ResearchPad - thymic-tumors https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[胸腺肿瘤专题前言]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c052ad7d5eed0c4848a4dc4 <![CDATA[A potential biomarker hsa-miR-200a-5p distinguishing between benign thyroid tumors with papillary hyperplasia and papillary thyroid carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6003a2463d7e38dd0d05b5

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common endocrine cancer with a significantly increase of the incidence recently. Several cytokines, such as thyroid peroxidase (TPO), cluster of differentiation 56 (CD56), Galectin-3, mesothelial cell (MC), cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and BRAF (B-raf) were recommended to be tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for a definitive diagnosis, but were still limited in clinical use because of their relative lower sensitivity and specificity. MicroRNA (miRNA), as a new molecular biomarkers, however, has not been reported yet so far. To address this, hsa-miR-200a-5p, a miRNA, was selected and detected in PTC patients by in situ hybrization with benign thyroid tumor with papillary hyperplasia as a control, and the differential expression of hsa-miR-200a-5p between fresh PTC tissues and control was detected by qRT-PCR. Expressive levels of cytokines of TPO, CD56, Galectin-3, MC, CK19 and B-raf were also detected by immunohistochemistry. The correlation was analyzed by SPSS software using Spearman methods. As expected, the hsa-miR-200a-5p expressive level was significantly increased in PTC patients, compared to that of control, and was consistent with that of TPO, CD56, Galectin-3, MC, CK19 and B-raf. In addition, expression of hsa-miR-200a-5p showed negative correlation to that of TPO (rs = - 0.734; **: P < 0.01) and CD56 (rs = - 0.570; **: P < 0.01), but positive correlation to that of Galectin-3 (rs = 0.601; **: P < 0.01), MC (rs = 0.508; **: P < 0.01), CK19 (rs = 0.712; **: P < 0.01) and B-raf (rs = 0.378; **: P < 0.01). PTC and papillary benign thyroid papillary hyperplasia are difficult to distinguish in morphology, so requiring immunohistochemistry to further differentiate the diagnosis, however, for the existing clinical common diagnostic marker for immunohistochemistry, the sensitivity and accuracy are low, it is easy to miss diagnosis. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a rapid and sensitive molecular marker. So miR-200a-5p can be used to assist in the diagnosis of PTC at the molecular level, and as a biomarker, can be effectively used to distinguish between PTC and benign thyroid tumor with papillary hyperplasia.

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<![CDATA[Serum MMP-2 as a potential predictive marker for papillary thyroid carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b49f0b7463d7e3adec7b980

Objective

The prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is rising rapidly. However, there are no reliable serum biomarkers for PTC. This study aimed to investigate the validity of preoperative serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as a biomarker for predicting prognosis of PTC after total or partial thyroidectomy.

Methods

Male patients with PTC or a benign thyroid nodule (BTN) and healthy controls (HCs) were retrospectively included. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the performance of preoperative serum MMP-2 in diagnosing PTC, predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM), and predicting structurally persistent/recurrent disease (SPRD). Multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression were applied to identify independent risk factors for SPRD.

Results

The preoperative serum MMP-2 concentration in the PTC group was higher than those in BTN and HC groups. The concentration of postoperative serum MMP-2 decreased in comparison with pre-operation. ROC curves showed that serum MMP-2 could differentially diagnose PTC from BTN at the cutoff value of 86.30 ng/ml with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.905 and could predict central LNM (CLNM) at the cutoff value of 101.55 ng/ml with an AUC of 0.711. Serum MMP-2 ≥101.55 ng/ml, age ≥45 years, and advanced TNM stage were independent risk factors for CLNM. Patients with SPRD had a higher median MMP-2 level (149.22 ng/ml) than patients without SPRD (104.55 ng/ml). Serum MMP-2 at the cutoff value of 144.04 ng/ml could predict SPRD in PTC patients with an AUC of 0.803. Advanced TNM stage and serum MMP-2 ≥144.04 ng/ml were independent risk factors for SPRD. Patients with serum MMP-2 ≥144.04 ng/ml had a worse clinical outcome than those with MMP-2 <144.04 ng/ml.

