ResearchPad - transcriptional-control https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Identification of a new R3 MYB type repressor and functional characterization of the members of the MBW transcriptional complex involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in eggplant (<i>S</i>. <i>melongena</i> L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14583 Here we focus on the highly conserved MYB-bHLH-WD repeat (MBW) transcriptional complex model in eggplant, which is pivotal in the transcriptional regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Through a genome-wide approach performed on the recently released Eggplant Genome (cv. 67/3) previously identified, and reconfirmed by us, members belonging to the MBW complex (SmelANT1, SmelAN2, SmelJAF13, SmelAN1) were functionally characterized. Furthermore, a regulatory R3 MYB type repressor (SmelMYBL1), never reported before, was identified and characterized as well.

Through a qPCR approach, we revealed specific transcriptional patterns of candidate genes in different plant tissue/organs at two stages of fruit development. Two strategies were adopted for investigating the interactions of bHLH partners (SmelAN1, SmelJAF13) with MYB counterparts (SmelANT1, SmelAN2 and SmelMYBL1): Yeast Two Hybrid (Y2H) and Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) in A. thaliana mesophylls protoplast. Agro-infiltration experiments highlighted that N. benthamiana leaves transiently expressing SmelANT1 and SmelAN2 showed an anthocyanin-pigmented phenotype, while their co-expression with SmelMYBL1 prevented anthocyanin accumulation. Our results suggest that SmelMYBL1 may inhibits the MBW complex via the competition with MYB activators for bHLH binding site, although this hypothesis requires further elucidation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Drosophila melanogaster tPlus3a and tPlus3b ensure full male fertility by regulating transcription of Y-chromosomal, seminal fluid, and heat shock genes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accf0d5eed0c48499037d

Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster is characterized by a specific transcriptional program during the spermatocyte stage. Transcription of thousands of genes is regulated by the interaction of several proteins or complexes, including a tTAF-containing TFIID variant, tMAC, Mediator, and chromatin interactors, e.g., bromodomain proteins. We addressed how distinct subsets of target genes are selected. We characterized the highly similar proteins tPlus3a and tPlus3b, which contain a Plus3 domain and are enriched in the testis, mainly in spermatocytes. In tPlus3a and tplus3b deletion mutants generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, fertility was severely reduced and sperm showed defects during individualization. tPlus3a and tPlus3b heterodimerized with the bromodomain protein tBRD-1. To elucidate the role of the tPlus3a and tPlus3b proteins in transcriptional regulation, we determined the transcriptomes of tplus3a-tplus3b and tbrd-1 deletion mutants using next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) and compared them to that of the wild-type. tPlus3a and tPlus3b positively or negatively regulated the expression of nearly 400 genes; tBRD-1 regulated 1,500 genes. Nearly 200 genes were regulated by both tPlus3a and tPlus3b and tBRD-1. tPlus3a and tPlus3b activated the Y-chromosomal genes kl-3 and kl-5, which indicates that tPlus3a and tPlus3b proteins are required for the function of distinct classes of genes. tPlus3a and tPlus3b and tBRD-1 repress genes relevant for seminal fluid and heat shock. We hypothesize that tPlus3a and tPlus3b proteins are required to specify the general transcriptional program in spermatocytes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Distinct transcriptional modules in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells response to human respiratory syncytial virus or to human rhinovirus in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9902b2d5eed0c484b983fb

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the main cause of bronchiolitis during the first year of life, when infections by other viruses, such as rhinovirus, also occur and are clinically indistinguishable from those caused by HRSV. In hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis, the analysis of gene expression profiles from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) may be useful for the rapid identification of etiological factors, as well as for developing diagnostic tests, and elucidating pathogenic mechanisms triggered by different viral agents. In this study we conducted a comparative global gene expression analysis of PBMC obtained from two groups of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis who were infected by HRSV (HRSV group) or by HRV (HRV group). We employed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) which allows the identification of transcriptional modules and their correlations with HRSV or HRV groups. This approach permitted the identification of distinct transcription modules for the HRSV and HRV groups. According to these data, the immune response to HRSV infection—comparatively to HRV infection—was more associated to the activation of the interferon gamma signaling pathways and less related to neutrophil activation mechanisms. Moreover, we also identified host-response molecular markers that could be used for etiopathogenic diagnosis. These results may contribute to the development of new tests for respiratory virus identification. The finding that distinct transcriptional profiles are associated to specific host responses to HRSV or to HRV may also contribute to the elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms triggered by different respiratory viruses, paving the way for new therapeutic strategies.

