ResearchPad - tissue-repair https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Functional and structural consequences of epithelial cell invasion by <i>Bordetella pertussis</i> adenylate cyclase toxin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7693 Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whopping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that plays a key role in the host colonization by targeting innate immune cells which express CD11b/CD18, the cellular receptor of CyaA. CyaA is also able to invade non-phagocytic cells, via a unique entry pathway consisting in a direct translocation of its catalytic domain across the cytoplasmic membrane of the cells. Within the cells, CyaA is activated by calmodulin to produce high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and alter cellular physiology. In this study, we explored the effects of CyaA toxin on the cellular and molecular structure remodeling of A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Using classical imaging techniques, biochemical and functional tests, as well as advanced cell mechanics method, we quantify the structural and functional consequences of the massive increase of intracellular cyclic AMP induced by the toxin: cell shape rounding associated to adhesion weakening process, actin structure remodeling for the cortical and dense components, increase in cytoskeleton stiffness, and inhibition of migration and repair. We also show that, at low concentrations (0.5 nM), CyaA could significantly impair the migration and wound healing capacities of the intoxicated alveolar epithelial cells. As such concentrations might be reached locally during B. pertussis infection, our results suggest that the CyaA, beyond its major role in disabling innate immune cells, might also contribute to the local alteration of the epithelial barrier of the respiratory tract, a hallmark of pertussis.

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<![CDATA[Assessing the effects of intratendinous genipin injections: Mechanical augmentation and spatial distribution in an ex vivo degenerative tendon model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N537496c4-2c39-41e6-9ca3-002a318b88b6

Background

Tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal disorder and current treatment options show limited success. Genipin is an effective collagen crosslinker with low cytotoxicity and a promising therapeutic strategy for stabilizing an intratendinous lesion.

Purpose

This study examined the mechanical effect and delivery of intratendinous genipin injection in healthy and degenerated tendons.

Study design

Controlled laboratory study

Methods

Bovine superficial digital flexor tendons were randomized into four groups: Healthy control (N = 25), healthy genipin (N = 25), degenerated control (N = 45) and degenerated genipin (N = 45). Degeneration was induced by Collagenase D injection. After 24h, degenerated tendons were subsequently injected with either 0.2ml of 80mM genipin or buffer only. 24h post-treatment, samples were cyclically loaded for 500 cycles and then ramp loaded to failure. Fluorescence and absorption assays were performed to analyze genipin crosslink distribution and estimate tissue concentration after injection.

Results

Compared to controls, genipin treatment increased ultimate force by 19% in degenerated tendons (median control 530 N vs. 633 N; p = 0.0078). No significant differences in mechanical properties were observed in healthy tendons, while degenerated tendons showed a significant difference in ultimate stress (+23%, p = 0.049), stiffness (+27%, p = 0.037), work to failure (+42%, p = 0.009), and relative stress relaxation (-11%, p < 0.001) after genipin injection. Fluorescence and absorption were significantly higher in genipin treated tendons compared to control groups. A higher degree of crosslinking (+45%, p < 0.001) and a more localized distribution were observed in the treated healthy compared to degenerated tendons, with higher genipin tissue concentrations in healthy (7.9 mM) than in degenerated tissue (2.3 mM).

Conclusion

Using an ex-vivo tendinopathy model, intratendinous genipin injections recovered mechanical strength to the level of healthy tendons. Measured by genipin tissue distribution, injection is an effective method for local delivery.

Clinical relevance

This study provides a proof of concept for the use of intratendinous genipin injection in the treatment of tendinopathy. The results demonstrate that a degenerated tendon can be mechanically augmented by a clinically viable method of local genipin delivery. This warrants further in vivo studies towards the development of a clinically applicable treatment based on genipin.

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<![CDATA[Ectopic transient overexpression of OCT-4 facilitates BMP4-induced osteogenic transdifferentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4e5e75b4-60a5-4643-b318-8feb94dfc36f

