ResearchPad - thyroid-cancer-case-reports-i https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[SUN-483 A Retrospective Diagnosis of Malignant Struma Ovarii After Discovery of Pulmonary Metastases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8771 Background: Malignant struma ovarii is a rare ovarian tumor that is histologically identical to differentiated thyroid carcinoma.1 We present a case of a struma ovarii that was recognized as being malignant only after the discovery of pulmonary metastases.

Clinical Case: A 29 year old female presented to the hospital with acute right lower abdominal pain, suspicious for ovarian torsion. She underwent urgent right salpingoopherectomy and pathology demonstrated a mature cystic teratoma with benign struma ovarii. Two years later, a CT of the abdomen incidentally revealed bilateral pulmonary nodules. Review of the imaging showed that these pulmonary nodules were also present two years prior, and had since become larger. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed and lung biopsy was positive for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy which revealed a 0.3 x 0.3 cm infiltrative papillary thyroid cancer, follicular variant, without lymphovascular invasion. Thyroglobulin level decreased from 169 ng/mL pre-operatively to 80 ng/mL post-operatively, but then continued to be variable ranging from 56 to 252 ng/mL (1.6-50 ng/mL). Thyroglobulin antibodies remained negative.

Pathology from right ovary was re-reviewed at a second institution and found to be consistent with highly differentiated thyroid carcinoma with characteristic nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

A diagnostic whole body I-131 scan showed uptake within the thyroid bed, bilateral lung nodules, left distal thigh and right mid thigh. These thigh lesions were not visualized on lower extremity ultrasound. After dosimetry was performed, the patient received radioactive iodine-131 200 mCI. Post-therapy scan six days later demonstrated uptake in the thyroid bed, bilateral lungs and bilateral thighs. About five months later, thyroglobulin level had decreased to 0.4 ng/mL with a suppressed TSH. A repeat CT chest demonstrated that the lung nodules had all decreased in size, largest from 0.5 cm to 0.3 cm.

Conclusion: Careful examination of struma ovarii pathology should be performed to evaluate for malignant features since benign appearing histology can present diagnostic difficulty.2 In this case, thyroglobulin level was lower than reported in previous cases; however, sites of metastases were responsive to radioactive iodine therapy indicating well differentiated disease and a favorable prognosis.

References: 1. Goffredo P, Sawka AM, Pura J, Adam MA, Roman SA, Sosa JA. Malignant Struma Ovarii: A Population-Level Analysis of a Large Series of 68 Patients. Thyroid. 2015:25(2): 211-216.

2. Roth LM, Miller AW, Talerman A. Typical Thyroid-Type Carcinoma Arising in Struma Ovarii: A Report of 4 Cases and Review of Literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008:27(4): 496-506.