Conclusion

Preoperative serum MMP-2 may serve as a biomarker for diagnosing PTC and a predictive indicator for LNM and SPRD in male patients with PTC.

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<![CDATA[Proteomic Signatures of Thymomas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da04ab0ee8fa60b7547c

Based on the histological features and outcome, the current WHO classification separates thymomas into A, AB, B1, B2 and B3 subtypes. It is hypothesized that the type A thymomas are derived from the thymic medulla while the type B thymomas are derived from the cortex. Due to occasional histological overlap between the tumor subtypes creating difficulties in their separation, the aim of this study was to provide their proteomic characterization and identify potential immunohistochemical markers aiding in tissue diagnosis. Pair-wise comparison of neoplastic and normal thymus by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue revealed 61 proteins differentially expressed in thymomas compared to normal tissue. Hierarchical clustering showed distinct segregation of subtypes AB, B1 and B2 from that of A and B3. Most notably, desmoyokin, a protein that is encoded by the AHNAK gene, was associated with type A thymomas and medulla of normal thymus, by LC-MS/MS and immunohistochemistry. In this global proteomic characterization of the thymoma, several proteins unique to different thymic compartments and thymoma subtypes were identified. Among differentially expressed proteins, desmoyokin is a marker specific for thymic medulla and is potentially promising immunohistochemical marker in separation of type A and B3 thymomas.

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<![CDATA[Overexpression of NOTCH-regulated Ankyrin Repeat Protein is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma progression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc4d6

Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the endocrine cancers with high clinical and genetic heterogeneity. NOTCH signaling and its downstream NOTCH-Regulated Ankyrin Repeat Protein (NRARP) have been implicated in oncogenesis of many cancers, but the roles in PTCs are less studied. In this study, we show that NRARP is frequently over-expressed in thyroid carcinoma. The over-activation of NRARP is highly and positively correlated with NOTCH genes. Moreover, we find that the expression of NRARP is highly associated with several epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and contributes to poor survival outcomes. Therefore, these results indicate that NRARP is an important clinical biomarker in thyroid carcinoma and it promotes EMT induction as well as the progression of PTCs via NOTCH signaling activation.

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<![CDATA[Long-term follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas with bone metastasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc5a2

The aims of this study were to investigate papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas with bone metastasis in various clinical presentations and to determine the prognostic factors after multimodality treatment. A retrospective analysis was performed of 3,120 patients with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Of these patients, 131 (including 97 women, 71.8%) were diagnosed with bone metastasis and underwent follow-up at the Chang Gung Medical Center. Patients with bone metastasis were categorized into two groups. Group A was comprised of patients who were diagnosed with bone metastasis either before thyroidectomy or within 6 months of the initial thyroidectomy (90 patients, 68.7%). Group B was comprised of patients with bone metastasis who received a diagnosis 6 months post-thyroidectomy in the follow-up period (41 patients, 31.3%). After a mean follow-up period of 8.4 ± 7.0 years, there were 88 deaths (67.2%) attributed to thyroid cancer and 13 patients (9.9%) achieved disease-free status. A multivariate analysis showed that older age, early diagnosis, and brain metastasis were each associated with a poor prognosis. The difference in disease-specific mortality rates between groups A and B was significant (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers with bone metastasis have a high rate of mortality. Despite this high mortality, 9.9% patients still had an excellent response to treatment.

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<![CDATA[The thyroid cancer policy model: A mathematical simulation model of papillary thyroid carcinoma in The U.S. population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf636

Background

Thyroid cancer affects over ½ million people in the U.S. and the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide at a rate higher than any other cancer, while survival has remained largely unchanged. The aim of this research was to develop, calibrate and verify a mathematical disease model to simulate the natural history of papillary thyroid cancer, which will serve as a platform to assess the effectiveness of clinical and cancer control interventions.

Methods

Herein, we modeled the natural pre-clinical course of both benign and malignant thyroid nodules with biologically relevant health states from normal to detected nodule. Using established calibration techniques, optimal parameter sets for tumor growth characteristics, development rate, and detection rate were used to fit Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) incidence data and other calibration targets.

