ResearchPad - thoracic https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Right Ventricular Perforation Presenting as Tingling of the Left Breast]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10714 Pacemaker lead-associated cardiac perforation is a rare phenomenon. Lead perforations can be acute, subacute, or chronic following lead placement. Symptoms are typically nonspecific and depend on the location of the displaced lead. Diagnostic workup requires interrogation of the pacemaker and imaging studies. Management of lead displacement is dependent on multiple risk factors such as age, gender, corticosteroid use, and anticoagulation therapy.

A 74-year-old female with a history of myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) 2 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Sjogren’s syndrome, Raynaud’s disease, and sick sinus syndrome was evaluated for an abnormal finding on pacemaker interrogation. The patient’s only symptom was tingling of her left breast. Imaging studies confirmed pacemaker lead perforation. Right ventricle perforation due to a pacemaker lead displacement can cause severe complications. Early identification and treatment by physicians can reduce the risk of mortality.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Preoperative Hematocrit Level on Early Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10537 Introduction: Low hematocrit level is a hematological problem that is frequently encountered in the preoperative evaluation of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preoperative hematocrit level on the first 30-day outcomes in patients undergoing CABG surgery.

Methods: Ninety-four patients undergoing isolated CABG were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups as patients with preoperative low hematocrit levels (<36%) in Group 1 and patients with preoperative normal hematocrit levels (≥36%) in Group 2.

Results: Forty-six patients in Group 1 (mean age: 63.6 ± 7.9 years) and 48 patients in Group 2 (mean age: 56.5 ± 8.8 years) were enrolled. European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) scoring was statistically significantly higher in Group 1 (p = 0.011). In the postoperative period, the amount of drainage, transfusion of blood, and blood products were significantly higher in Group 1 (p < 0.001). The mortality rate of Group 1 was statistically higher in the first 30 days postoperatively (p = 0.020).

Conclusion: Low preoperative hematocrit levels are associated with increased mortality after CABG surgery. We suggest that patients’ preoperative hematocrit levels must be added to the risk scoring systems as an assessment parameter.

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<![CDATA[The Effectiveness of Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation Application in Varicose Vein Diseases of the Lower Extremity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9382 We aimed to determine the outcome, complications, and quality of life effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of superficial venous insufficiency.

A total of 134 extremities from 100 patients were evaluated in this retrospective study performed at the Cardiovascular Surgery Department of Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine. Treatment success was determined by occlusion. The clinical, etiologic, anatomic, and pathophysiologic (CEAP) and venous clinical severity score (VCSS) scores of patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively to evaluate clinical outcome and quality of life. The pain was assessed with the Wong-Baker score. Complications and their frequency were assessed and recorded.

Treatment success, as measured by occlusion rate, was 99% percent. Prior to treatment, the CEAP clinical score was C2 (81.0%), while after treatment, it was C0 (54.0%) (p<0.001). The pretreatment median VCSS score was 5 (min-max: 1-9) while the post-treatment median was 1 (min-max: 1-3) (p<0.001). The mean pain score was 1.34; only one patient reported a score of 6 while the minimum score was 1. A total of 15 complications occurred; only one was a major complication (deep vein thrombosis or DVT) while the remaining 14 were minor complications.

While longstanding surgical treatments still provide significant success, the RFA technique not only surpasses them in success rate but also in terms of pain, complications, and better patient satisfaction. The results of our study indicate that RFA is an effective and safe option for the treatment of superficial venous insufficiency.

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<![CDATA[General thoracic surgery services across Asia during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8009 The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 posed an historic challenge to healthcare systems around the world. Besides mounting a massive response to the viral outbreak, healthcare systems needed to consider provision of clinical services to other patients in need. Surgical services for patients with thoracic disease were maintained to different degrees across various regions of Asia, ranging from significant reductions to near-normal service. Key determinants of robust thoracic surgery service provision included: preexisting plans for an epidemic response, aggressive early action to “flatten the curve”, ability to dedicate resources separately to COVID-19 and routine clinical services, prioritization of thoracic surgery, and the volume of COVID-19 cases in that region. The lessons learned can apply to other regions during this pandemic, and to the world, in preparation for the next one.