Limitation in cell sources for autologous cell therapy has been a recent focus in stem cell therapy and tissue engineering. Among various research advances, direct conversion, or transdifferentiation, is a notable and feasible strategy for the generation and acquirement of wanted cell source. So far, utilizing cell transdifferentiation technology in tissue engineering was mainly restricted at achieving single wanted cell type from diverse cell types with high efficiency. However, regeneration of a complete tissue always requires multiple cell types which poses an intrinsic complexity. In this study, enhanced osteogenic differentiation was achieved by transient ectopic expression of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4) gene followed by bone morphogenetic protein 4 treatment on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. OCT-4 transfection and bone morphogenetic protein 4 treatment resulted in enhanced expression of osteogenic markers such as core-binding factor alpha 1, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen 1 compared with bone morphogenetic protein 4 treatment alone. Furthermore, we employed gelatin-heparin cryogel in cranial defect model for in vivo bone formation. Micro-computed tomography and histological analysis of in vivo samples showed that OCT-4 transfection followed by bone morphogenetic protein 4 treatment resulted in efficient transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to osteogenic cells. These results suggest that the combination of OCT-4 and bone morphogenetic protein 4 on endothelial cells would be a reliable multicellular transdifferentiation model which could be applied for bone tissue engineering.

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<![CDATA[Cost-effectiveness analysis of an innovative model of care for chronic wounds patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8977add5eed0c4847d32fb

Current provision of services for the care of chronic wounds in Australia is disjointed and costly. There is large variability in the way that services are provided, and little evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of a specialist model of care for treatment and management. A decision-analytic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a specialist wound care clinic as compared to usual care for chronic wounds is presented. We use retrospective and prospective data from a cohort of patients as well as information from administrative databases and published literature. Our results show specialist wound clinics are cost-effective for the management of chronic wounds. On average, specialist clinics were $3,947 cheaper than usual clinics and resulted in a quality adjusted life year gain of 0.04 per patient, per year. Specialist clinics were the best option under multiple scenarios including a different cost perspective and when the cost of a hospital admission was reduced. Current models of care are inefficient and represent low value care, and specialist wound clinics represent a good investment compared to current approaches for the management of chronic wounds in Australia.

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<![CDATA[Tenogenic differentiation protocol in xenogenic-free media enhances tendon-related marker expression in ASCs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7580d5eed0c4843cfe25

Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are multipotent and immune-privileged mesenchymal cells, making them ideal candidates for therapeutic purposes to manage tendon disorders. Providing safe and regulated cell therapy products to patients requires adherence to good manufacturing practices. To this aim we investigated the in vitro tenogenic differentiation potential of ASCs using a chemically defined serum-free medium (SF) or a xenogenic-free human pooled platelet lysate medium (hPL) suitable for cell therapy and both supplemented with CTGF, TGFβ-3, BMP-12 and ascorbic acid (AA) soluble factors. Human ASCs were isolated from 4 healthy donors and they were inducted to differentiate until 14 days in both hPL and SF tenogenic media (hPL-TENO and SF-TENO). Cell viability and immunophenotype profile were analysed to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics in both xenogenic-free media. Moreover, the expression of stemness and tendon-related markers upon cell differentiation by RT-PCR, protein staining and cytofluorimetric analysis were also performed. Our results showed the two xenogenic-free media well support cell viability of ASCs and maintain their MSC nature as demonstrated by their typical immunophenototype profile and by the expression of NANOG, OCT4 and Ki67 genes. Moreover, both hPL-TENO and SF-TENO expressed significant high levels of the tendon-related genes SCX, COL1A1, COL3A1, COMP, MMP3 and MMP13 already at early time points in comparison to the respective controls. Significant up-regulations in scleraxis, collagen and tenomodulin proteins were also demonstrated at in both differentiated SF and hPL ASCs. In conclusion, we demonstrated firstly the feasibility of both serum and xenogenic-free media tested to culture ASCs moving forward the GMP-compliant approaches for clinical scale expansion of human MSCs needed for therapeutical application of stem cells. Moreover, a combination of CTGF, BMP-12, TGFβ3 and AA factors strongly and rapidly induce human ASCs to differentiate into tenocyte-like cells.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm membrane vesicles supports multiple mechanisms of biogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f151dd5eed0c48467ade7

Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) are ubiquitous in bacterial environments and enable interactions within and between species. OMVs are observed in lab-grown and environmental biofilms, but our understanding of their function comes primarily from planktonic studies. Planktonic OMVs assist in toxin delivery, cell-cell communication, horizontal gene transfer, small RNA trafficking, and immune system evasion. Previous studies reported differences in size and proteomic cargo between planktonic and agar plate biofilm OMVs, suggesting possible differences in function between OMV types. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa interstitial biofilms, extracellular vesicles were reported to arise through cell lysis, in contrast to planktonic OMV biogenesis that involves the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) without appreciable autolysis. Differences in biogenesis mechanism could provide a rationale for observed differences in OMV characteristics between systems. Using nanoparticle tracking, we found that P. aeruginosa PAO1 planktonic and biofilm OMVs had similar characteristics. However, P. aeruginosa PA14 OMVs were smaller, with planktonic OMVs also being smaller than their biofilm counterparts. Large differences in Staphylococcus killing ability were measured between OMVs from different strains, and a smaller within-strain difference was recorded between PA14 planktonic and biofilm OMVs. Across all conditions, the predatory ability of OMVs negatively correlated with their size. To address biogenesis mechanism, we analyzed vesicles from wild type and pqsA mutant biofilms. This showed that PQS is required for physiological-scale production of biofilm OMVs, and time-course analysis confirmed that PQS production precedes OMV production as it does in planktonic cultures. However, a small sub-population of vesicles was detected in pqsA mutant biofilms whose size distribution more resembled sonicated cell debris than wild type OMVs. These results support the idea that, while a small and unique population of vesicles in P. aeruginosa biofilms may result from cell lysis, the PQS-induced mechanism is required to generate the majority of OMVs produced by wild type communities.

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<![CDATA[Molecular insights in the pathogenesis of classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome from transcriptome-wide expression profiling of patients’ skin fibroblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8b3d5eed0c48496efc5

Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is a dominant inherited connective tissue disorder mainly caused by mutations in the COL5A1 and COL5A2 genes encoding type V collagen (COLLV), which is a fibrillar COLL widely distributed in a variety of connective tissues. cEDS patients suffer from skin hyperextensibility, abnormal wound healing/atrophic scars, and joint hypermobility. Most of the causative variants result in a non-functional COL5A1 allele and COLLV haploinsufficiency, whilst COL5A2 mutations affect its structural integrity. To shed light into disease mechanisms involved in cEDS, we performed gene expression profiling in skin fibroblasts from four patients harboring haploinsufficient and structural mutations in both disease genes. Transcriptome profiling revealed significant changes in the expression levels of different extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes, such as SPP1, POSTN, EDIL3, IGFBP2, and C3, which encode both matricellular and soluble proteins that are mainly involved in cell proliferation and migration, and cutaneous wound healing. These gene expression changes are consistent with our previous protein findings on in vitro fibroblasts from other cEDS patients, which exhibited reduced migration and poor wound repair owing to COLLV disorganization, altered deposition of fibronectin into ECM, and an abnormal integrin pattern. Microarray analysis also indicated the decreased expression of DNAJB7, VIPAS39, CCPG1, ATG10, SVIP, which encode molecular chaperones facilitating protein folding, enzymes regulating post-Golgi COLLs processing, and proteins acting as cargo receptors required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis and implicated in the autophagy process. Patients’ cells also showed altered mRNA levels of many cell cycle regulating genes including CCNE2, KIF4A, MKI67, DTL, and DDIAS. Protein studies showed that aberrant COLLV expression causes the disassembly of itself and many structural ECM constituents including COLLI, COLLIII, fibronectin, and fibrillins. Our findings provide the first molecular evidence of significant gene expression changes in cEDS skin fibroblasts highlighting that defective ECM remodeling, ER homeostasis and autophagy might play a role in the pathogenesis of this connective tissue disorder.

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<![CDATA[Sleeping through anything: The effects of unpredictable disruptions on mouse sleep, healing, and affect]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2b9d5eed0c48441e977

Many aspects of the laboratory environment are not tailored to the needs of rodents, which may cause stress. Unpredictable stressors can cause ulcers, prolonged pituitary-adrenal activation, and anhedonia. Similarly, pain has been demonstrated to slow wound healing, and mice experiencing pain exhibit altered behavior. However it is unknown how husbandry, which occurs when the mice are inactive, and lack of analgesia, specifically in a punch biopsy procedure, effects animal physiology, behavior, and welfare, particularly as it relates to sleep fragmentation. We hypothesized that sleep fragmentation, induced by unpredictable husbandry and lack of pain management will slow wound healing. Two main treatments were tested in a factorial design in C57BL/6 mice of both sexes (64 mice total); 1) analgesia (carprofen and saline) and 2) sleep disruptions (random and predictable). Mice were singly housed in a non-invasive sleep monitoring apparatus on arrival (Day -4). Disruption treatments were applied from Day -3 to 2. All mice received a punch biopsy surgery (Day 0) with topical lidocaine gel and their analgesic treatment prior to recovery, and on Days 1 and 2. Nesting behavior was assessed daily and a sugar cereal consumption test, as a measure of anhedonia, was conducted on Days -1 to 2. On Day 3, mice were euthanized and wound tissue and adrenal glands were collected. We found that the disruption predictability had no effect on mouse sleep, wound healing, or adrenal cortex:medulla ratio. It’s possible that the disruption period was not long enough to induce chronic stress. However, male mice who received analgesia slept more than their female counterparts; this may be related to sex differences in pain perception. Overall, it does not appear that the predictability of disturbance effects sleep fragmentation or stress responses, indicating that husbandry activities do not need to occur at set predictable times to improve welfare.

