ResearchPad - toll-like-receptors https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL1, IL12, IL28 and TLR4 and symptoms of congenital cytomegalovirus infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15749 Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common intrauterine infection. A non-specific immune response is the first line of host defense mechanism against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). There is limited data on associations between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involving innate immunity and the risk and clinical manifestation of cCMV infection. The aim of the study was to investigate association between selected SNPs in genes encoding cytokines and cytokine receptors, and predisposition to cCMV infection including symptomatic course of disease and symptoms. A panel of eight SNPs: IL1B rs16944, IL12B rs3212227, IL28B rs12979860, CCL2 rs1024611, DC-SIGN rs735240, TLR2 rs5743708, TLR4 rs4986791, TLR9 rs352140 was analyzed in 233 infants (92 cCMV-infected and 141 healthy controls). Associations between genotyped SNPs and predisposition to cCMV infection and symptoms were analyzed. The association analysis was performed using SNPStats software. No statistically significant association was found between any genotyped SNPs and predisposition to cCMV infection and symptomatic course of disease. In relation to particular symptoms, polymorphism of IL12B rs3212227 was linked to decreased risk of prematurity (OR = 0.37;95%CI,0.14–0.98;p = 0.025), while polymorphism of IL1B rs16944 was linked to reduced risk of splenomegaly (OR = 0.36;95%CI,0.14–0.98; p = 0.034) in infants with cCMV infection. An increased risk of thrombocytopenia was associated with IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism (OR = 2.55;95%CI,1.03–6.32;p = 0.042), while hepatitis was associated with SNP of TLR4rs4986791 (OR = 7.80;95%CI,1.49–40,81; p = 0.024). This is the first study to demonstrate four new associations between SNPs in selected genes (IL1B, IL12B, IL28B, TLR4) and particular symptoms in cCMV disease. Further studies on the role of SNPs in the pathogenesis of cCMV infection and incorporation of selected SNPs in the clinical practice might be considered in the future.

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<![CDATA[SPOP promotes ubiquitination and degradation of MyD88 to suppress the innate immune response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14645 MyD88 is a central adaptor that mediates initiation of the innate immune response and production of the proinflammatory cytokines that restrain pathogens and activate adaptive immunity. Although MyD88 is crucial for a host to prevent pathogenic infection, misregulation of its abundance might lead to autoimmune diseases. Thus, degradation of MyD88 is a key canonical mechanism for terminating cytokine production. Here, we characterized a novel E3 ligase, SPOP, that targets MyD88 for degradation. ChSPOP attenuated IL-1β production through K48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation of chMyD88, and thus impaired immune responses. Spop deficient mice showed more susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. These findings demonstrate that SPOP is a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent pathway activation triggered by LPS and Salmonella typhimurium, which helps the host to maintain immune homeostasis.

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<![CDATA[Transcriptome analysis of Catarina scallop (<i>Argopecten ventricosus</i>) juveniles treated with highly-diluted immunomodulatory compounds reveals activation of non-self-recognition system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14633 Marine bivalve hatchery productivity is continuously challenged by apparition and propagation of new diseases, mainly those related to vibriosis. Disinfectants and antibiotics are frequently overused to prevent pathogen presence, generating a potential negative impact on the environment. Recently, the use of highly diluted compounds with immunostimulant properties in marine organisms has been trailed successfully to activate the self-protection mechanisms of marine bivalves. Despite their potential as immunostimulants, little is known about their way of action. To understand their effect, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed with Argopecten ventricosus juveniles. The experimental design consisted of four treatments formulated from pathogenic Vibrio lysates at two dilutions: [(T1) Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus 1D; (T2) V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus 7C]; minerals [(T3) PhA+SiT 7C], scorpion venom [(T4) ViT 31C]; and one control (C1) hydro-alcoholic solution (ethanol 1%). The RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis showed a higher modulation of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in mantle tissue compared to gill tissue. The scallops that showed a higher number of DEG related to immune response in mantle tissue corresponded to T1 (V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus lysate) and T3 (Silicea terra® - Phosphoric acid®). The transcriptome analysis allowed understanding some interactions between A. ventricosus juveniles and highly-diluted treatments.