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<![CDATA[Trends, Outcomes, and Predictors of Sepsis and Severe Sepsis in Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Devices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N124d80dc-f8ee-4875-88ec-d3253d207960 Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is used in end-stage heart failure that is refractory to medical treatment. However, there is a paucity of data looking at the rates of sepsis and severe sepsis (SSS). Therefore, this study was conceived with the purpose of analyzing the SSS burden and outcomes associated with LVAD implantation. The national inpatient sample database was queried from 2010 to 2014 using ICD-9 procedure code for LVAD use among patients 18 years or older and 2359 patients were identified. During the five-year study period, the average incidence of SSS was 11.8% and it was noted that cases with SSS were associated with an increased likelihood of mortality, greater length of hospital stay (LOS), and higher hospital-related charges (p < .001) compared to controls. Controlling for age, sex, and LOS, hierarchical multivariate logistic regression revealed that significant predictors of SSS were acute kidney injury [Adjusted odd’s ratio (AOR) = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.87, 4.14)], mechanical ventilation (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.70, 3.23), venous thromboembolism (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.75), gastrointestinal bleed (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.76), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40, 0.77), acute myocardial infarction (AOR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.36, 0.80) and mild liver disease (AOR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.55, 3.06). The rate of incidence of sepsis has remained constant and is often associated with a worse clinical outcome. This provides a basis to identify high-risk groups and helps argue for earlier detection of such patients and better patient selection so as to reduce infectious complications.

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<![CDATA[The Management Dilemma: Concomitant Acute Hip Fracture and Severe Asymptomatic Aortic Stenosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N09170aaa-4d97-4c6e-b5cc-b1ec753cf36a Acute hip fractures (AHF) are common in elderly patients. A combination of age-related osteoporosis and increased fall risk makes this population group most susceptible to different fractures including acute fracture of the hip. AHF is a disabling condition that warrants immediate attention. It has a huge impact on the already compromised baseline functional status of elderly patients rendering them more susceptible to different morbidities and even mortality. Similarly, age-related degeneration of the aortic valve with resulting calcification also makes elderly patients prone to aortic stenosis (AS). Severe asymptomatic AS when diagnosed in these patients with AHF in the perioperative period makes the management options very challenging. Severity of AS usually translates into worse postoperative outcomes. The management rationale of concomitant presence of these two conditions is unclear. There is a lack of clear-cut recommendations and societal guidelines in such scenario. 

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<![CDATA[Successful Treatment of Cardiac Tamponade due to Rupture of the Heart Performing an Open-chest Pericardiotomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N25be801d-6cb0-4736-ba3c-d2fbb6c69c59

A 78-year-old woman with mild dementia was found unconscious by her family. She was transported by an ambulance to our emergency room (ER). Initially, she was comatose and in a state of shock. The echocardiographic findings suggested cardiac tamponade by hematoma. Computed tomography also showed tamponade without aortic dissection. After imaging, she went into cardiac arrest, was returned to the ER, and tracheal intubation and left thoracotomy for pericardiotomy were performed. A return of spontaneous circulation was obtained by following this procedure. Bleeding from a rupture of the left cardiac free wall was confirmed, and the rupture was closed with TachoSil®. After closing the thoracotomy, electrocardiography revealed ST elevation in the precordial leads. Subsequently, placement of an indwelling intra-aortic balloon pump and coronary angiography (CAG) were performed. CAG showed an occlusion of the anterior interventricular branch and circumflex branch of the left coronary artery. She underwent conservative therapy in a coronary care unit. Finally, after obtaining hemodynamic stability and baseline mental status, she was transferred to another medical facility.

We herein report a rare case involving the successful treatment of cardiac tamponade due to rupture of the heart performing an open-chest pericardiotomy and additionally discuss the key points for obtaining a favorable outcome.

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<![CDATA[Damage Control Management for Thoracic Trauma with Cardiac Arrest Complicated by Emphysematous Gastritis and Cystitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N55ff3b20-a67e-4067-a9d7-06b86110be40

A 78-year-old man was found unconscious after sliding from a rock. His history included hypertension, atrial fibrillation and cerebral infarction requiring warfarin. On arrival, he received six units of blood type O transfusion and vitamin K in an emergency room (ER) due to hemorrhagic shock. His systolic blood pressure temporarily increased to 100 mmHg, and he underwent traumatic pan scan revealing occipital fracture, cerebral contusion, and cervical and multiple left rib fractures with left-dominant bilateral hemothorax. He re-entered a shock state after the examination and underwent transfusion again, but he then entered cardiac arrest. He underwent damage control surgery in the ER and obtained spontaneous circulation. The postoperative course was eventful, but he eventually obtained a survival outcome. Damage control surgery may be beneficial, even in cases of severe thoracic blunt trauma; however, postoperative infections may cause severe problems.