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<![CDATA[Dual role of iodine, silver, chlorhexidine and octenidine as antimicrobial and antiprotease agents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2e7d5eed0c48441ece4

Objectives

The majority of human chronic wounds contain bacterial biofilms, which produce proteases and retard the resolution of inflammation. This in turn leads to elevated patient protease activity. Chronic wounds progressing towards closure show a reduction in proteolytic degradation. Therefore, the modulation of protease activity may lead to the faster healing of chronic wounds. Antimicrobials are used to control biofilm-based infection; however, some of them also exhibit the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and bacterial proteases. We investigated the antimicrobial agents used in wound healing for their potential to inhibit bacterial and host proteases relevant to chronic wounds.

Methods

Using in vitro zymography, we tested the ability of povidone-iodine, silver lactate, chlorhexidine digluconate, and octenidine hydrochloride to inhibit selected human proteases and proteases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, and Serratia liquefaciens. We investigated penetration and skin protease inhibition by means of in situ zymography.

Results

All the tested antimicrobials inhibited both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteases in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The tested compounds were also able to penetrate into skin ex vivo and inhibit the resident proteases. Silver lactate and chlorhexidine digluconate showed an inhibitory effect ex vivo even in partial contact with skin in Franz diffusion cells.

Conclusions

Our in vitro and ex vivo results suggest that wound healing devices which contain iodine, silver, chlorhexidine, and octenidine may add value to the antibacterial effect and also aid in chronic wound healing. Antiprotease effects should be considered in the design of future antimicrobial wound healing devices.

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<![CDATA[Regenerative capacity in the lamprey spinal cord is not altered after a repeated transection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52bbd5eed0c4842bcf38

The resilience of regeneration in vertebrates is not very well understood. Yet understanding if tissues can regenerate after repeated insults, and identifying limitations, is important for elucidating the underlying mechanisms of tissue plasticity. This is particularly challenging in tissues, such as the nervous system, which possess a large number of terminally differentiated cells and often exhibit limited regeneration in the first place. However, unlike mammals, which exhibit very limited regeneration of spinal cord tissues, many non-mammalian vertebrates, including lampreys, bony fishes, amphibians, and reptiles, regenerate their spinal cords and functionally recover even after a complete spinal cord transection. It is well established that lampreys undergo full functional recovery of swimming behaviors after a single spinal cord transection, which is accompanied by tissue repair at the lesion site, as well as axon and synapse regeneration. Here we begin to explore the resilience of spinal cord regeneration in lampreys after a second spinal transection (re-transection). We report that by all functional and anatomical measures tested, lampreys regenerate after spinal re-transection just as robustly as after single transections. Recovery of swimming, synapse and cytoskeletal distributions, axon regeneration, and neuronal survival were nearly identical after spinal transection or re-transection. Only minor differences in tissue repair at the lesion site were observed in re-transected spinal cords. Thus, regenerative potential in the lamprey spinal cord is largely unaffected by spinal re-transection, indicating a greater persistent regenerative potential than exists in some other highly regenerative models. These findings establish a new path for uncovering pro-regenerative targets that could be deployed in non-regenerative conditions.