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<![CDATA[Restoration of Mal overcomes the defects of apoptosis in lung cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4678b2b4-03e3-4a62-aa79-1954dd96fe53

Background and aims

Cancer is one of the life-threatening diseases of human beings; the pathogenesis of cancer remains to be further investigated. Toll like receptor (TLR) activities are involved in the apoptosis regulation. This study aims to elucidate the role of Mal (MyD88-adapter-like) molecule in the apoptosis regulation of lung cancer (LC) cells.

Methods

The LC tissues were collected from LC patients. LC cells and normal control (NC) cells were isolated from the tissues and analyzed by pertinent biochemical and immunological approaches.

Results

We found that fewer apoptotic LC cells were induced by cisplatin in the culture as compared to NC cells. The expression of Fas ligand (FasL) was lower in LC cells than that in NC cells. FasL mRNA levels declined spontaneously in LC cells. A complex of FasL/TDP-43 was detected in LC cells. LC cells expressed less Mal than NC cells. Activation of Mal by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased TDP-43 expression in LC cells. TDP-43 formed a complex with FasL mRNA to prevent FasL mRNA from decay. Reconstitution of Mal or TDP-43 restored the sensitiveness of LC cells to apoptotic inducers.

Conclusions

LC cells express low Mal levels that contributes to FasL mRNA decay through impairing TDP-43 expression. Reconstitution of Mal restores sensitiveness of LC cells to apoptosis inducers that may be a novel therapeutic approach for LC treatment.

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<![CDATA[The role of TLR9 on Leishmania amazonensis infection and its influence on intranasal LaAg vaccine efficacy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7d95ebd5eed0c484734fa1

Leishmania (L.) amazonensis is one of the etiological agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Brazil. Currently, there is no vaccine approved for human use against leishmaniasis, although several vaccine preparations are in experimental stages. One of them is Leishvacin, or LaAg, a first-generation vaccine composed of total L. amazonensis antigens that has consistently shown an increase of mouse resistance against CL when administered intranasally (i.n.). Since Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is highly expressed in the nasal mucosa and LaAg is composed of TLR9-binding DNA CpG motifs, in this study we proposed to investigate the role of TLR9 in both L. amazonensis infection and in LaAg vaccine efficacy in C57BL/6 (WT) mice and TLR9-/- mice. First, we evaluated, the infection of macrophages by L. amazonensis in vitro, showing no significant difference between macrophages from WT and TLR9-/- mice in terms of both infection percentage and total number of intracellular amastigotes, as well as NO production. In addition, neutrophils from WT and TLR9-/- mice had similar capacity to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to L. amazonensis. L. amazonensis did not activate dendritic cells from WT and TLR9-/- mice, analysed by MHCII and CD86 expression. However, in vivo, TLR9-/- mice were slightly more susceptible to L. amazonensis infection than WT mice, presenting a larger lesion and an increased parasite load at the peak of infection and in the chronic phase. The increased TLR9-/- mice susceptibility was accompanied by an increased IgG and IgG1 production; a decrease of IFN-γ in infected tissue, but not IL-4 and IL-10; and a decreased number of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells in the lesion-draining lymph nodes. Also, TLR9-/- mice could not control parasite growth following i.n. LaAg vaccination unlike the WT mice. This protection failure was associated with a reduction of the hypersensitivity response induced by immunization. The TLR9-/- vaccinated mice failed to respond to antigen stimulation and to produce IFN-γ by lymph node cells. Together, these results suggest that TLR9 contributes to C57BL/6 mouse resistance against L. amazonensis, and that the TLR9-binding LaAg comprising CpG motifs may be important for intranasal vaccine efficacy against CL.