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<![CDATA[Update on Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome in Lung Transplantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc02bedb8-ddbf-4d62-b1ed-601cda8e5c5f

Lung transplantation has become an important therapeutic option for patients with end-stage organ dysfunction; however, its clinical usefulness has been limited by the relatively early onset of chronic allograft dysfunction and progressive clinical decline. Obliterative bronchiolitis is characterized histologically by luminal fibrosis of the respiratory bronchioles and clinically by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) which is defined by a measured decline in lung function based on forced expiratory volume (FEV1). Since its earliest description, a number of risk factors have been associated with the development of BOS, including acute rejection, lymphocytic bronchiolitis, primary graft dysfunction, infection, donor specific antibodies, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, despite this broadened understanding, the pathogenesis underlying BOS remains poorly understood and once begun, there are relatively few treatment options to battle the progressive deterioration in lung function.

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<![CDATA[Small Solitary Ground-Glass Nodule on CT as an Initial Manifestation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf154870e-177b-4f54-95d4-b6da0fc787e8

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in 2019 led to large numbers of people being infected and developing atypical pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19). Typical imaging manifestations of patients infected with 2019-nCoV has been reported, but we encountered an atypical radiological manifestation on baseline computed tomography (CT) images in three patients from Wuhan, China infected with the 2019-nCoV. Surprisingly, the only similar CT finding was a solitary sub-centimeter ground-glass nodule adjacent to bronchovascular bundles, which could be easily overlooked. In addition, the follow-up images in these patients showed how COVID-19 pneumonia evolved from these small nodules. The radiologic manifestation of the three cases will expand contemporary understanding of COVID-19.

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<![CDATA[Usefulness of CT-Guided Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Lung Biopsies in Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3afbb800-4c00-44fc-a859-92173f592f97

Objective

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical benefits and risks of CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle lung biopsies (PTNBs) in patients with a suspected pulmonary infection.

Materials and Methods

This study included 351 CT-guided PTNBs performed in 342 patients (mean age, 58.9 years [range, 17–91 years]) with suspected pulmonary infection from January 2010 to December 2016. The proportion of biopsies that revealed the causative organism for pulmonary infection and that influenced patient's treatment were measured. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with PTNB that revealed the causative organism or affected the treatment. Finally, the complication rate was measured.

Results

CT-guided PTNB revealed the causative organism in 32.5% of biopsies (114/351). The presence of necrotic components in the lesion (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–2.7; p = 0.028), suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.5; p = 0.010), and fine needle aspiration (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.8; p = 0.037) were factors associated with biopsies that revealed the causative organism. PTNB influenced patient's treatment in 40.7% (143/351) of biopsies. The absence of leukocytosis (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0–3.7; p = 0.049), presence of a necrotic component in the lesion (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5–3.8; p < 0.001), and suspected tuberculosis (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.8; p = 0.040) were factors associated with biopsies that influenced the treatment. The overall complication rate of PTNB was 19% (65/351).

Conclusion

In patients with suspected pulmonary infection, approximately 30–40% of CT-guided PTNBs revealed the causative organism or affected the treatment. The complication rate of PTNB for suspected pulmonary infection was relatively low.