]]>
<![CDATA[TyrR is involved in the transcriptional regulation of biofilm formation and D-alanine catabolism in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1503d5eed0c48467ac9f

Azospirillum brasilense is one of the most studied species of diverse agronomic plants worldwide. The benefits conferred to plants inoculated with Azospirillum have been primarily attributed to its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen and synthesize phytohormones, especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The principal pathway for IAA synthesis involves the intermediate metabolite indole pyruvic acid. Successful colonization of plants by Azospirillum species is fundamental to the ability of these bacteria to promote the beneficial effects observed in plants. Biofilm formation is an essential step in this process and involves interactions with the host plant. In this study, the tyrR gene was cloned, and the translated product was observed to exhibit homology to TyrR protein, a NtrC/NifA-type activator. Structural studies of TyrR identified three putative domains, including a domain containing binding sites for aromatic amino acids in the N-terminus, a central AAA+ ATPase domain, and a helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif domain in the C-terminus, which binds DNA sequences in promoter-operator regions. In addition, a bioinformatic analysis of promoter sequences in A. brasilense Sp7 genome revealed that putative promoters encompass one to three TyrR boxes in genes predicted to be regulated by TyrR. To gain insight into the phenotypes regulated by TyrR, a tyrR-deficient strain derived from A. brasilense Sp7, named A. brasilense 2116 and a complemented 2116 strain harboring a plasmid carrying the tyrR gene were constructed. The observed phenotypes indicated that the putative transcriptional regulator TyrR is involved in biofilm production and is responsible for regulating the utilization of D-alanine as carbon source. In addition, TyrR was observed to be absolutely required for transcriptional regulation of the gene dadA encoding a D-amino acid dehydrogenase. The data suggested that TyrR may play a major role in the regulation of genes encoding a glucosyl transferase, essential signaling proteins, and amino acids transporters.

]]>
<![CDATA[Mapping DNA sequence to transcription factor binding energy in vivo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8e5d5eed0c48496f361

Despite the central importance of transcriptional regulation in biology, it has proven difficult to determine the regulatory mechanisms of individual genes, let alone entire gene networks. It is particularly difficult to decipher the biophysical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation in living cells and determine the energetic properties of binding sites for transcription factors and RNA polymerase. In this work, we present a strategy for dissecting transcriptional regulatory sequences using in vivo methods (massively parallel reporter assays) to formulate quantitative models that map a transcription factor binding site’s DNA sequence to transcription factor-DNA binding energy. We use these models to predict the binding energies of transcription factor binding sites to within 1 kBT of their measured values. We further explore how such a sequence-energy mapping relates to the mechanisms of trancriptional regulation in various promoter contexts. Specifically, we show that our models can be used to design specific induction responses, analyze the effects of amino acid mutations on DNA sequence preference, and determine how regulatory context affects a transcription factor’s sequence specificity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Context dependent roles for RB-E2F transcriptional regulation in tumor suppression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2b7d5eed0c48441e94f

RB-E2F transcriptional control plays a key role in regulating the timing of cell cycle progression from G1 to S-phase in response to growth factor stimulation. Despite this role, it is genetically dispensable for cell cycle exit in primary fibroblasts in response to growth arrest signals. Mice engineered to be defective for RB-E2F transcriptional control at cell cycle genes were also found to live a full lifespan with no susceptibility to cancer. Based on this background we sought to probe the vulnerabilities of RB-E2F transcriptional control defects found in Rb1R461E,K542E mutant mice (Rb1G) through genetic crosses with other mouse strains. We generated Rb1G/G mice in combination with Trp53 and Cdkn1a deficiencies, as well as in combination with KrasG12D. The Rb1G mutation enhanced Trp53 cancer susceptibility, but had no effect in combination with Cdkn1a deficiency or KrasG12D. Collectively, this study indicates that compromised RB-E2F transcriptional control is not uniformly cancer enabling, but rather has potent oncogenic effects when combined with specific vulnerabilities.