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<![CDATA[TLR4-interacting SPA4 peptide improves host defense and alleviates tissue injury in a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d662d5eed0c484031d4e

Interaction between surfactant protein-A (SP-A) and toll-like receptor (TLR)4 plays a critical role in host defense. In this work, we studied the host defense function of SPA4 peptide (amino acids GDFRYSDGTPVNYTNWYRGE), derived from the TLR4-interacting region of SP-A, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We determined the binding of SPA4 peptide to live bacteria, and its direct antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Pro-phagocytic and anti-inflammatory effects were investigated in JAWS II dendritic cells and primary alveolar macrophages. The biological relevance of SPA4 peptide was evaluated in a mouse model of acute lung infection induced by intratracheal challenge with P. aeruginosa. Our results demonstrate that the SPA4 peptide does not interact with or kill P. aeruginosa when cultured outside the host. The SPA4 peptide treatment induces the uptake and localization of bacteria in the phagolysosomes of immune cells. At the same time, the secreted amounts of TNF-α are significantly reduced in cell-free supernatants of SPA4 peptide-treated cells. In cells overexpressing TLR4, the TLR4-induced phagocytic response is maintained, but the levels of TLR4-stimulated TNF-α are reduced. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the therapeutic administration of SPA4 peptide reduces bacterial burden, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, intracellular signaling, and lactate levels, and alleviates lung edema and tissue damage in P. aeruginosa-infected mice. Together, our results suggest that the treatment with SPA4 peptide can help control the bacterial burden, inflammation, and tissue injury in a P. aeruginosa lung infection model.

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<![CDATA[TLR3 deficiency exacerbates the loss of epithelial barrier function during genital tract Chlamydia muridarum infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa57fd5eed0c484ca5130

Problem

Chlamydia trachomatis infections are often associated with acute syndromes including cervicitis, urethritis, and endometritis, which can lead to chronic sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal infertility. As epithelial cells are the primary cell type productively infected during genital tract Chlamydia infections, we investigated whether Chlamydia has any impact on the integrity of the host epithelial barrier as a possible mechanism to facilitate the dissemination of infection, and examined whether TLR3 function modulates its impact.

Method of study

We used wild-type and TLR3-deficient murine oviduct epithelial (OE) cells to ascertain whether C. muridarum infection had any effect on the epithelial barrier integrity of these cells as measured by transepithelial resistance (TER) and cell permeability assays. We next assessed whether infection impacted the transcription and protein function of the cellular tight-junction (TJ) genes for claudins1-4, ZO-1, JAM1 and occludin via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and western blot.

Results

qPCR, immunoblotting, transwell permeability assays, and TER studies show that Chlamydia compromises cellular TJ function throughout infection in murine OE cells and that TLR3 deficiency significantly exacerbates this effect.

Conclusion

Our data show that TLR3 plays a role in modulating epithelial barrier function during Chlamydia infection of epithelial cells lining the genital tract. These findings propose a role for TLR3 signaling in maintaining the integrity of epithelial barrier function during genital tract Chlamydia infection, a function that we hypothesize is important in helping limit the chlamydial spread and subsequent genital tract pathology.

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<![CDATA[Toll-like receptor 4 in acute viral infection: Too much of a good thing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c25454ad5eed0c48442c43d ]]> <![CDATA[Differential profiles of soluble and cellular toll like receptor (TLR)-2 and 4 in chronic periodontitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2544f9d5eed0c48442bc3a

Chronic periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease initiated by a complex microbial biofilm and mediated by the host response causing destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Host recognition of pathogens is mediated by toll-like receptors (TLRs) that bind conserved molecular patterns shared by large groups of microorganisms. The oral epithelial cells respond to most periodontopathic bacteria via TLR-2 and TLR-4. In addition to the membrane-associated receptors, soluble forms of TLR-2 (sTLR-2) and TLR-4 (sTLR-4) have been identified and are thought to play a regulatory role by binding microbial ligands. sTLR-2 has been shown to arise from ectodomain shedding of the extracellular domain of the membrane receptor and sTLR-4 is thought to be an alternate spliced form. Many studies have previously reported the presence of elevated numbers of viable exfoliated epithelial cells in the saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential value of salivary sTLR-2 and sTLR-4 together with the paired epithelial cell-associated TLR-2/4 mRNA as diagnostic markers for chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected after obtaining informed consent from 40 individuals with either periodontitis or gingivitis. The sTLR-2 and sTLR4 in saliva was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The TLR-2 and TLR-4 transcript in the epithelial cells in saliva was measured by real time polymerase chain reaction. While levels of sTLR-2 exhibited an inverse correlation, sTLR-4 positively correlated with clinical parameters in the gingivitis cohort. Interestingly, both correlations were lost in the periodontitis cohort indicating a dysregulated host response. On the other hand, while the sTLR-2 and the paired epithelial cell associated TLR-2 mRNA exhibited a direct correlation (r2 = 0.62), that of sTLR4 and TLR-4 mRNA exhibited an inverse correlation (r2 = 0.53) in the periodontitis cohort. Collectively, assessments of salivary sTLR2 and sTLR4 together with the respective transcripts in the epithelial cells could provide clinically relevant markers of disease progression from gingivitis to periodontitis.

