ResearchPad - translational-perspective https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The Heart in COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13755 In the throes of the current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, interest has burgeoned in the cardiovascular complications of this virulent viral infection. As troponin, a biomarker of cardiac injury, often rises in hospitalized patients, its interpretation and actionability require careful consideration. Fulminant myocarditis due to direct viral infection can certainly occur, but in patients with increased oxygen demands due to tachycardia and fever and reduced oxygen delivery due to hypotension and hypoxemia, COVID-19 disease can cause myocardial injury indirectly. Cytokines released during the acute infection can elicit activation of cells within pre-existing atherosclerotic lesions, augmenting thrombotic risk and risk of ischemic syndromes. Moreover, microvascular activation by cytokines can cause not only myocardial injury but can also harm other organ systems commonly involved in COVID-19 infections including the kidneys. Dealing with the immense challenge of COVID-19, confronted with severely ill patients in dire straits with virtually no rigorous evidence base to guide our therapy, we must call on our clinical skills and judgment. These touchstones can help guide us in selecting patients who might benefit from the advanced imaging and invasive procedures that present enormous logistical challenges in the current context. Lacking a robust evidence base, pathophysiologic reasoning can help guide our choices of therapy for individual clinical scenarios. We must exercise caution and extreme humility, as often plausible interventions fail when tested rigorously. But act today we must, and understanding the multiplicity of mechanisms of myocardial injury in COVID-19 infection will help us meet our mission unsupported by the comfort of strong data.

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<![CDATA[Limitations of Animal Studies for Predicting Toxicity in Clinical Trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbde3ecde-cb45-4078-b0bd-a414017cc6ac

Summary

Animal testing is used in pharmaceutical and industrial research to predict human toxicity, and yet analysis suggests that animal models are poor predictors of drug safety in humans. The cost of animal research is high—in dollars, delays in drug approval, and in the loss of potentially beneficial drugs for human use. Human subjects have been harmed in the clinical testing of drugs that were deemed safe by animal studies. Increasingly, investigators are questioning the scientific merit of animal research. This review discusses issues in using animals to predict human toxicity in pharmaceutical development. Part 1 focuses on scientific concerns over the validity of animal research. Part 2 will discuss alternatives to animal research and their validation and use in production of human pharmaceuticals.

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