGF-β1 in ASMCs. These findings suggested that eupatilin might attenuate airway remodeling via regulating phenotype plasticity of ASMCs.

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<![CDATA[2-Methylquinazoline derivative 23BB as a highly selective histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor alleviated cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3754d22e-423e-4038-bba7-89aa96f82518

Abstract

Histone deacetylases 6 (HDAC6) has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Selective inhibition of HDAC6 might be a potential treatment for AKI. In our previous study, a highly selective HDAC6 inhibitor (HDAC6i) 23BB effectively protected against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI with good safety. However, whether 23BB possessed favorable renoprotection against cisplatin-induced AKI and the involved mechanisms remained unknown. In the study, cisplatin-injected mice developed severe AKI symptom as indicated by acute kidney dysfunction and pathological changes, companied by the overexpression of HDAC6 in tubular epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 by the treatment of 23BB significantly attenuated sCr, BUN and renal tubular damage. Mechanistically, 23BB enhanced the acetylation of histone H3 to reduce the HDAC6 activity. Cisplatin-induced AKI triggered multiple signal mediators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress including PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 pathway, as well as CHOP, GRP78, p-JNK and caspase 12 proteins. Oral administration of our HDAC6i 23BB at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d for 3 days notably improved above-mentioned responses in the injured kidney tissues. HDAC6 inhibition also reduced the number of TUNEL-positive tubular cells and regulated apoptosis-related protein expression. Overall, these data highlighted that HDAC6 inhibitor 23BB modulated apoptosis via the inhibition of ER stress in the tubular epithelial cells of cisplatin-induced AKI.

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<![CDATA[Overcoming cisplatin resistance in osteosarcoma through the miR-199a-modulated inhibition of HIF-1α]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8431908f-1d12-47c1-8866-c82d22996a3d

Abstract

Dysregulation of miRNAs has been shown to contribute to multiple tumorigenic processes, as well as to correlate with tumour progression and prognosis. miR-199a has been shown to be dysregulated in multiple tumour types. However, the association between miR-199a and the chemoresistance features of osteosarcoma are not well understood, the target genes for miR-199a and the regulatory mechanisms are also unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that miR-199a is expressed at low levels in osteosarcoma cells and patient samples. By the selection and establishment of cisplatin resistant osteosarcoma cell line, we observed a correlation between miR-199a and cisplatin resistance in osteosarcoma cells: resistant cells exhibit attenuated miR-199a expressions and exogenous overexpression of miR-199a sensitizes osteosarcoma cells to cisplatin. Moreover, we identified HIF-1α as a direct target for miR-199a. Intriguingly, cisplatin resistant osteosarcoma cells display significantly elevated HIF-1α expression under hypoxia. We report here overexpression of miR-199a resensitizes cisplatin resistant cells to cisplatin through inhibition of HIF-1α in vitro and in vivo. Finally, by analysing the clinical osteosarcoma patient samples, we demonstrate a reverse correlation between miR-199a and HIF-1α mRNAs. Our study will provide mechanisms for the miRNA-mediated anticancer therapy and miR-199a may be considered a promising therapeutic agent for osteosarcoma patients who fail to respond to conventional chemotherapy.

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