]]>
<![CDATA[SUMO modification of LBD30 by SIZ1 regulates secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis thaliana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b7f29d5eed0c484840ad2

A wide range of biological processes are regulated by sumoylation, a post-translational modification involving the conjugation of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier) to protein. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtSIZ1 encodes a SUMO E3 ligase for SUMO modification. siz1 mutants displayed defective secondary cell walls (SCWs) in inflorescence fiber cells. Such defects were caused by repression of SND1/NST1-mediated transcriptional networks. Yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that SIZ1 interacts with the LBD30 C-terminal domain, which was further confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and immunoprecipitation. Mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation indicated that SIZ1 mediates SUMO conjugation to LBD30 at the K226 residue. Genes controlling SCW formation were activated by the overexpression of LBD30, but not in the LBD30(K226R) mutant. LBD30 enhancement of SCW formation resulted from upregulation of SND1/NST1-mediated transcriptional networks. This study presents a mechanism by which sumoylation of LBD30, mediated by SIZ1, regulates SCW formation in A. thaliana.

]]>
<![CDATA[Vgsc-interacting proteins are genetically associated with pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feaed5eed0c4841352e6

Association mapping of factors that condition pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti has consistently identified genes in multiple functional groups. Toward better understanding of the mechanisms involved, we examined high throughput sequencing data (HTS) from two Aedes aegypti aegypti collections from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico treated with either permethrin or deltamethrin. Exome capture enrichment for coding regions and the AaegL5 annotation were used to identify genes statistically associated with resistance. The frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compared between resistant and susceptible mosquito pools using a contingency χ2 analysis. The -log102 p value) was calculated at each SNP site, with a weighted average determined from all sites in each gene. Genes with -log102 p value) ≥ 4.0 and present among all 3 treatment groups were subjected to gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We found that several functional groups were enriched compared to all coding genes. These categories were transport, signal transduction and metabolism, in order from highest to lowest statistical significance. Strikingly, 21 genes with demonstrated association to synaptic function were identified. In the high association group (n = 1,053 genes), several genes were identified that also genetically or physically interact with the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). These genes were eg., CHARLATAN (CHL), a transcriptional regulator, several ankyrin-domain proteins, PUMILIO (PUM), a translational repressor, and NEDD4 (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase). There were 13 genes that ranked among the top 10%: these included VGSC; CINGULIN, a predicted neuronal gap junction protein, and the aedine ortholog of NERVY (NVY), a transcriptional regulator. Silencing of CHL and NVY followed by standard permethrin bottle bioassays validated their association with permethrin resistance. Importantly, VGSC levels were also reduced about 50% in chl- or nvy-dsRNA treated mosquitoes. These results are consistent with the contribution of a variety of neuronal pathways to pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti.

]]>
<![CDATA[Single-molecule dynamics and genome-wide transcriptomics reveal that NF-kB (p65)-DNA binding times can be decoupled from transcriptional activation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4a3091d5eed0c4844c0568

Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes by recognizing and binding to specific DNA promoter sequences. In higher eukaryotes, it remains unclear how the duration of TF binding to DNA relates to downstream transcriptional output. Here, we address this question for the transcriptional activator NF-κB (p65), by live-cell single molecule imaging of TF-DNA binding kinetics and genome-wide quantification of p65-mediated transcription. We used mutants of p65, perturbing either the DNA binding domain (DBD) or the protein-protein transactivation domain (TAD). We found that p65-DNA binding time was predominantly determined by its DBD and directly correlated with its transcriptional output as long as the TAD is intact. Surprisingly, mutation or deletion of the TAD did not modify p65-DNA binding stability, suggesting that the p65 TAD generally contributes neither to the assembly of an “enhanceosome,” nor to the active removal of p65 from putative specific binding sites. However, TAD removal did reduce p65-mediated transcriptional activation, indicating that protein-protein interactions act to translate the long-lived p65-DNA binding into productive transcription.