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<![CDATA[Innate antimicrobial immunity in the skin: A protective barrier against bacteria, viruses, and fungi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cfa9d5eed0c484914b78 ]]> <![CDATA[Identification of a gene-expression predictor for diagnosis and personalized stratification of lupus patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a1962463d7e428027f8ad

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and degrees of severity. Few genomic biomarkers for SLE have been validated and employed to inform clinical classifications and decisions. To discover and assess the gene-expression based SLE predictors in published studies, we performed a meta-analysis using our established signature database and a data similarity-driven strategy. From 13 training data sets on SLE gene-expression studies, we identified a SLE meta-signature (SLEmetaSig100) containing 100 concordant genes that are involved in DNA sensors and the IFN signaling pathway. We rigorously examined SLEmetaSig100 with both retrospective and prospective validation in two independent data sets. Using unsupervised clustering, we retrospectively elucidated that SLEmetaSig100 could classify clinical samples into two groups that correlated with SLE disease status and disease activities. More importantly, SLEmetaSig100 enabled personalized stratification demonstrating its ability to prospectively predict SLE disease at the individual patient level. To evaluate the performance of SLEmetaSig100 in predicting SLE, we predicted 1,171 testing samples to be either non-SLE or SLE with positive predictive value (97–99%), specificity (85%-84%), and sensitivity (60–84%). Our study suggests that SLEmetaSig100 has enhanced predictive value to facilitate current SLE clinical classification and provides personalized disease activity monitoring.

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<![CDATA[Plasmatic membrane toll-like receptor expressions in human astrocytomas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b498fa3463d7e0897c6e01a

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first to identify disturbances in the immune system, recognizing pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Since the inflammation process plays an important role in several diseases, TLRs have been considered potential therapeutic targets, including treatment for cancer. However, TLRs’ role in cancer remains ambiguous. This study aims to analyze the expression levels of plasmatic cell membrane TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR6) in human astrocytomas the most prevalent tumors of CNS different grades (II-IV). We demonstrated that TLR expressions were higher in astrocytoma samples compared to non-neoplastic brain tissue. The gene and protein expressions were observed in GBM cell lines U87MG and A172, proving their presence in the tumor cells. Associated expressions between the known heterodimers TLR1-TLR2 were found in all astrocytoma grades. In GBMs, the mesenchymal subtype showed higher levels of TLR expressions in relation to classical and proneural subtypes. A strong association of TLRs with the activation of cell cycle process and signaling through canonical, inflammasome and ripoptosome pathways was observed by in silico analysis, further highlighting TLRs as interesting targets for cancer treatment.

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<![CDATA[A Novel Mouse Model of Campylobacter jejuni Gastroenteritis Reveals Key Pro-inflammatory and Tissue Protective Roles for Toll-like Receptor Signaling during Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db48ab0ee8fa60bd91ec