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<![CDATA[Effect of photobiomodulation and exercise on early remodeling of the Achilles tendon in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8d6d5eed0c48496f20d

The aim of this study was to compare the treatment effects of laser photobiomodulation (LPBM) therapy and aerobic exercise on the biomechanical properties, tissue morphology and the expression of tendon matrix molecules during early remodeling of Achilles tendon (AT) injury in diabetic rats. Animals were randomly assigned to five groups: injured non diabetic (I, n = 15), injured diabetic (ID, n = 15), injured diabetic plus LPBM (IDL, n = 16), injured diabetic plus aerobic exercise (IDE, n = 16) and injured diabetic plus aerobic exercise and LPBM (IDEAL, n = 17). Type 1 diabetes was induced via a single intravenous injection of Streptozotocin at a dose of 40 mg/kg. A partial tenotomy was performed in the right AT. LPBM was performed with an indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide 660 nm 10 mW laser device (spot size 0.04 cm2, power density 250 mW/cm2, irradiation duration 16 s, energy 0.16 J, energy density 4 J/cm2) on alternate days for a total of 9 sessions over 3 weeks (total energy 1.44 J), using a stationary contact technique to a single point over the dorsal aspect of the AT. Moderate aerobic exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill (velocity 9 m/min for 60 minutes). At 3 weeks post-injury, biomechanical analyzes as well as assessment of fibroblast number and orientation were performed. Collagen 1 (Col1) and 3 (Col3) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -3 and 13 protein distributions were studied by immunohistochemistry; while Col1 and Col3 and MMP-2 and 9 gene expression were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). IDEAL exhibited significant increases in several biomechanical parameters in comparison to the other groups. Moreover, IDEAL presented stronger Col1 immunoreactivity when compared to ID, and weaker Col3 immunoreactivity than IDE. Both IDL and IDEAL demonstrated weaker expression of MMP-3 in comparison to I, while IDL presented no expression of MMP-13 when compared to ID. ID, IDL and IDE showed an increased number of fibroblasts in comparison to I, while IDEAL decreased the number of these cells in comparison to ID and IDE. IDL and IDEAL groups exhibited decreased angular dispersion among the fibroblasts when compared to I. The gene expression results showed that IDE demonstrated a downregulation in Col1 mRNA expression in comparison to I and ID. IDEAL demonstrated upregulation of Col1 mRNA expression when compared to IDL or IDE alone and increased MMP-2 expression when compared to IDL and IDE. MMP-9 expression was upregulated in IDEAL when compared to I, IDL and IDE. Our results suggest a beneficial interaction of combining both treatment strategies i.e., aerobic exercise and LPBM, on the biomechanical properties, tissue morphology and the expression of matrix molecules in diabetic tendons.

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<![CDATA[Pulp-dentin regeneration: current approaches and challenges]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c69eff8d5eed0c4841513f8

Regenerative endodontic procedures for immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis confer biological advantages such as tooth homeostasis, enhanced immune defense system, and a functional pulp-dentin complex, in addition to clinical advantages such as the facilitation of root development. Currently, this procedure is recognized as a paradigm shift from restoration using materials to regenerate pulp-dentin tissues. Many studies have been conducted with regard to stem/progenitor cells, scaffolds, and biomolecules, associated with pulp tissue engineering. However, preclinical and clinical studies have evidently revealed several drawbacks in the current clinical approach to revascularization that may lead to unfavorable outcomes. Therefore, our review examines the challenges encountered under clinical conditions and summarizes current research findings in an attempt to provide direction for transition from basic research to clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Doppler sonography enhances rtPA-induced fibrinolysis in an in vitro clot model of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605aabd5eed0c4847cd3f5

Background

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) was shown to enhance intravascular fibrinolysis by rtPA in ischemic stroke. Studies revealed that catheter-based administration of rtPA induces lysis of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH). However, it is unknown whether TCD would be suitable to enhance rtPA-induced fibrinolysis in patients with ICH. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of TCD to enhance rtPA-induced fibrinolysis in an in vitro clot system.

Methods

Reproducible human blood clots of 25 ml were incubated in a water bath at 37°C during treatments. They were weighed before and after 6 different treatments: (I) control (incubation only), (II) rtPA only, (III) one Doppler probe, (IV) two Doppler probes placed vis-à-vis, (V) one probe and rtPA and (VI) two probes and rtPA. To quantify lysis of the blood clots and attenuation of the Doppler through a temporal squama acoustic peak rarefaction pressure (APRP) was measured in the field of the probes. Temperature was assessed to evaluate possible side effects.

Results

Clot weight was reduced in all groups. The control group had the highest relative end weight of 70.2%±7.2% compared to all other groups (p<0,0001). Most efficient lysis was achieved using (VI) 2 probes and rtPA 36.3%±4.4% compared to (II, III, IV) (p<0.0001; p = 0.0002; p = 0.048). APRP was above lysis threshold (535.5±7.2 kPa) using 2 probes even through the temporal squama (731.6±32.5 kPa) (p = 0.0043). There was a maximal temperature elevation of 0.17±0.07°C using both probes.