]]>
<![CDATA[Thermodynamic model of gene regulation for the Or59b olfactory receptor in Drosophila]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4a309fd5eed0c4844c073a

Complex eukaryotic promoters normally contain multiple cis-regulatory sequences for different transcription factors (TFs). The binding patterns of the TFs to these sites, as well as the way the TFs interact with each other and with the RNA polymerase (RNAp), lead to combinatorial problems rarely understood in detail, especially under varying epigenetic conditions. The aim of this paper is to build a model describing how the main regulatory cluster of the olfactory receptor Or59b drives transcription of this gene in Drosophila. The cluster-driven expression of this gene is represented as the equilibrium probability of RNAp being bound to the promoter region, using a statistical thermodynamic approach. The RNAp equilibrium probability is computed in terms of the occupancy probabilities of the single TFs of the cluster to the corresponding binding sites, and of the interaction rules among TFs and RNAp, using experimental data of Or59b expression to tune the model parameters. The model reproduces correctly the changes in RNAp binding probability induced by various mutation of specific sites and epigenetic modifications. Some of its predictions have also been validated in novel experiments.

]]>
<![CDATA[The nuclear hormone receptor NHR-86 controls anti-pathogen responses in C. elegans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c466d5eed0c4845e86e5

Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are ligand-gated transcription factors that control adaptive host responses following recognition of specific endogenous or exogenous ligands. Although NHRs have expanded dramatically in C. elegans compared to other metazoans, the biological function of only a few of these genes has been characterized in detail. Here, we demonstrate that an NHR can activate an anti-pathogen transcriptional program. Using genetic epistasis experiments, transcriptome profiling analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing, we show that, in the presence of an immunostimulatory small molecule, NHR-86 binds to the promoters of immune effectors to activate their transcription. NHR-86 is not required for resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa at baseline, but activation of NHR-86 by this compound drives a transcriptional program that provides protection against this pathogen. Interestingly, NHR-86 targets immune effectors whose basal regulation requires the canonical p38 MAPK PMK-1 immune pathway. However, NHR-86 functions independently of PMK-1 and modulates the transcription of these infection response genes directly. These findings characterize a new transcriptional regulator in C. elegans that can induce a protective host response towards a bacterial pathogen.

]]>
<![CDATA[Unique and overlapping GLI1 and GLI2 transcriptional targets in neoplastic chondrocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59ff07d5eed0c48413599d

Excessive Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in chondrocytes is sufficient to cause formation of enchondroma-like lesions which can progress to chondrosarcoma. To elucidate potential underlying mechanisms, we identified GLI1 and GLI2 target genes in human chondrosarcoma. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing and microarray data, in silico analyses were conducted to identify and characterize unique and overlapping GLI1 and GLI2 binding regions in neoplastic chondrocytes. After overlaying microarray data from human chondrosarcoma, 204 upregulated and 106 downregulated genes were identified as Hh-responsive Gli binding targets. After overlaying published Gli ChIP-on-chip data from mouse, 48 genes were identified as potential direct downstream targets of Hedgehog signaling with shared GLI binding regions in evolutionarily conserved DNA elements. Among these was BMP2, pointing to potential cross-talk between TGF beta signaling and Hh signaling. Our identification of potential target genes that are unique and common to GLI1 and GLI2 in neoplastic chondrocytes contributes to elucidating potential pathways through which Hh signaling impacts cartilage tumor biology.