Campylobacter jejuni is a major source of foodborne illness in the developed world, and a common cause of clinical gastroenteritis. Exactly how C. jejuni colonizes its host's intestines and causes disease is poorly understood. Although it causes severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans, C. jejuni typically dwells as a commensal microbe within the intestines of most animals, including birds, where its colonization is asymptomatic. Pretreatment of C57BL/6 mice with the antibiotic vancomycin facilitated intestinal C. jejuni colonization, albeit with minimal pathology. In contrast, vancomycin pretreatment of mice deficient in SIGIRR (Sigirr−/−), a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent signaling led to heavy and widespread C. jejuni colonization, accompanied by severe gastroenteritis involving strongly elevated transcription of Th1/Th17 cytokines. C. jejuni heavily colonized the cecal and colonic crypts of Sigirr−/− mice, adhering to, as well as invading intestinal epithelial cells. This infectivity was dependent on established C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, capsular polysaccharides (kpsM) and motility/flagella (flaA). We also explored the basis for the inflammatory response elicited by C. jejuni in Sigirr−/− mice, focusing on the roles played by Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, as these innate receptors were strongly stimulated by C. jejuni. Despite heavy colonization, Tlr4−/−/Sigirr−/− mice were largely unresponsive to infection by C. jejuni, whereas Tlr2−/−/Sigirr−/− mice developed exaggerated inflammation and pathology. This indicates that TLR4 signaling underlies the majority of the enteritis seen in this model, whereas TLR2 signaling had a protective role, acting to promote mucosal integrity. Furthermore, we found that loss of the C. jejuni capsule led to increased TLR4 activation and exaggerated inflammation and gastroenteritis. Together, these results validate the use of Sigirr−/− mice as an exciting and relevant animal model for studying the pathogenesis and innate immune responses to C. jejuni.

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<![CDATA[Estradiol alters the immune-responsiveness of cervical epithelial cells stimulated with ligands of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc741

The mucosa of the female reproductive tract plays a pivotal role in host defence. Pregnancy must alter immunological mechanisms at this interface to protect the conceptus. We sought to determine how estradiol (E2) alters the immune-responsiveness of cervical epithelial cells to ligand stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4. Human ectocervical epithelial cells (HECECs) were cultured and co-incubated with two concentrations of E2 and peptidoglycan (PGN) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) over durations that ranged between 10 minutes and 18 hours. Cytometric Bead Array was performed to quantify eight cytokines in the supernatant fluid. In response to PGN, HECECs co-incubated with E2 released lesser quantities of IL-1ß and IFNγ, higher levels of RANTES, and variable levels of IL-6 and IL-8 than those not exposed to E2. In contrast, HECECs co-incubated with LPS and E2 secreted increased levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and IFNγ at 2 and 18 hours than HECECs not exposed to E2, and reduced levels of RANTES at same study time-points. Estradiol alters the immune-responsiveness of cultured HECECs to TLR2 and TLR4 ligands in a complex fashion that appears to vary with bacterial ligand, TLR subtype, and duration of exposure. Our observations are consistent with the functional complexity that this mucosal interface requires for its immunological roles.

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<![CDATA[Genome-Wide Immune Modulation of TLR3-Mediated Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Differs between Single and Multi-Strain Probiotic Combination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e4ab0ee8fa60b6ac07

Genome-wide transcriptional analysis in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) can aid in elucidating the impact of single versus multi-strain probiotic combinations on immunological and cellular mechanisms of action. In this study we used human expression microarray chips in an in vitro intestinal epithelial cell model to investigate the impact of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 (Lh-R0052), Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033 (Bl-R0033) and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 (Bb-R0071) individually and in combination, and of a surface-layer protein (SLP) purified from Lh-R0052, on HT-29 cells’ transcriptional profile to poly(I:C)-induced inflammation. Hierarchical heat map clustering, Set Distiller and String analyses revealed that the effects of Lh-R0052 and Bb-R0071 diverged from those of Bl-R0033 and Lh-R0052-SLP. It was evident from the global analyses with respect to the immune, cellular and homeostasis related pathways that the co-challenge with probiotic combination (PC) vastly differed in its effect from the single strains and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments. The multi-strain PC resulted in a greater reduction of modulated genes, found through functional connections between immune and cellular pathways. Cytokine and chemokine analyses based on specific outcomes from the TNF-α and NF-κB signaling pathways revealed single, multi-strain and Lh-R0052-SLP specific attenuation of the majority of proteins measured (TNF-α, IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL10), indicating potentially different mechanisms. These findings indicate a synergistic effect of the bacterial combinations relative to the single strain and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments in resolving toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-induced inflammation in IEC and maintaining cellular homeostasis, reinforcing the rationale for using multi-strain formulations as a probiotic.