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<![CDATA[SUN-484 Complex Thyroid Cancer with Several Recurrences and Metastases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7196 56-year-old male with metastatic papillary thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy in 8/2014, and I-131 ablation in 9/2014, with post-operative pathology revealing multifocal, bilateral papillary thyroid cancer with extrathyroidal extension with surgical resection margins uninvolved. There were positive lymphovascular spread and multiple central compartments and bilateral neck nodes metastases with extranodal extension. Subsequent thyrogen stimulated whole-body scan in 2/2016 showed no areas of uptake.However, in 12/2016 he was found to have right supraclavicular lymph nodes positive for recurrence which was resected and given another 168 mCi I-131 and 33 treatments of XRT to R shoulder.A repeat PET in 7/2019 showed persistent hyper metabolic lesion in C7, multiple hyper metabolic nodules throughout the R lung, and a new 1.1 cm left Hilar lymph node suggesting disease progression. Biopsy of the C7 lesion confirmed dedifferentiated papillary thyroid cancer and demonstrated the presence of an NTRK mutation.This time he was given lenvatinib 24 mg daily for 4 weeks, followed by 200 mCi I-131. Post-treatment whole body scan showed good uptake in all lesions, except the C7 lesion which was treated with external radiation. DiscussionWhile cure is achieved in most cases of differentiated thyroid cancer, a minority of cases demonstrate disease progression. Loss of response to I-131, very low serum thyroglobulin levels despite known disease, and high PET avidity provide clinical evidence of dedifferentiation, confirmed with tissue sampling.If feasible targeted systemic therapy remains the best tolerated treatment option.While several studies demonstrate an increase in iodine avidity in approximately 50-60% of patients with dedifferentiated thyroid cancer that were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), (cite alan Ho’s 2013 NEJM article, and the 2015 debrafenib study Rothenberg SM et al, clin cancer res 2015), selumetanib remains unavailable for clinical use and dabrafenib may only be beneficial in cases with known BRAF V600E mutations. Moreover, it is unknown whether a planned short course of TKI therapy would potentially induce resistance to future TKI therapy.Therefore, lenvatinib, which inhibits activity of at least 6[VM1] different tyrosine kinase enzymes important in thyroid cancer was chosen rather than entrectanib, which was reserved for use if the need arises. This patient demonstrated excellent response to I-131 therapy with lenvatinib pretreatment.A number of formal studies of various TKIs for thyroid cancer re-differentiation are currently underway. (cite Brown SR, Hall A, et al BMC cancer 2019; and also cite the CIII trial with cabozatanib)Conclusion This case represents the emerging paradigm for the ability of TKI therapy to redifferentiate advanced thyroid cancer and allow for re-treatment with I-131 targeted therapy.

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<![CDATA[SUN-486 Unusual Presentation of Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7041 Distant metastasis of follicular thyroid cancer to the bone has been well documented. However, spinal cord compression as the initial presentation of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer without any thyroid symptoms is relatively rare. Here we discuss such a case. A 78-year-old female with history of HTN and melanoma presented to the ED with a 1-month history of middle back pain that progressed to lower extremity weakness, numbness, and inability to ambulate. MRI showed a T7 vertebral mass with cord compression and edema. Metastatic work up was unremarkable except for incidental bilateral thyroid nodules, the largest on the right lobe, at 1.6 cm, with peripheral calcifications. The patient underwent T6-T7 laminectomy with vertebral decompression, partial colpectomy, and T4-T10 fusion. Pathology of the thoracic vertebral mass was positive for CAM 5.2, cytokeran 7, TTF-1, and PAX8 consistent with either metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma or thyroid carcinoma. The patient denied shortness of breath, dysphagia, hoarseness, or neck tenderness. She had no personal history of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, or radiation exposure. She also did not have any family history of thyroid cancer. Laboratory work up was significant for TSH of 3.71 mcU/mL (0.4-4.0 mcU/mL), Free T4 1.56 ng/dL (0.7-1.9 ng/dL), thyroglobulin (Tg) 6940 ng/mL (1.6-55.0 ng/mL), and thyroglobulin antibody (Tg Ab) 20 IU/mL (0-115 IU/mL). FNA of the right thyroid nodule showed follicular neoplasm with very similar morphological features to the epidural pathology, favoring a follicular carcinoma. She underwent total thyroidectomy. Pathology showed a 1.6 x 1.1 cm follicular carcinoma with capsular and angiolymphatic invasion, but with uninvolved margins of resection. TNM staging was pT1b, pNx, pM1. She was ablated with 109 mCi of I-131 after withdrawal therapy. Whole body scan after treatment revealed radioiodine avid metastatic disease at T7 and activity in the thyroid bed compatible with residual thyroid tissue. Patient completed 10 fractions of external beam radiotherapy to the spine for a total of 30 Gy. Three months follow up lab work showed Tg 580 ng/mL and negative Tg Ab with a suppressed TSH. Thyroid bed ultrasound did not show any residual tissue or abnormal lymph nodes. Ten-year survival rates in patients with bony metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer range from 13-21% (1). Metastatic thyroid carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of every patient with new onset bony metastasis and thyroglobulin should be considered as a tumor marker in the initial work up. Research shows increased survival with I-131 avidity and complete bone metastasis resection (1). 1. Ramadan, Sami et al. “Spinal metastasis in thyroid cancer.” Head & neck oncology vol. 4 39. 25 Jun. 2012, doi:10.1186/1758-3284-4-39

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<![CDATA[SUN-479 Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) to the Thyroid: Case Report and Clinical Lesson]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7029 Background: Metastatic neoplasms to the thyroid gland are rare and have been observed more in autopsy series than in clinical series.