Results

Model outputs compared to calibration targets demonstrating sufficient calibration fit and model validation are presented including primary targets of SEER incidence data and size distribution at detection of malignancy. Additionally, we show the predicted underlying benign and malignant prevalence of nodules in the population, the probability of detection based on size of nodule, and estimates of growth over time in both benign and malignant nodules.

Conclusions

This comprehensive model provides a dynamic platform employable for future comparative effectiveness research. Future model analyses will test and assess various clinical management strategies to improve patient outcomes related to thyroid cancer and optimize resource utilization for patients with thyroid nodules.

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<![CDATA[Phylogenetic and Epigenetic Footprinting of the Putative Enhancers of the Peg3 Domain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3bab0ee8fa60b87dd8

The Peg3 (Paternally Expressed Gene 3) imprinted domain is predicted to be regulated through a large number of evolutionarily conserved regions (ECRs) that are localized within its middle 200-kb region. In the current study, we characterized these potential cis-regulatory regions using phylogenetic and epigenetic approaches. According to the results, the majority of these ECRs are potential enhancers for the transcription of the Peg3 domain. Also, these potential enhancers can be divided into two groups based on their histone modification and DNA methylation patterns: ubiquitous and tissue-specific enhancers. Phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses further revealed that several cis-regulatory motifs are frequently associated with the ECRs, such as the E box, PITX2, NF-κB and RFX1 motifs. A series of subsequent ChIP experiments demonstrated that the trans factor MYOD indeed binds to the E box of several ECRs, further suggesting that MYOD may play significant roles in the transcriptional control of the Peg3 domain. Overall, the current study identifies, for the first time, a set of cis-regulatory motifs and corresponding trans factors that may be critical for the transcriptional regulation of the Peg3 domain.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of molecular diagnostic approaches for the detection of BRAF p.V600E mutations in papillary thyroid cancer: Clinical implications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be1185

Differentiated papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common cancer of the endocrine system. PTC has a very good prognosis and a high 5 year survival rate; however, some patients are unresponsive to treatment, and their diagnosis eventually results in death. Recent efforts have focused on searching for prognostic and predictive factors that may enable treatment personalization and monitoring across the course of the disease. The presence of the BRAF mutation is considered to contribute to the risk of poor clinical course, according to American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommendations. The method used for genotyping can impact the predicted mutation frequency; however, ATA recommendations do not address this issue. We evaluated the molecular diagnostic (BRAF p.V600E mutation) results of 410 patients treated for PTC. We thoroughly analyzed the impact of three different BRAF mutation detection methods, Sanger Sequencing (Seq), allele-specific amplification PCR (ASA-PCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR), on the frequency of mutation detection in 399 patients. Using Seq, we detected the BRAF mutation in 37% of patients; however, we were able to detect BRAF mutations in 57% and 60% of patients using the more sensitive ASA-PCR and qPCR technologies, respectively. Differences between methods were particularly marked in the thyroid papillary microcarcinoma group; BRAF p.V600E mutations were found in 37% of patients using Seq and 63% and 66% of patients using ASA-PCR and qPCR, respectively. We also evaluated how these different diagnostic methods were impacted by DNA quality. Applying methods with different sensitivities to the detection of BRAF p.V600E mutations may result in different results for the same patient; such data can influence stratification of patients into different risk groups, leading to alteration of treatment and follow-up schemes.

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<![CDATA[Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of thyroid cancer: A population-based temporal trend study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be1075

Background

The increase in incidence of thyroid cancer during the last decades without concomitant rise in mortality may reflect the growing detection of indolent forms of thyroid cancer, and may have fueled unnecessary thyroidectomies. Our aim was therefore, to compare recent secular trends in surgical intervention rate for thyroid cancer with the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer to assess overdiagnosis and resulting overtreatment.

Methods

We conducted a population-based temporal trend study in Switzerland from 1998 to 2012. All cases of invasive thyroid cancer, deaths from thyroid cancer, and cancer-related thyroidectomies were analyzed. We calculated changes in age-standardized thyroid cancer incidence rates, stratified by histologic subtype and tumor stage, thyroid cancer-specific mortality, and thyroidectomy rates.