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<![CDATA[Clinical Implementation of Deep Learning in Thoracic Radiology: Potential Applications and Challenges]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8416d306-abba-40f8-829b-23b4ac7c6914

Chest X-ray radiography and computed tomography, the two mainstay modalities in thoracic radiology, are under active investigation with deep learning technology, which has shown promising performance in various tasks, including detection, classification, segmentation, and image synthesis, outperforming conventional methods and suggesting its potential for clinical implementation. However, the implementation of deep learning in daily clinical practice is in its infancy and facing several challenges, such as its limited ability to explain the output results, uncertain benefits regarding patient outcomes, and incomplete integration in daily workflow. In this review article, we will introduce the potential clinical applications of deep learning technology in thoracic radiology and discuss several challenges for its implementation in daily clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia with Hemoptysis as the Initial Symptom: CT and Clinical Features]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N453df9b5-c797-4204-8d88-2cd42d25f06e

Recently, some global cases of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia have been caused by second- or third-generation transmission of the viral infection, resulting in no traceable epidemiological history. Owing to the complications of COVID-19 pneumonia, the first symptom and imaging features of patients can be very atypical and early diagnosis of COVID-19 infections remains a challenge. It would aid radiologists and clinicians to be aware of the early atypical symptom and imaging features of the disease and contribute to the prevention of infected patients being missed.

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<![CDATA[Mediastinal Emphysema, Giant Bulla, and Pneumothorax Developed during the Course of COVID-19 Pneumonia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc3acd324-501e-4ac2-ad20-fe0cf2a9aeb8

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is a recent outbreak in mainland China and has rapidly spread to multiple countries worldwide. Pulmonary parenchymal opacities are often observed during chest radiography. Currently, few cases have reported the complications of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. We report a case where serial follow-up chest computed tomography revealed progression of pulmonary lesions into confluent bilateral consolidation with lower lung predominance, thereby confirming COVID-19 pneumonia. Furthermore, complications such as mediastinal emphysema, giant bulla, and pneumothorax were also observed during the course of the disease.

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<![CDATA[Outdoor Air Pollution and New-Onset Airway Disease. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N47392f05-b057-4dda-b362-8b7d0c22347c

Although it is well accepted that air pollution exposure exacerbates preexisting airway disease, it has not been firmly established that long-term pollution exposure increases the risk of new-onset asthma or chronic obstruction pulmonary disease (COPD). This Workshop brought together experts on mechanistic, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of airway disease to review current knowledge regarding whether air pollution is a causal factor in the development of asthma and/or COPD. Speakers presented recent evidence in their respective areas of expertise related to air pollution and new airway disease incidence, followed by interactive discussions. A writing committee summarized their collective findings. The Epidemiology Group found that long-term exposure to air pollution, especially metrics of traffic-related air pollution such as nitrogen dioxide and black carbon, is associated with onset of childhood asthma. However, the evidence for a causal role in adult-onset asthma or COPD remains insufficient. The Mechanistic Group concluded that air pollution exposure can cause airway remodeling, which can lead to asthma or COPD, as well as asthma-like phenotypes that worsen with long-term exposure to air pollution, especially fine particulate matter and ozone. The Clinical Group concluded that air pollution is a plausible contributor to the onset of both asthma and COPD. Available evidence indicates that long-term exposure to air pollution is a cause of childhood asthma, but the evidence for a similar determination for adult asthma or COPD remains insufficient. Further research is needed to elucidate the exact biological mechanism underlying incident childhood asthma, and the specific air pollutant that causes it.

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<![CDATA[Does Inhaled Milrinone Facilitate Weaning From Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Children with Congenital Heart Diseases Complicated with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne67436b0-008d-4860-9b9a-7f404891f295

Objective

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of inhaled milrinone in controlling pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in paediatric cardiac surgery and its effect on weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

Methods

A total of 40 patients with congenital heart diseases complicated by PAH submitted to cardiac surgery requiring CPB were included in the present study and were randomly classified into the control group (n=20) who received intravenous milrinone 0.5 μg kg−1 min−1 and the inhaled group (n=20) who received inhaled milrinone 50 μg kg−1 before initiation and just before weaning off CPB. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), mean systemic arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), MAP/mPAP ratio, vasoactive drug requirements and time needed to wean the patients from CPB were collected.

Results

mPAP and HR were significantly lower, and MAP and MAP/mPAP ratio were significantly higher in the inhaled group than in the control group. Vasoactive drug requirements were significantly lesser, and the time needed to wean the patients was significantly shorter in the inhaled group than in the control group.

Conclusion

Milrinone inhalation facilitated the weaning from CPB as it significantly reduced mPAP and maintained MAP with subsequently less needs for vasoactive drugs.