]]>
<![CDATA[Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of pathogenic mycobacteria and their esx-1 mutants reveal secretion-dependent regulation of ESX-1 substrates and WhiB6 as a transcriptional regulator]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521834d5eed0c484797785

The mycobacterial type VII secretion system ESX-1 is responsible for the secretion of a number of proteins that play important roles during host infection. The regulation of the expression of secreted proteins is often essential to establish successful infection. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the abrogation of ESX-1 function in Mycobacterium marinum leads to a pronounced increase in gene expression levels of the espA operon during the infection of macrophages. In addition, the disruption of ESX-1-mediated protein secretion also leads to a specific down-regulation of the ESX-1 substrates, but not of the structural components of this system, during growth in culture medium. This effect is observed in both M. marinum and M. tuberculosis. We established that down-regulation of ESX-1 substrates is the result of a regulatory process that is influenced by the putative transcriptional regulator whib6, which is located adjacent to the esx-1 locus. In addition, the overexpression of the ESX-1-associated PE35/PPE68 protein pair resulted in a significantly increased secretion of the ESX-1 substrate EsxA, demonstrating a functional link between these proteins. Taken together, these data show that WhiB6 is required for the secretion-dependent regulation of ESX-1 substrates and that ESX-1 substrates are regulated independently from the structural components, both during infection and as a result of active secretion.

]]>
<![CDATA[Global analysis of N6-methyladenosine functions and its disease association using deep learning and network-based methods]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c36680cd5eed0c4841a6f5a

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant methylation, existing in >25% of human mRNAs. Exciting recent discoveries indicate the close involvement of m6A in regulating many different aspects of mRNA metabolism and diseases like cancer. However, our current knowledge about how m6A levels are controlled and whether and how regulation of m6A levels of a specific gene can play a role in cancer and other diseases is mostly elusive. We propose in this paper a computational scheme for predicting m6A-regulated genes and m6A-associated disease, which includes Deep-m6A, the first model for detecting condition-specific m6A sites from MeRIP-Seq data with a single base resolution using deep learning and Hot-m6A, a new network-based pipeline that prioritizes functional significant m6A genes and its associated diseases using the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) and gene-disease heterogeneous networks. We applied Deep-m6A and this pipeline to 75 MeRIP-seq human samples, which produced a compact set of 709 functionally significant m6A-regulated genes and nine functionally enriched subnetworks. The functional enrichment analysis of these genes and networks reveal that m6A targets key genes of many critical biological processes including transcription, cell organization and transport, and cell proliferation and cancer-related pathways such as Wnt pathway. The m6A-associated disease analysis prioritized five significantly associated diseases including leukemia and renal cell carcinoma. These results demonstrate the power of our proposed computational scheme and provide new leads for understanding m6A regulatory functions and its roles in diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Diversification of DNA binding specificities enabled SREBP transcription regulators to expand the repertoire of cellular functions that they govern in fungi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c33c3afd5eed0c48459e8a0

The Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs) are basic-helix-loop-helix transcription regulators that control the expression of sterol biosynthesis genes in higher eukaryotes and some fungi. Surprisingly, SREBPs do not regulate sterol biosynthesis in the ascomycete yeasts (Saccharomycotina) as this role was handed off to an unrelated transcription regulator in this clade. The SREBPs, nonetheless, expanded in fungi such as the ascomycete yeasts Candida spp., raising questions about their role and evolution in these organisms. Here we report that the fungal SREBPs diversified their DNA binding preferences concomitantly with an expansion in function. We establish that several branches of fungal SREBPs preferentially bind non-palindromic DNA sequences, in contrast to the palindromic DNA motifs recognized by most basic-helix-loop-helix proteins (including SREBPs) in higher eukaryotes. Reconstruction and biochemical characterization of the likely ancestor protein suggest that an intrinsic DNA binding promiscuity in the family was resolved by alternative mechanisms in different branches of fungal SREBPs. Furthermore, we show that two SREBPs in the human commensal yeast Candida albicans drive a transcriptional cascade that inhibits a morphological switch under anaerobic conditions. Preventing this morphological transition enhances C. albicans colonization of the mammalian intestine, the fungus’ natural niche. Thus, our results illustrate how diversification in DNA binding preferences enabled the functional expansion of a family of eukaryotic transcription regulators.