Results

Between 1998 and 2012, the age-standardized annual incidence of thyroid cancer increased from 5.9 to 11.7 cases/100,000 among women (annual mean absolute increase: +0.43/100,000/year) and from 2.7 to 3.9 cases/100,000 among men (+0.11/100,000/year). The increase was limited to the papillary subtype, the most indolent form of thyroid cancer. The incidence of early stages increased sharply, the incidence of advanced stages increased marginally, and the mortality from thyroid cancer decreased slightly. There was a three- to four-fold increase in the age-standardized annual thyroidectomy rate in both sexes.

Conclusions

We observed a large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer, limited to papillary and early stage tumors, with a three- to four-fold parallel increase in thyroidectomy. The mortality slightly decreased. These findings suggest that a substantial and growing part of the detected thyroid cancers are overdiagnosed and overtreated.

Impact

Targeted screening and diagnostic strategies are warranted to avoid overdetection and unnecessary treatment of thyroid cancers.

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<![CDATA[Impact of Reclassification on Thyroid Nodules with Architectural Atypia: From Non-Invasive Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas to Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa5ab0ee8fa60ba75f9

Background

The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), especially the encapsulated non-invasive subtype, is a controversial entity. Recent study suggested using ‘non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)’ for these indolent carcinomas. We evaluated the impact of reclassification from non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (EFVPTCs) to NIFTPs in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia.

Methods

We reviewed 1301 thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens obtained from March 2012 to February 2013. Nodules were classified into atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (AUS-A, 984, 76%) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN, 317, 24%). Among them, diagnostic surgery was performed in 384 nodules (30%).

Results

In total, 160 nodules (42%) presented final malignant diagnoses including 39 non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (10%). The malignancy rate was estimated to be 7–35% in AUS-A nodules and 28–49% in FN/SFN nodules. After reclassification, the malignancy rate was much decreased and estimated to be 5–24% in AUS-A nodules, and 23–39% in FN/SFN nodules. Thyroid nodules with final malignant diagnoses were significantly more likely to have a FN/SFN CNB diagnosis, malignant US features and concomitant nuclear atypia in CNB specimens. However, these factors could not differentiate NIFTPs from other malignancies.

Conclusions

After reclassification of non-invasive EFVPTCs to NIFTPs, the malignancy rate of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in CNB specimens was decreased. However, there were no preoperative factors differentiating other malignancies from NIFTPs. The presence of malignant US features or concomitant nuclear atypia might help clinicians deciding diagnostic surgery but, these features also might indicate NIFTPs.

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<![CDATA[Loss of c-KIT expression in thyroid cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc12b

Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent histologic type of thyroid tumor. Few studies investigated the role of c-KIT expression in thyroid tumors, suggesting a role for this receptor and its ligand in differentiation and growth control of thyroid epithelium and a receptor loss following malignant transformation. We investigated and correlated c-KIT expression levels and two known markers of thyrocytes differentiation, PAX8 and TTF-1, in malignant and benign cytological thyroid samples. Moreover, we performed functional studies on human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line to associated c-KIT expression to thyrocytes differentiation and tumor proliferation. c-KIT and PAX8 expression resulted higher in benign samples compared to the malignant ones, and the expression levels of these two genes were significantly correlated to each other. We also observed that c-KIT overexpression led to an increase of PAX8 expression level together with a decrease of proliferation. Furthermore, c-KIT overexpressing cells showed a regression of typical morphological features of malignancy. Taken together these results suggest that c-KIT could be involved in the differentiation of thyroid cells and in tumor progression.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic implication of histological features associated with EHD2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc6ba