Conclusions

TCD significantly enhances rtPA-induced lysis of blood clots, and the effect is amplified by using multiple probes. Our results indicate that bitemporal TCD insonation of hematomas could be a new and safe approach to enhance fibrinolysis of ICH´s treated with intralesional catheter and rtPA.

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<![CDATA[Topical essential fatty acid oil on wounds: Local and systemic effects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bafd5eed0c48491dd3a

Background

The use of medicinal plants and their derivatives is increasing, and approximately one-third of all traditional herbal medicines are intended for wound treatment. Natural products used in these treatments include vegetable oils, which are rich in essential fatty acids. Once in contact with an ulcerative surface, the oil reaches the blood and lymphatic vessels, thus eliciting systemic effects.

Objective

This study evaluated the local and possible systemic effects of essential fatty acids (sunflower oil) applied topically to rat wounds.

Methods

Cutaneous punch wounds (6 mm) were produced on the dorsa of 30 rats. Saline (SS), mineral oil (MO) or essential fatty acid (EFA) solutions were applied topically. Healing was evaluated after 2, 4 and 10 days (n = 5 per group) by visual and histological/morphometric examination, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, and cytokine and growth factor quantification in the scar tissue (real-time PCR) and in serum (ELISA).

Results

MO/EFA-treated animals had higher IGF-1, leptin, IL-6 and IFN-γ mRNA expression and lower serum IL-6 levels than the control (SS/MO) animals. SHG analysis showed no difference in collagen density between the animals treated with MO and EFA.

Conclusion

EFA treatment induces topical (observed by local IGF-1, leptin, IL-6 and IFN-γ production) and systemic effects, lowering IL-6 levels in the serum. As the oil is widely used to shorten ulcer healing time, studies are needed to evaluate the treatment safety and possible undesired effects.

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<![CDATA[Ym1 induces RELMα and rescues IL-4Rα deficiency in lung repair during nematode infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae42dd5eed0c48458915d

Ym1 and RELMα are established effector molecules closely synonymous with Th2-type inflammation and associated pathology. Here, we show that whilst largely dependent on IL-4Rα signaling during a type 2 response, Ym1 and RELMα also have IL-4Rα-independent expression patterns in the lung. Notably, we found that Ym1 has opposing effects on type 2 immunity during nematode infection depending on whether it is expressed at the time of innate or adaptive responses. During the lung migratory stage of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Ym1 promoted the subsequent reparative type 2 response but once that response was established, IL-4Rα-dependent Ym1 was important for limiting the magnitude of type 2 cytokine production from both CD4+ T cells and innate lymphoid cells in the lung. Importantly, our study demonstrates that delivery of Ym1 to IL-4Rα deficient animals drives RELMα production and overcomes lung repair deficits in mice deficient in type 2 immunity. Together, Ym1 and RELMα, exhibit time and dose-dependent interactions that determines the outcome of lung repair during nematode infection.

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<![CDATA[Feasibility of the annulus fibrosus repair with in situ gelating hydrogels – A biomechanical study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf9ad5eed0c484914a3a