Case: A 71-year old woman presented for thyroid nodule evaluation which was incidentally noted on CT/PET scan. She was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) stage IV (6.4 cm, left nephrectomy) 4 months prior. She had right hemi-thyroidectomy 30 years prior for a benign nodule. She was clinically and biochemically euthyroid with dysphagia and hoarseness in her voice. Thyroid u/s revealed multiple nodules in the left lobe with a dominant 3.6 x 2.9 x 3.6 cm solid, heterogeneous nodule with grade 3 hypervascularity. History positive for 1 cm right renal mass and multiple pulmonary nodules increasing in size thought to be consistent with metastases. The FNA of the dominant nodule was indeterminate, Bethesda III (AUS), GSC suspicious (Affirma, 50% ROM) with negative malignancy classifiers. Patient underwent completion thyroidectomy, and surgical path was consistent multifocal clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) with the largest focus of 3 cm based on clear cell features and strong positivity for stains: CK OSCAR, RCC, PAX-8 & CD-10. Patient is currently on Pazopanib post thyroid surgery for 18 months, and is stable with no further increase in the size of lung nodules or right renal mass and negative serial PET scans.

Clinical lesson: CRCC represents 3-4% of all adult malignancies and 85% of all primary renal tumors. In clinical series, CRCC is the most frequent source of thyroid metastases and represents 12-34% of all secondary thyroid tumors. About 17% of patients with CRCC have metastatic disease at diagnosis. Metastases can be synchronous or metachronous to the primary tumor. Latency from nephrectomy to diagnosis of thyroid mets varies from 2 months-21.9 years. Metastases can be solitary (more common), multiple or diffuse. Radiological findings typically reveal hypoechoic and vascularized mass on ultrasound and cold on thyroid scan. Metastases to thyroid can pose diagnostic problem and be a source of confusion in cytology interpretation. Metastatic CRCC can simulate morphologically primary thyroid neoplasm such as Hurthle cell neoplasm or thyroid carcinomas with clear cell changes. Metastatic carcinoma within the thyroid gland is negative for thyroglobulin, TTF-1, calcitonin unlike primary thyroid cancer. CRCC is usually positive for periodic acid-Schiff and Oil red O, vimentin, and CD10. The mean survival in patients with CRCC who had thyroidectomy alone or with adjuvant treatment was 3 years.

Conclusion: Thyroid metastases should be considered in patients with thyroid nodules and positive history of RCC. The preoperative distinction between primary and secondary tumors is difficult. Immunohistochemistry is a useful method for the evaluation of patients with suspected thyroid nodules.

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<![CDATA[SUN-LB77 Incidental Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: An Uncommon Entity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6836 Background:

Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an aggressive thyroid malignancy with a median survival of 3 to 9 months. It is rare and represents 2-5% of all thyroid tumors. Even more uncommonly in about 2%–6% of all ATC cases, it is identified as a small, incidental finding after surgical resection of a predominantly non-anaplastic tumor.

Clinical Case:

We report a case of 67 year old Caucasian male who presented with history of hoarseness of voice for one month. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of right dominant thyroid nodule revealed papillary thyroid cancer. Pre-operative imaging was negative for involvement of surrounding structures or distant metastasis. He underwent total thyroidectomy and final pathology revealed Anaplastic carcinoma arising in papillary carcinoma measuring 3.6cm in greatest dimension. Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma comprised approximately 5% of the tumor. Areas from anaplastic and papillary tumor were dissected separately. DNA separated from these two specimens were analyzed by PCR amplification and both were positive for BRAF mutation. External beam radiation and radioactive iodine therapy were administered after surgery. Given absence of invasion or metastasis adjuvant therapy was not initiated. His positron emission tomography, computed tomography imaging and whole-body scan has been negative for residual/ recurrent or metastatic disease. He remains disease free at 18 months after diagnosis.