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a heterogeneous tumor with various histological and molecular subtypes. EHD2 is involved in endocytosis and endosomal recycling. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of EHD2 expression in PTC and develop a new model for predicting persistent/recurrent disease after thyroidectomy. Pathologic slides of 512 consecutive patients with PTC ≥ 1 cm were retrospectively reviewed. BRAF mutation analysis and immunohistochemistry for EHD2 were performed. Clinical significance of EHD2 mRNA expression was analyzed in 388 PTC patients using The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset. The presence of dyscohesive cells and psammoma bodies were found have significant association with persistent/recurrent disease (p = 0.049 and p = 0.038, respectively). The best discrimination of disease-free survival was found by dividing patients into three prognostic groups based on the following two risk factors according to the size category: psammoma bodies ≥ 4 and dyscohesive cells (≥ 1% and ≥ 20% in PTCs of < 2.0 cm and ≥ 2.0 cm, respectively). In PTCs of ≥ 2.0 cm, patients with the two risk factors had a hazard ratio of 13.303 (p = 0.005) compared to those without risk factors. High expression level of EHD2 was associated with BRAF V600E (p < 0.001), presence of dyscohesive cells (p = 0.010), and absence of psammoma bodies (p = 0.001). Increased EHD2 mRNA expression level was associated with extrathyroidal extension (p < 0.001), pT3-4 (p < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001), higher risk of recurrence (p < 0.001), and BRAF V600E (p < 0.001). Our prognostic model is useful for predicting persistent/recurrent disease after surgery of PTC. EHD2 mRNA expression could be a novel prognostic marker for PTC patients.

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<![CDATA[RAC1b overexpression stimulates proliferation and NF-kB-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling in thyroid cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbe92

Overexpression of tumor-associated RAC1b has been recently highlighted as one of the most promising targets for therapeutic intervention in colon, breast, lung and pancreatic cancer. RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 and has been recently shown to be overexpressed in a subset of papillary thyroid carcinomas associated with unfavorable outcome. Using the K1 PTC derived cell line as an in vitro model, we observed that both RAC1 and RAC1b were able to induce a significant increase on NF-kB and cyclin D1 reporter activity. A clear p65 nuclear localization was found in cells transfected with RAC1b-WT, confirming NF-kB canonical pathway activation. Consistently, we observed a RAC1b-mediated decrease in IκBα (NF-kB inhibitor) protein levels. Moreover, we show that RAC1b overexpression stimulates G1/S progression and protects thyroid cells against induced apoptosis, the latter through a process involving the NF-kB pathway. Present data support previous findings suggesting an important role for RAC1b in the development of follicular cell-derived thyroid malignancies and point out NF-kB activation as one of the molecular mechanisms associated with the pro-tumorigenic advantage of RAC1b overexpression in thyroid carcinomas.

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<![CDATA[A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, dinaciclib in preclinical treatment models of thyroid cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc226

Background

We explored the therapeutic effects of dinaciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

Materials and methods

Seven cell lines originating from three pathologic types of thyroid cancer (papillary, follicular and anaplastic) were studied. The cytotoxicity of dinaciclib was measured using a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The expression of proteins associated with cell cycle and apoptosis was assessed using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis and caspase-3 activity were measured by flow cytometry and fluorometric assay. Mice bearing flank anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) were treated with intraperitoneal injections of dinaciclib.

Results

Dinaciclib inhibited thyroid cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Dinaciclib had a low median-effect dose (≤ 16.0 nM) to inhibit cell proliferation in seven thyroid cancer cell lines. Dinaciclib decreased CDK1, cyclin B1, and Aurora A expression, induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and induced accumulation of prophase mitotic cells. Dinaciclib decreased Mcl-1, Bcl-xL and survivin expression, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis. In vivo, the growth of ATC xenograft tumors was retarded in a dose-dependent fashion with daily dinaciclib treatment. Higher-dose dinaciclib (50 mg/kg) caused slight, but significant weight loss, which was absent with lower-dose dinaciclib (40 mg/kg) treatment.

Conclusions

Dinaciclib inhibited thyroid cancer proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings support dinaciclib as a potential drug for further studies in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with refractory thyroid cancer.