]]>
<![CDATA[RSM1, an Arabidopsis MYB protein, interacts with HY5/HYH to modulate seed germination and seedling development in response to abscisic acid and salinity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c23f311d5eed0c48404a31b

MYB transcription factors are involved in many biological processes, including metabolism, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. RADIALIS-LIKE SANT/MYB 1 (RSM1) belongs to a MYB-related subfamily, and previous transcriptome analysis suggests that RSM1 may play roles in plant development, stress responses and plant hormone signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms of RSM1 action in response to abiotic stresses remain obscure. We show that down-regulation or up-regulation of RSM1 expression alters the sensitivity of seed germination and cotyledon greening to abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl and mannitol in Arabidopsis. The expression of RSM1 is dynamically regulated by ABA and NaCl. Transcription factors ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and HY5 HOMOLOG (HYH) regulate RSM1 expression via binding to the RSM1 promoter. Genetic analyses reveal that RSM1 mediates multiple functions of HY5 in responses of seed germination, post-germination development to ABA and abiotic stresses, and seedling tolerance to salinity. Pull-down and BiFC assays show that RSM1 interacts with HY5/HYH in vitro and in vivo. RSM1 and HY5/HYH may function as a regulatory module in responses to ABA and abiotic stresses. RSM1 binds to the promoter of ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5), thereby regulating its expression, while RSM1 interaction also stimulates HY5 binding to the ABI5 promoter. However, no evidence was found in the dual-luciferase transient expression assay to support that RSM enhances the activation of ABI5 expression by HY. In summary, HY5/HYH and RSM1 may converge on the ABI5 promoter and independently or somehow dependently regulate ABI5 expression and ABI5-downstream ABA and abiotic stress-responsive genes, thereby improving the adaption of plants to the environment.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pan- and core- gene association networks: Integrative approaches to understanding biological regulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa593d5eed0c484ca5fac

The rapid increase in transcriptome data provides an opportunity to access the complex regulatory mechanisms in cellular systems through gene association network (GAN). Nonetheless, GANs derived from single datasets generally allow us to envisage only one side of the regulatory network, even under the particular condition of study. The circumstance is well demonstrated by inconsistent GANs of individual datasets proposed for similar experimental conditions, which always leads to ambiguous interpretation. Here, pan- and core-gene association networks (pan- and core-GANs), analogous to the pan- and core-genome concepts, are proposed to increase the power of inference through the integration of multiple, diverse datasets. The core-GAN represents the consensus associations of genes that were inferred from all individual networks. On the other hand, the pan-GAN represents the extensive gene-gene associations that occurred in each individual network. The pan- and core-GANs prospects were demonstrated based on three time series microarray datasets in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under diurnal conditions. We showed the overall performance of pan- and core-GANs was more robust to the number of data points in gene expression data compared to the GANs inferred from individual datasets. In addition, the incorporation of multiple data broadened our understanding of the biological regulatory system. While the pan-GAN enabled us to observe the landscape of gene association system, core-GAN highlighted the basic gene-associations in essence of the regulation regulating starch metabolism in leaves of Arabidopsis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Different duration of parathyroid hormone exposure distinctively regulates primary response genes Nurr1 and RANKL in osteoblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c269783d5eed0c48470fc21

