ResearchPad - toxocariasis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[<i>Toxocara</i> species environmental contamination of public spaces in New York City]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14754 Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are helminth worms that infect dogs and cats, respectively. Infected dogs and cats will defecate thousands of Toxocara eggs into the environment. Humans are incidental hosts and are exposed when consuming contaminated soils via the fecal-oral route. After leaving the gastrointestinal tract, the Toxocara larvae will enter the vasculature and can migrate to any major organ system, including lungs, ocular, and central nervous system. Symptoms can range from mild muscle aches to severe asthma, blindness, and encephalitis. Humans are not definitive hosts of the parasite and cannot transmit Toxocara eggs to the environment or other humans. There is a need for research on the sanitary impact of Toxocara for both humans and animals, especially in large urban cities such as New York City. Poverty is also associated with higher rates of toxocariasis, with more contamination in poorer neighborhoods where animal control, deworming of pets, and less sanitary conditions exist. This study aims to understand further the disparity of lower socioeconomic areas having higher rates of contaminated parks and playgrounds, comparing the five boroughs of New York City.

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<![CDATA[Sensitivity and specificity of recombinant proteins in Toxocara spp. for serodiagnosis in humans: Differences in adult and child populations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0aced5eed0c484426b18

Toxocariasis is a neglected zoonosis that affects children and adults. Recombinant proteins have been widely investigated for diagnosis, achieving high sensitivity and specificity in an overall population; however, little is known about age as a factor in its application. This study aims to investigate the diagnostic potential of Toxocara canis TES-30 and TES-120 recombinant proteins in humans, differentiating between its performance in children and adults. Serum samples collected from children and adults seropositive to Toxocara spp. were tested with indirect ELISA using T. canis TES-30 and TES-120 recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli. While rTES-30 sensitivity was not affected by age (81.8% in children and 87% in adults), rTES-120 sensitivity severely decreased in children to only 63.6%, down from 95.7% in adults. Furthermore, the sensitivity of rTES-30 increased to 97.8% after Western blotting confirmation. High specificity (>94%) against other geohelminths was reported for both recombinant proteins. Our study favors the use of rTES-30 with total IgG as the primary antibody in an indirect ELISA assay as a tool for epidemiological human studies.

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<![CDATA[Clinical Features and Course of Ocular Toxocariasis in Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db48ab0ee8fa60bd96cc

Purpose

To investigate the clinical features, clinical course of granuloma, serologic findings, treatment outcome, and probable infection sources in adult patients with ocular toxocariasis (OT).

Methods

In this retrospective cohort study, we examined 101 adult patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with OT. Serial fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images of all the patients were reviewed. A clinic-based case-control study on pet ownership, occupation, and raw meat ingestion history was performed to investigate the possible infection sources.

Results

Among the patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with OT, 69.6% showed elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Granuloma in OT involved all retinal layers and several vitreoretinal comorbidities were noted depending on the location of granuloma: posterior pole granuloma was associated with epiretinal membrane and retinal nerve fiber layer defects, whereas peripheral granuloma was associated with vitreous opacity. Intraocular migration of granuloma was observed in 15 of 93 patients (16.1%). Treatment with albendazole (400 mg twice a day for 2 weeks) and corticosteroids (oral prednisolone; 0.5–1 mg/kg/day) resulted in comparable outcomes to patients on corticosteroid monotherapy; however, the 6-month recurrence rate in patients treated with combined therapy (17.4%) was significantly lower than that in patients treated with corticosteroid monotherapy (54.5%, P = 0.045). Ingestion of raw cow liver (80.8%) or meat (71.2%) was significantly more common in OT patients than healthy controls.

Conclusions

Our study discusses the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies for OT. Evaluation of total IgE, in addition to anti-toxocara antibody, can assist in the serologic diagnosis of OT. Combined albendazole and corticosteroid therapy may reduce intraocular inflammation and recurrence. Migrating feature of granuloma is clinically important and may further suggest the diagnosis of OT. Clinicians need to carefully examine comorbid conditions for OT. OT may be associated with ingestion of uncooked meat, especially raw cow liver, in adult patients.

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<![CDATA[The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010: Interpretation and Implications for the Neglected Tropical Diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7eab0ee8fa60b999d9 ]]> <![CDATA[Toxocara Seropositivity, Atopy and Wheezing in Children Living in Poor Neighbourhoods in Urban Latin American]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da98ab0ee8fa60ba28d5

Background

Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma.

Objectives

To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city.

Methods

The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE). Skin prick test (SPT), total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy.

Findings

Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE≥0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity.

Conclusion

The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction.

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<![CDATA[The serodiagnostic potential of recombinant proteins TES–30 and TES–120 in an indirect ELISA in the diagnosis of toxocariasis in cattle, horses, and sheep]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9405d7d5eed0c484539311

Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals alike. Although recombinant proteins are widely used for its diagnosis in humans, their performance in companion and production animals remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the serodiagnostic potential of the recombinant proteins rTES–30 and rTES–120 from Toxocara canis in an indirect ELISA for cattle, horses, and sheep. Serum samples collected from the animals were tested with indirect ELISA and Western Blotting using T. canis TES–30 and TES–120 recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli, as well as native-TES. In the ELISA, rTES–30 showed high serodiagnostic potential in sheep and horses (92.6% and 85.2%, respectively), while the sensitivity of rTES–120 was higher in cattle and horses (97.2% and 92.6%, respectively). Furthermore, a highly positive association was observed between native and recombinant proteins in seropositive samples, while a moderately positive association was observed in seronegative samples, probably due to the lower specificity of native TES. In conclusion, our study indicates that the use of recombinant proteins in an indirect ELISA is an effective tool for the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis in animals, with the choice of protein being species-dependent.

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<![CDATA[Toxocariasis in North America: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db20ab0ee8fa60bcf385

Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

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<![CDATA[Neglected Parasitic Infections and Poverty in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac3ab0ee8fa60bb1699 ]]>