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<![CDATA[Comprehensive Analysis of the Transcriptional and Mutational Landscape of Follicular and Papillary Thyroid Cancers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae5ab0ee8fa60bbd4ad

Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and benign follicular adenoma (FA) are indistinguishable by preoperative diagnosis due to their similar histological features. Here we report the first RNA sequencing study of these tumors, with data for 30 minimally invasive FTCs (miFTCs) and 25 FAs. We also compared 77 classical papillary thyroid carcinomas (cPTCs) and 48 follicular variant of PTCs (FVPTCs) to observe the differences in their molecular properties. Mutations in H/K/NRAS, DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, and SPOP were identified in miFTC or FA. We identified a low frequency of fusion genes in miFTC (only one, PAX8–PPARG), but a high frequency of that in PTC (17.60%). The frequencies of BRAFV600E and H/K/NRAS mutations were substantially different in miFTC and cPTC, and those of FVPTC were intermediate between miFTC and cPTC. Gene expression analysis demonstrated three molecular subtypes regardless of their histological features, including Non–BRAF–Non–RAS (NBNR), as well as BRAF–like and RAS–like. The novel molecular subtype, NBNR, was associated with DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, SPOP, and PAX8–PPARG. The transcriptome of miFTC or encapsulated FVPTC was indistinguishable from that of FA, providing a molecular explanation for the similarly indolent behavior of these tumors. We identified upregulation of genes that are related to mitochondrial biogenesis including ESRRA and PPARGC1A in oncocytic follicular thyroid neoplasm. Arm-level copy number variations were correlated to histological and molecular characteristics. These results expanded the current molecular understanding of thyroid cancer and may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the disease.

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<![CDATA[Classification of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules Using a Combined Clinical Information and Gene Expression Signatures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da74ab0ee8fa60b95e48

Background

A key challenge in thyroid carcinoma is preoperatively diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules. A novel diagnostic test that measures the expression of a 3-gene signature (DPP4, SCG5 and CA12) has demonstrated promise in thyroid carcinoma assessment. However, more reliable prediction methods combining clinical features with genomic signatures with high accuracy, good stability and low cost are needed.

Methodology/Principal Findings

25 clinical information were recorded in 771 patients. Feature selection and validation were conducted using random forest. Thyroid samples and clinical data were obtained from 142 patients at two different hospitals, and expression of the 3-gene signature was measured using quantitative PCR. The predictive abilities of three models (based on the selected clinical variables, the gene expression profile, and integrated gene expression and clinical information) were compared. Seven clinical characteristics were selected based on a training set (539 patients) and tested in three test sets, yielding predictive accuracies of 82.3% (n = 232), 81.4% (n = 70), and 81.9% (n = 72). The predictive sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 72.3%, 80.5% and 76.8% for the model based on the gene expression signature, 66.2%, 81.8% and 74.6% for the model based on the clinical data, and 83.1%, 84.4% and 83.8% for the combined model in a 10-fold cross-validation (n = 142).

Conclusions

These findings reveal that the integrated model, which combines clinical data with the 3-gene signature, is superior to models based on gene expression or clinical data alone. The integrated model appears to be a reliable tool for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid tumors.

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<![CDATA[Should the Prevalence of Incidental Thyroid Cancer Determine the Extent of Surgery in Multinodular Goiter?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac1ab0ee8fa60bb0b7a

Background

The most appropriate surgical procedure for multinodular goiter (MNG) remains under debate. Incidental thyroid carcinoma (ITC) is often identified on histopathological examination after thyroidectomy performed for presumed benign MNG.

Aim of the study

The aim of the study was to determine the value of radical surgery for MNG patients considering the prevalence of ITC diagnosed postoperatively.

Materials and Methods

We conducted retrospective analysis of the medical records of 2,306 patients surgically treated for MNG between 2008 and 2013 at one center. None of the patients presented with any suspicion of malignancy, history of familial thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome or previous head or neck radiation exposure.