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) exerts dual effects, anabolic or catabolic, on bone when administrated intermittently or continuously, via mechanisms that remain largely unknown. PTH binding to cells induces PTH-responsive genes including primary response genes (PRGs). PRGs are rapidly induced without the need for de novo protein synthesis, thereby playing pivotal roles in directing subsequent molecular responses. In this study, to understand the role of PRGs in mediating osteoblastic cellular responses to PTH, we investigated whether various durations of PTH differentially induce PRGs in primary osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1. Nurr1 and RANKL, PRGs known for their anabolic and catabolic roles in bone metabolism respectively, presented distinctive transient vs. sustained induction kinetics. Corroborating their roles, maximum induction of Nurr1 was sufficiently achieved by brief PTH in as little as 30 minutes and continued beyond that, while maximum induction of RANKL was achieved only by prolonged PTH over 4 hours. Our data suggested distinctive regulatory mechanisms for Nurr1 and RANKL: PKA-mediated chromatin rearrangement for transcriptional regulation of both PRGs and ERK-mediated transcriptional regulation for RANKL but not Nurr1. Lastly, we classified PRGs into two groups based on the induction kinetics: The group that required brief PTH for maximum induction included Nur77, cox-2, and Nurr1, all of which are reported to play roles in bone formation. The other group that required prolonged PTH for maximum induction included IL-6 and RANKL, which play roles in bone resorption. Together, our data suggested the crucial role of PRG groups in mediating differential osteoblastic cellular responses to intermittent vs. continuous PTH. Continued research into the regulatory mechanisms of PKA and ERK for PRGs will help us better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the dual effects of PTH, thereby optimizing the current therapeutic use of PTH for osteoporosis.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Transcriptional landscape of Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 reveals a complex operon architecture and abundant riboregulation critical for growth and virulence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b9cd5eed0c484699dd5

Efficient and highly organized regulation of transcription is fundamental to an organism’s ability to survive, proliferate, and quickly respond to its environment. Therefore, precise mapping of transcriptional units and understanding their regulation is crucial to determining how pathogenic bacteria cause disease and how they may be inhibited. In this study, we map the transcriptional landscape of the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 by applying a combination of high-throughput RNA-sequencing techniques. We successfully map 1864 high confidence transcription termination sites (TTSs), 790 high confidence transcription start sites (TSSs) (742 primary, and 48 secondary), and 1360 low confidence TSSs (74 secondary and 1286 primary) to yield a total of 2150 TSSs. Furthermore, our study reveals a complex transcriptome wherein environment-respondent alternate transcriptional units are observed within operons stemming from internal TSSs and TTSs. Additionally, we identify many putative cis-regulatory RNA elements and riboswitches within 5’-untranslated regions (5’-UTR). By integrating TSSs and TTSs with independently collected RNA-Seq datasets from a variety of conditions, we establish the response of these regulators to changes in growth conditions and validate several of them. Furthermore, to demonstrate the importance of ribo-regulation by 5’-UTR elements for in vivo virulence, we show that the pyrR regulatory element is essential for survival, successful colonization and infection in mice suggesting that such RNA elements are potential drug targets. Importantly, we show that our approach of combining high-throughput sequencing with in vivo experiments can reconstruct a global understanding of regulation, but also pave the way for discovery of compounds that target (ribo-)regulators to mitigate virulence and antibiotic resistance.

]]>
<![CDATA[Stress-responsive and metabolic gene regulation are altered in low S-adenosylmethionine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c08418ed5eed0c484fca068

S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a donor which provides the methyl groups for histone or nucleic acid modification and phosphatidylcholine production. SAM is hypothesized to link metabolism and chromatin modification, however, its role in acute gene regulation is poorly understood. We recently found that Caenorhabditis elegans with reduced SAM had deficiencies in H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) at pathogen-response genes, decreasing their expression and limiting pathogen resistance. We hypothesized that SAM may be generally required for stress-responsive transcription. Here, using genetic assays, we show that transcriptional responses to bacterial or xenotoxic stress fail in C. elegans with low SAM, but that expression of heat shock genes are unaffected. We also found that two H3K4 methyltransferases, set-2/SET1 and set-16/MLL, had differential responses to survival during stress. set-2/SET1 is specifically required in bacterial responses, whereas set-16/MLL is universally required. These results define a role for SAM in the acute stress-responsive gene expression. Finally, we find that modification of metabolic gene expression correlates with enhanced survival during stress.

]]>