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<![CDATA[The Right Anterior Thoracotomy Approach to Resect a Cardiac Papillary Fibroelastoma of the Aortic Valve]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0de1fe1b-a5ba-4795-aeb9-63eaaf203957

A cardiac papillary fibroelastoma (CPFE) is reported to be the second most common cardiac neoplasm after myxoma cordis. CPFEs are histologically benign, frequently asymptomatic, but highly thrombogenic, which could lead to systemic and peripheral embolization. We present a case of a 68-year-old-patient, with a history of angioosteohypertrophy syndrome, who presented at our emergency department (ED) with symptoms of transient ischemic attacks. A thorough investigation, including echocardiography, revealed a neoplasm on the left coronary cusp (LCC) of the aortic valve. The neoplasm was resected via a valve-sparing shave via the right anterior thoracotomy (RAT). The pathological assessment confirmed it to be CPFE. CPFE is a rare but treatable cause of thromboembolism. The removal of CPFEs has classically been performed through a full median sternotomy. We like to present the first case of a valve-sparing removal of a CPFE on the aortic valve through a RAT approach.

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<![CDATA[Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair in Patients with an Intrathoracic Pancreas: Case Series and a Review of Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9ea31ad9-0002-43c0-ad51-b266407d311e

Transhiatal herniation of the pancreas is rare with only 17 cases reported in 25 years. Presentation of pancreatic herniation is diverse. In the majority of cases, the pancreatic herniation is found incidentally on CT-scans made for evaluating complaints related to a large or giant hiatal hernia. We present a literature review and case series of three patients with symptomatic type IV hiatal hernia with incidental, asymptomatic pancreatic herniation. All cases were managed laparoscopically with robotic assistance.

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<![CDATA[Hemorrhagic Shock Secondary to Aortoesophageal Fistula as a Complication of Esophageal Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne4cf1184-2ec8-4835-8c6f-295d4931d085

Although aortoesophageal fistulas are rare, they can present as life-threatening emergencies. This condition can develop secondary to an aneurysm, foreign bodies, infiltrating tumors, and radiotherapy. We report a patient with hemorrhagic shock secondary to an aortoesophageal fistula. A 69-year-old male with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus treated with chemoradiation and metallic stent placement was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after an episode of hematemesis. The patient was hemodynamically unstable, requiring fluid resuscitation, blood transfusions, and respiratory and vasopressor support. The patient developed electric pulseless activity, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed for 40 minutes. An upper endoscopy showed the esophageal tumor infiltrating into the stent, and computed tomography (CT) angiogram showed leakage of contrast from the thoracic aorta to the esophagus. The diagnosis of aortoesophageal fistula was made. The patient underwent endovascular management for the fistula. However, his critical condition did not improve, and the patient perished.

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<![CDATA[Chest Radiographic and CT Findings of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Analysis of Nine Patients Treated in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1f07a6a9-0813-4d38-9a51-b6cc0b2100a7

Objective

This study presents a preliminary report on the chest radiographic and computed tomography (CT) findings of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia in Korea.

Materials and Methods

As part of a multi-institutional collaboration coordinated by the Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology, we collected nine patients with COVID-19 infections who had undergone chest radiography and CT scans. We analyzed the radiographic and CT findings of COVID-19 pneumonia at baseline. Fisher's exact test was used to compare CT findings depending on the shape of pulmonary lesions.

Results

Three of the nine patients (33.3%) had parenchymal abnormalities detected by chest radiography, and most of the abnormalities were peripheral consolidations. Chest CT images showed bilateral involvement in eight of the nine patients, and a unilobar reversed halo sign in the other patient. In total, 77 pulmonary lesions were found, including patchy lesions (39%), large confluent lesions (13%), and small nodular lesions (48%). The peripheral and posterior lung fields were involved in 78% and 67% of the lesions, respectively. The lesions were typically ill-defined and were composed of mixed ground-glass opacities and consolidation or pure ground-glass opacities. Patchy to confluent lesions were primarily distributed in the lower lobes (p = 0.040) and along the pleura (p < 0.001), whereas nodular lesions were primarily distributed along the bronchovascular bundles (p = 0.006).

Conclusion

COVID-19 pneumonia in Korea primarily manifested as pure to mixed ground-glass opacities with a patchy to confluent or nodular shape in the bilateral peripheral posterior lungs. A considerable proportion of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had normal chest radiographs.

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