Discussion:

Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare but highly aggressive tumor. In most cases it develops from a pre-existing well differentiated thyroid cancer. ATC incidence typically peaks at the 6-7th decade of life, predominantly in women. The median survival is between 3 to 9 months with less than 10% of patients alive 3 years after the time of diagnosis. Because of its aggressive behavior, the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual classifies all Anaplastic thyroid cancer Stage IV tumors. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the conventional therapeutic strategies performed in the attempt to improve survival.

However, incidental anaplastic thyroid cancer is rare variant with very few reported cases. American Thyroid Association (ATA) Guidelines for Management of Patients with ATC do not include specific recommendations for this form of ATC. There is no consensus to define best treatment approach as to whether intrathyroidal incidentally detected ATC is best treated with surgery alone, surgery followed by radiotherapy, or surgery followed by chemotherapy plus radiation therapy.

Conclusion:

Based on review of our case as well as outcomes of similar reported cases, prognosis is favorable for incidental anaplastic thyroid cancer. Hopefully, with more data from similar cases to demonstrate difference in disease free survival we should be able to define the role of chemotherapy and adjuvant therapy for incidental ATC better. The question remains open, as to whether incidental anaplastic thyroid cancer should be considered as a separate entity from aggressive form of ATC.

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<![CDATA[SUN-475 Thyroid Extranodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in Setting of Gastric Large B-Cell Lymphoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6031 Background: We report a case of concomitant thyroid and gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Clinical Case: A 73 year-old man presented with melena of 2 days duration. EGD revealed a 1.5 x 0.7 cm gastric ulcer. Biopsy revealed marked chronic active gastritis with glandular atypia, positive for H. pylori. Repeat biopsy of the same ulcer post H. pylori treatment demonstrated high-grade B-cell lymphoma. Immunostains were positive for CD20, CD10, BCL6, cyclin D and negative for CD 23 and CD 30. More than 95% of tumor cells expressed Ki-67, while 10% expressed MUM-1 and BCL2. Benign T cells stained positive for CD3 and CD5. FISH was negative for gene rearrangement involving BCL-6/BCL-2 and C-MYC. Staging PET/CT showed hypermetabolic regions involving the stomach wall, large left neck mass and right lung focus. The neck focus had a max SUV 48.5 (8 fold greater than the other sites), that localized to a soft tissue mass measuring 4.9 x 2.7 cm. FNA of the left-sided thyroid mass showed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with immunostain positive for CD20 and negative for cytokeratin AE1-3, PAX8, and CD 10. The morphology was similar to that of abnormal lymphoid cells in the gastric biopsy. Patient had normal thyroid function tests but positive autoimmune thyroid disease markers (TPO and anti-TG antibody). Treatment with R-CHOP resulted in shrinkage of neck mass. Conclusion: Hypermetabolic regions revealed by PET/CT at distant sites from primary tumor require further evaluation including biopsy as indicated. Clinical correlation and response to chemotherapy can provide supplemental information in the overall assessment of the disease process.

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<![CDATA[SUN-489 MetastaticThyroidCancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N905c6ccb-bdcb-4646-a9fc-a4a5f856a9c1 <![CDATA[SUN-474 An Unusual Case of Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma with an Excellent Prognosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N898c1e08-b8f3-4f76-ba71-ef1b797321c7 <![CDATA[SUN-481 A Coexisting Primary Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Case of Malignant Struma Ovarii with Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: 2 Types of Thyroid Cancer in the Same Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5a139bab-68a8-46ab-8c6c-25e29eacad6f 4 cm, extra ovarian extension, and the coexisting synchronous primary thyroid cancer, however, she had a good prognosis with no recurrence during the 5 years follow up period. ]]> <![CDATA[SUN-LB76 Euthyroid Ophthalmopathy in Coexistence With Differential Thyroid Carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9f5bbe2e-725a-477f-a833-31feb063fd7f <![CDATA[SUN-LB75 The Anti-Tumor Activity of the Selective Ret Inhibitor Selpercatinib (LOXO-292) in Medullary Thyroid Cancer Is Independent of the Specific RET Mutation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd068b6f5-de5e-445c-9e2c-19dfc37eeac0 <![CDATA[SUN-485 Combined Treatment with Laser Ablation and Tyrosin Kinase Inhibitors. a Novel Multimodality Approach to Locally Advanced Thyroid Cancer?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfbdd7250-5a61-40c7-9403-7d860b398249