The surgical standard of care for lumbar discectomy leaves the annulus fibrosus (AF) defect unrepaired, despite considerable risk for a recurrent herniation. Identification of a viable defect repair strategy has until now been elusive. The scope of this ex vivo biomechanical study was to evaluate crosslinking hydrogels as potentially promising AF defect sealants, and provide a baseline for their use in combination with collagen scaffolds that restore disc volume. This study directly compared genipin crosslinked fibrin hydrogel (FibGen) as a promising preclinical candidate against a clinically available adhesive composed of glutaraldehyde and albumin (BioGlue). Forty-two bovine coccygeal functional spine units (FSU) were randomly allocated into four groups, namely untreated (control, n = 12), repaired with either one of the tested hydrogels (BioGlue, n = 12; FibGen, n = 12), or FibGen used in combination with a collagen hydrogel scaffold (FibGen+Scaffold, n = 6). All specimens underwent a moderate mechanical testing protocol in intact, injured and repaired states. After completion of the moderate testing protocol, the samples underwent a ramp-to-failure test. Lumbar discectomy destabilized the FSU as quantified by increased torsional range of motion (28.0° (19.1, 45.1) vs. 41.39° (27.3, 84.9), p<0.001), torsional neutral zone (3.1° (1.2, 7.7) vs. 4.8° (2.1, 12.1), Z = -3.49, p < 0.001), hysteresis(24.4 J (12.8, 76.0) vs. 27.6 J (16.4, 54.4), Z = -2.61, p = 0.009), with loss of both disc height (7.0 mm (5.0, 10.5) vs 6.1 mm (4.0, 9.3), Z = -5.16, p < 0.001) and torsional stiffness (0.76 Nmdeg-1 (0.38, 1.07) vs. 0.66 Nmdeg-1 (0.38, 0.97), Z = -3.98, p < 0.001). Most FibGen repaired AF endured the entire testing procedure whereas only a minority of BioGlue repaired AF and all FibGen+Scaffold repaired AF failed (6/10 vs. 3/12 vs. 0/6 respectively, p = 0.041). Both BioGlue and FibGen+Scaffold repaired AF partially restored disc height (0.47 mm (0.07, 2.41), p = 0.048 and 1.52 mm (0.41, 2.57), p = 0.021 respectively) compared to sham treatment (0.08 mm (-0.63, 0.88)) whereas FibGen-only repaired AF had no such effect (0.04 mm (-0.73, 1.13), U = 48.0, p = 1). The AF injury model demonstrated considerable change of FSU mechanics that could be partially restored by use of an AF sealant. While inclusion of a volumetric collagen scaffold led to repair failure, use of FibGen alone demonstrated clinically relevant promise for prevention of mechanical reherniation, outperforming an FDA approved sealant in this ex vivo test series.

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<![CDATA[Effects of collagen matrix and bioreactor cultivation on cartilage regeneration of a full-thickness critical-size knee joint cartilage defects with subchondral bone damage in a rabbit model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b59f2e5463d7e7e115148cf

Cartilage has limited self-repair ability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different species of collagen-engineered neocartilage for the treatment of critical-size defects in the articular joint in a rabbit model. Type II and I collagen obtained from rabbits and rats was mixed to form a scaffold. The type II/I collagen scaffold was then mixed with rabbit chondrocytes to biofabricate neocartilage constructs using a rotating cell culture system [three-dimensional (3D)-bioreactor]. The rabbit chondrocytes were mixed with rabbit collagen scaffold and rat collagen scaffold to form neoRBT (neo-rabbit cartilage) and neoRAT (neo-rat cartilage) constructs, respectively. The neocartilage matrix constructs were implanted into surgically created defects in rabbit knee chondyles, and histological examinations were performed after 2 and 3 months. Cartilage-like lacunae formation surrounding the chondrocytes was noted in the cell cultures. After 3 months, both the neoRBT and neoRAT groups showed cartilage-like repair tissue covering the 5-mm circular, 4-mm-deep defects that were created in the rabbit condyle and filled with neocartilage plugs. Reparative chondrocytes were aligned as apparent clusters in both the neoRAT and neoRBT groups. Both neoRBT and neoRAT cartilage repair demonstrated integration with healthy adjacent tissue; however, more integration was obtained using the neoRAT cartilage. Our data indicate that different species of type II/I collagen matrix and 3D bioreactor cultivation can facilitate cartilage engineering in vitro for the repair of critical-size defect.

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<![CDATA[Microbiome Composition and Function Drives Wound-Healing Impairment in the Female Genital Tract]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da37ab0ee8fa60b869de

The mechanism(s) by which bacterial communities impact susceptibility to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and maintain female genital tract (FGT) health are poorly understood. Evaluation of FGT bacteria has predominantly been limited to studies of species abundance, but not bacterial function. We therefore sought to examine the relationship of bacterial community composition and function with mucosal epithelial barrier health in the context of bacterial vaginosis (BV) using metaproteomic, metagenomic, and in vitro approaches. We found highly diverse bacterial communities dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis associated with host epithelial barrier disruption and enhanced immune activation, and low diversity communities dominated by Lactobacillus species that associated with lower Nugent scores, reduced pH, and expression of host mucosal proteins important for maintaining epithelial integrity. Importantly, proteomic signatures of disrupted epithelial integrity associated with G. vaginalis-dominated communities in the absence of clinical BV diagnosis. Because traditional clinical assessments did not capture this, it likely represents a larger underrepresented phenomenon in populations with high prevalence of G. vaginalis. We finally demonstrated that soluble products derived from G. vaginalis inhibited wound healing, while those derived from L. iners did not, providing insight into functional mechanisms by which FGT bacterial communities affect epithelial barrier integrity.