Results

Among the 2,306 MNG patients, ITC was detected in 49 (2.12%) (44 women and 5 men, with average ages of 52.2 (21–79) and 55.6 (52–62), respectively). Papillary thyroid carcinoma was significantly more frequently observed than other types of ITC (p<0.00001). Among the MNG patients, 866 (37.5%) underwent total/near total surgery, 464 (20.1%) received subtotal thyroidectomy, and 701 (30.3%) received the Dunhill operation. The remaining 275 (11.9%) patients underwent a less radical procedure and were classified as "others." Among the 49 (100%) patients with ITC, 28 (57.1%) underwent radical surgery. Another 21 (42.9%) patients required completion surgery due to an insufficient primary surgical procedure. A total of 21 (2.42%) patients in the total/near total surgery group were diagnosed with ITC, as well as 16 (2.48%) in the subtotal thyroidectomy group and 12 (1.71%) in the Dunhill operation group; 21 (100%), 4 (25%) and 3 (25%) of these patients, respectively, underwent radical surgery; thus, 0 (0%), 12 (75%) and 9 (75%) required completion surgery. The prevalence rates of ITC were comparable between the radical and subtotal surgery groups (2.42% and 3.44%, respectively, p = 0.4046), and the prevalence was higher in the radical surgery group than in the Dunhill operation group (2.42% and 1.71%, respectively, p = 0.0873). A significant difference was observed between the group of patients who underwent total/near total surgery, among whom all of the patients with ITC (100%) received primary radical surgery, and the groups of patients who received the subtotal and Dunhill operations, among whom only 25% of the patients with ITC in each group received primary radical surgery (p<0.0001).

Conclusions

More radical procedures for MNG result in a lower risk of reoperation for ITC. The prevalence of ITC on postoperative histopathological examination should determine the extent of surgery in MNG patients. In the future, total/near total thyroidectomy should be considered for MNG patients due to the increased prevalence of ITC to avoid the necessity for reoperation.

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<![CDATA[Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma for Surgery and Relationships with the BRAFV600E Mutational Status and Expression of Angiogenic Factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db48ab0ee8fa60bd9613

Objective

To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) for surgery by comparing the difference between PTMC and larger papillary thyroid carcinoma (LPTC).

Methods

We analyzed the differences in the clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, B-type RAF kinase (BRAF)V600E mutational status and expression of angiogenic factors, including pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunit (HIF-1α), between PTMC and LPTC by retrospectively reviewing the records of 251 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, 169 with PTMC, and 82 with LPTC (diameter >1 cm).

Results

There were no significant differences in the gender, age, multifocality, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, TNM stage, PEDF protein expression, rate of recurrence, or mean follow-up duration between patients with PTMC or LPTC. The prevalence of extrathyroidal invasion (EI), lymph node metastasis (LNM), and BRAF mutation in patients with PTMC was significantly lower than in patients with LPTC. In addition, in PTMC patients with EI and/or LNM and/or positive BRAF (high-risk PTMC patients), the prevalence of extrathyroidal invasion, Hashimoto's disease, lymph node metastasis, tumor TNM stage, PEDF positive protein expression, the rate of recurrent disease, and the mRNA expression of anti-angiogenic factors was almost as high as in patients with larger PTC, but with no significant difference.

Conclusions

Extrathyroid invasion, lymph node metastases, and BRAFV600E mutation were the high risk factors of PTMC. PTMC should be considered for the same treatment strategy as LPTC when any of these factors is found. Particularly, PTMC with BRAFV600E gene mutations needed earlier surgical treatment. In addition, the high cell subtype of PTMC with BRAFV600E gene mutation is recommended for total thyroidectomy in primary surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence.

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<![CDATA[The increasing toll of adolescent cancer incidence in the US]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbdcb

Cancer incidence is rising among adolescents (“teens”). The causes of the increase are unknown but studying incidence patterns and trends may produce insights into etiology. Using data from the US National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program we described trends of cancer incidence among teens (15–19 year olds). We reviewed and summarized incidence patterns for histologic cancer groups and the most frequently diagnosed sites of cancer among teens during 2008–2012 reported by the SEER Cancer Statistics Review. We calculated annual incidence rates for the years 1975–2012 and used linear regression analysis to evaluate trends and calculate rates of change. Incidence for all sites combined increased annually by 0.67% for males and 0.62% for females during the period 1975 through 2012 –resulting in more than a 25% increase over 38 years. The biggest annual incidence increases occurred in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (2.16% females; 1.38% males), thyroid cancer (2.12% females; 1.59% males), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (1.73% females) and testicular cancer (1.55% males). Incidence rates for most histologic groups and sites showed steady long term increases over the 38 years of data. Despite improvements in survival, rising incidence trends mean growing numbers of young adults are undergoing painful and costly cancer treatments. A concerted research program is vital to investigate causes of steadily rising teen cancer rates.

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