Abstract

Direct loco-regional treatments are considered for local control of cervical metastasis of thyroid cancer. In our feasibility study, laser ablation was employed for initial debulking of an unresectable radioiodine-refractory thyroid cancer in a combined treatment with tyrosin kinase inhibitors (TKI).

. On June 2016, a 69-year-old woman underwent partial resection of a papillary thyroid cancer with extensive tracheal infiltration. On August 2016, whole body scan performed after 131-I treatment (8140 MBq) demonstrated nearly absent thyroid bed uptake. Due to progressive increase of the cervical mass, the patient experienced dysphonia and dysphagia and, after multidisciplinary consultation, was treated with laser ablation (LTA). After local anesthesia, two 300 nm fiberoptics were inserted into the lesion through 21G spinal needles. Two illuminations with 4-watt output power and 3600 Joules energy delivery were peformed with a diode-laser source. LTA resulted in rapid mass volume decrease (28 x12 x16 mm, 2.8 mL, vs 52 x 29 x 29 mm, 22.7 mL) and improvement of pressure symptoms that lasted 6 months. In May 2017, due to initial regrowth of the tumor mass, the patient started therapy with Lenvatinib, at 10-24 mg/day. The cervical tumor burden remained controlled until April 2019, when occurred rapid disease progression and death of the patient.

These preliminary results suggest that locally-advanced unresectable and radioiodine-refractory thyroid tumors can be managed with preliminary LTA mass debulking, for rapid control of local disease, followed by long-term TKI treatment.

.

2016 Jul; 39(7):1023-30; Park KW et al. Ann Surg Oncol 2011; 18:2564-2568. Schlumberger M et al. NEJM 2015 12; 372(7):621-30.

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<![CDATA[SUN-LB80 Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Carcinoma in a 12 Year Old Boy. Should Total Thyroidectomy Be Done?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N674282c2-2082-4bf6-96f7-674a5ded10fa <![CDATA[SUN-491 A Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer Reveals a Triple Threat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8d1c23c4-6fbf-4d97-9c59-fea0c76797a8 5000 while left level IV lymph node was negative for PTC and Tg washout was 0.1. She subsequently underwent right-sided modified radical neck dissection, with lymph nodes revealing PTC also involved by small lymphocytic lymphoma. She had repeat RAI ablation for thyroid cancer and is being actively monitored for her small lymphocytic lymphoma and lung adenocarcinoma.Conclusion: We present a patient with no known history of malignancy who presented with 3 de novo primary malignancies. This case may demonstrate an increased risk of malignancy in patients with thyroid cancer not necessarily related to radioactive iodine treatment. ]]> <![CDATA[SUN-LB82 Coexistence of Medullary Thyroid Cancer With Graves Disease: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N280b2812-c2b5-4575-90a1-7108f32a3de7 <![CDATA[SUN-480 An Unusual Clear Cell Carcinoma in the Thyroid. Where Is the Primary?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N61599647-5651-4de1-bfa2-efe648334b1d <![CDATA[SUN-488 A Coexisting of Two Different Thyroid Malignancies: A Collision Phenomenon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne35bdcd4-6999-4f8d-8ccf-1a14f5765e7b <![CDATA[SUN-490 Mass Cord Compression: Metastasis of Insular Thyroid Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4aeb4326-da43-46b0-a79f-8b9a40e7d990 <![CDATA[SUN-478 Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Arising from a Hyperfunctioning Nodule Treated with I-131]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N90ad70b7-ef08-4e99-84ed-7bd2e33b7a89 <![CDATA[SUN-476 Risk of Thyroid Cancer in McCune-Albright Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd3495dd8-764f-4ec5-95de-4c7f116890f2