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<![CDATA[Human β-defensin-2 production upon viral and bacterial co-infection is attenuated in COPD]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf6ba

Viral-bacterial co-infections are associated with severe exacerbations of COPD. Epithelial antimicrobial peptides, including human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), are integral to innate host defenses. In this study, we examined how co-infection of airway epithelial cells with rhinovirus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa modulates HBD-2 expression, and whether these responses are attenuated by cigarette smoke and in epithelial cells obtained by bronchial brushings from smokers with normal lung function or from COPD patients. When human airway epithelial cells from normal lungs were infected with rhinovirus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or the combination, co-infection with rhinovirus and bacteria resulted in synergistic induction of HBD-2 (p<0.05). The combination of virus and flagellin replicated this synergistic increase (p<0.05), and synergy was not seen using a flagella-deficient mutant Pseudomonas (p<0.05). The effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were mediated via interactions of flagellin with TLR5. The effects of HRV-16 depended upon viral replication but did not appear to be mediated via the intracellular RNA helicases, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I or melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5. Cigarette smoke extract significantly decreased HBD-2 production in response to co-infection. Attenuated production was also observed following co-infection of cells obtained from healthy smokers or COPD patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). We conclude that co-exposure to HRV-16 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces synergistic production of HBD-2 from epithelial cells and that this synergistic induction of HBD-2 is reduced in COPD patients. This may contribute to the more severe exacerbations these patients experience in response to viral-bacterial co-infections.

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<![CDATA[Transcriptome Analysis of the Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata: Insights into Molluscan Immunity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daefab0ee8fa60bc0801

Background

Oysters have important ecological functions in their natural environment, acting as global carbon sinks and improving water quality by removing excess nutrients from the water column. During their life-time oysters are exposed to a variety of pathogens that can cause severe mortality in a range of oyster species. Environmental stressors encountered in their habitat can increase the susceptibility of oysters to these pathogens and in general have been shown to impact on oyster immunity, making immune parameters expressed in these marine animals an important research topic.

Results

Paired-end Illumina high throughput sequencing of six S. glomerata tissues exposed to different environmental stressors resulted in a total of 484,121,702 paired-end reads. When reads and assembled transcripts were compared to the C. gigas genome, an overall low level of similarity at the nucleotide level, but a relatively high similarity at the protein level was observed. Examination of the tissue expression pattern showed that some transcripts coding for cathepsins, heat shock proteins and antioxidant proteins were exclusively expressed in the haemolymph of S. glomerata, suggesting a role in innate immunity. Furthermore, analysis of the S. glomerata ORFs showed a wide range of genes potentially involved in innate immunity, from pattern recognition receptors, components of the Toll-like signalling and apoptosis pathways to a complex antioxidant defence mechanism.

Conclusions

This is the first large scale RNA-Seq study carried out in S. glomerata, showing the complex network of innate immune components that exist in this species. The results confirmed that many of the innate immune system components observed in mammals are also conserved in oysters; however, some, such as the TLR adaptors MAL, TRIF and TRAM are either missing or have been modified significantly. The components identified in this study could help explain the oysters’ natural resilience against pathogenic microorganisms encountered in their natural environment.

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<![CDATA[Control of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia Utilizing TLR2 Agonist Pam3CSK4]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa5ab0ee8fa60ba71d5

The spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a critical health issue that has drawn greater attention to the potential use of immunotherapy. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a pattern recognition receptor, is an essential component in host innate defense system against S. aureus infection. However, little is known about the innate immune response, specifically TLR2 activation, against MRSA infection. Here, we evaluate the protective effect and the mechanism of MRSA murine pneumonia after pretreatment with Pam3CSK4, a TLR2 agonist. We found that the MRSA-pneumonia mouse model, pretreated with Pam3CSK4, had reduced bacteria and mortality in comparison to control mice. As well, lower protein and mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were observed in lungs and bronchus of the Pam3CSK4 pretreatment group. Conversely, expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, but not TGF-β, increased in Pam3CSK4-pretreated mice. Our additional studies showed that CXCL-2 and CXCL1, which are necessary for neutrophil recruitment, were less evident in the Pam3CSK4-pretreated group compared to control group, whereas the expression of Fcγ receptors (FcγⅠ/Ⅲ) and complement receptors (CR1/3) increased in murine lungs. Furthermore, we found that increased survival and improved bacterial clearance were not a result of higher levels of neutrophil infiltration, but rather a result of enhanced phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils in vitro and in vivo as well as increased robust oxidative activity and release of lactoferrin. Our cumulative findings suggest that Pam3CSK4 could be a novel immunotherapeutic candidate against MRSA pneumonia.