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<![CDATA[Foreign Body Response to Subcutaneous Implants in Diabetic Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da29ab0ee8fa60b81cdc

Implantation of synthetic matrices and biomedical devices in diabetic individuals has become a common procedure to repair and/or replace biological tissues. However, an adverse foreign body reaction that invariably occurs adjacent to implant devices impairing their function is poorly characterized in the diabetic environment. We investigated the influence of this condition on the abnormal tissue healing response in implants placed subcutaneously in normoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. In polyether-polyurethane sponge discs removed 10 days after implantation, the components of the fibrovascular tissue (angiogenesis, inflammation, fibrogenesis, and apoptosis) were assessed. Intra-implant levels of hemoglobin and vascular endothelial growth factor were not different after diabetes when compared with normoglycemic counterparts. However, there were a lower number of vessels in the fibrovascular tissue from diabetic rats when compared with vessel numbers in implants from non-diabetic animals. Overall, the inflammatory parameters (neutrophil accumulation - myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels and mast cell counting) increased in subcutaneous implants after diabetes induction. However, macrophage activation (N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity) was lower in implants from diabetic rats when compared with those from normoglycemic animals. All fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor beta 1 levels, collagen deposition, fibrous capsule thickness, and foreign body giant cells) decreased after diabetes, whereas apoptosis (TUNEL) increased. Our results showing that hyperglycemia down regulates the main features of the foreign body reaction induced by subcutaneous implants in rats may be relevant in understanding biomaterial integration and performance in diabetes.

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<![CDATA[Vibration acceleration promotes bone formation in rodent models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd93

All living tissues and cells on Earth are subject to gravitational acceleration, but no reports have verified whether acceleration mode influences bone formation and healing. Therefore, this study was to compare the effects of two acceleration modes, vibration and constant (centrifugal) accelerations, on bone formation and healing in the trunk using BMP 2-induced ectopic bone formation (EBF) mouse model and a rib fracture healing (RFH) rat model. Additionally, we tried to verify the difference in mechanism of effect on bone formation by accelerations between these two models. Three groups (low- and high-magnitude vibration and control-VA groups) were evaluated in the vibration acceleration study, and two groups (centrifuge acceleration and control-CA groups) were used in the constant acceleration study. In each model, the intervention was applied for ten minutes per day from three days after surgery for eleven days (EBF model) or nine days (RFH model). All animals were sacrificed the day after the intervention ended. In the EBF model, ectopic bone was evaluated by macroscopic and histological observations, wet weight, radiography and microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT). In the RFH model, whole fracture-repaired ribs were excised with removal of soft tissue, and evaluated radiologically and histologically. Ectopic bones in the low-magnitude group (EBF model) had significantly greater wet weight and were significantly larger (macroscopically and radiographically) than those in the other two groups, whereas the size and wet weight of ectopic bones in the centrifuge acceleration group showed no significant difference compared those in control-CA group. All ectopic bones showed calcified trabeculae and maturated bone marrow. Micro-CT showed that bone volume (BV) in the low-magnitude group of EBF model was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (3.1±1.2mm3 v.s. 1.8±1.2mm3 in high-magnitude group and 1.3±0.9mm3 in control-VA group), but BV in the centrifuge acceleration group had no significant difference compared those in control-CA group. Union rate and BV in the low-magnitude group of RFH model were also significantly higher than those in the other groups (Union rate: 60% v.s. 0% in the high-magnitude group and 10% in the control-VA group, BV: 0.69±0.30mm3 v.s. 0.15±0.09mm3 in high-magnitude group and 0.22±0.17mm3 in control-VA group). BV/TV in the low-magnitude group of RFH model was significantly higher than that in control-VA group (59.4±14.9% v.s. 35.8±13.5%). On the other hand, radiographic union rate (10% in centrifuge acceleration group v.s. 20% in control-CA group) and micro-CT parameters in RFH model were not significantly different between two groups in the constant acceleration studies. Radiographic images of non-union rib fractures showed cartilage at the fracture site and poor new bone formation, whereas union samples showed only new bone. In conclusion, low-magnitude vibration acceleration promoted bone formation at the trunk in both BMP-induced ectopic bone formation and rib fracture healing models. However, the micro-CT parameters were not similar between two models, which suggested that there might be difference in the mechanism of effect by vibration between two models.

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