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<![CDATA[Type of Inflammation Differentially Affects Expression of Interleukin 1β and 6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Toll-Like Receptors in Subclinical Endometritis in Mares]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daeeab0ee8fa60bc0204

Mares that fail to conceive or lose their embryos, without showing typical signs of clinical endometritis, should be suspected of subclinical endometritis (SE). In this study, the question was addressed: does SE fully activate selected mechanisms of innate immunity in mares? For this aim, expression of mRNAs for Toll-like Receptor 2 and 4 (TLR 2/4), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) was examined in control mares versus either mares suffering from chronic endometritis (ChE) or subacute suppurative endometritis (SSE). The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in supernatants from endometrial tissue cultures after 4 h incubation were measured using the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method. Eighty-two warmblood mares, of known breeding history, were enrolled in this study. Based on histopathological assessment, mares were classified as suffering from ChE, SSE or as being healthy. In addition, immuno-localization of both TLR2 and TLR4 as well as TNF-α was investigated in the equine endometria. The mRNA expression of TLR2 (P < 0.01), IL-1β (P < 0.0001), IL-6 (P < 0.0001) and TLR4 and TNF (P < 0.05) was up-regulated in endometria of mares suffering from SSE compared with unaffected mares. Concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were increased only in mares exhibiting SSE, compared with unaffected (P < 0.01 for both) and ChE mares (P < 0.05 for both). Immuno-localization of TNF-α and TLRs was confirmed, both in unaffected and SE-affected endometria, and was present in the luminal and glandular epithelia and stromal cells. The severity of inflammation impacts the immune response and fosters activation of innate immunity mechanisms, as observed in the endometria of mares. The intracellular localization of TLRs and TNF-α in the endometria indicates a key role of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in the immune response and inflammation.

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<![CDATA[CD36 Differently Regulates Macrophage Responses to Smooth and Rough Lipopolysaccharide]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae9ab0ee8fa60bbe62e

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major pathogen-associated molecular pattern of Gram-negative bacterial infections, and includes smooth (S-LPS) and rough (R-LPS) chemotypes. Upon activation by LPS through CD14, TLR4/MD-2 heterodimers sequentially induce two waves of intracellular signaling for macrophage activation: the MyD88-dependent pathway from the plasma membrane and, following internalization, the TRIF-dependent pathway from endosomes. We sought to better define the role of scavenger receptors CD36 and CD204/SR-A as accessory LPS receptors that can contribute to pro-inflammatory and microbicidal activation of macrophages. We have found that CD36 differently regulates activation of mouse macrophages by S-LPS versus R-LPS. The ability of CD36 to substitute for CD14 in loading R-LPS, but not S-LPS onto TLR4/MD-2 allows CD14-independent macrophage responses to R-LPS. Conversely, S-LPS, but not R-LPS effectively stimulates CD14 binding to CD36, which favors S-LPS transfer from CD14 onto TLR4/MD-2 under conditions of low CD14 occupancy with S-LPS in serum-free medium. In contrast, in the presence of serum, CD36 reduces S-LPS binding to TLR4/MD-2 and the subsequent MyD88-dependent signaling, by mediating internalization of S-LPS/CD14 complexes. Additionally, CD36 positively regulates activation of TRIF-dependent signaling by both S-LPS and R-LPS, by promoting TLR4/MD-2 endocytosis. In contrast, we have found that SR-A does not function as a S-LPS receptor. Thus, by co-operating with CD14 in both R- and S-LPS loading onto TLR4/MD-2, CD36 can enhance the sensitivity of tissue-resident macrophages in detecting infections by Gram-negative bacteria. However, in later phases, following influx of serum to the infection site, the CD36-mediated negative regulation of MyD88-dependent branch of S-LPS-induced TLR4 signaling might constitute a mechanism to prevent an excessive inflammatory response, while preserving the adjuvant effect of S-LPS for adaptive immunity.

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