ResearchPad - trauma https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Management of Gunshot Injuries of Mandible with Open Reduction and Internal Fixation versus Closed Reduction and Maxillo-mandibular Fixation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10534 Background/objectives

Gunshot injuries are known to cause severe morbidity and mortality when facial regions are involved. Management of the gunshot wounds of the face comprises of securing an airway, controlling hemorrhage, identifying other injuries and definite repair of the traumatic facial deformities. The objective of the present study was to compare the clinical outcome (infection and nonunion) of open reduction and internal fixation versus closed reduction and maxillo-mandibular fixation (CR-MMF) in the treatment of gunshot injuries of the mandible.

Materials & methods

This study was conducted at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University/Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan. Ninety gunshot mandibular fractures were randomly allocated in two equal groups. In group-A, 45 patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation while in group-B, 45 patients were also managed by closed reduction and maxillo-mandibular fixation. Post-operative complications (infection, non-union) were evaluated clinically and radiographically in both groups.

Results

Patients treated by open reduction and internal fixation were having more complications in terms of infection (17.8%) as compared to closed reduction (4.4%) with a p-value 0.044. Whereas non-union was more in closed reduction (15.6%) as compared to open reduction and internal fixation group (2.2%) with a significant p-value 0.026.

Conclusion

Both the treatment modalities can be used in the management of gunshot injuries of mandible and there is need for further studies to have clear guideline in this regard in best interest of patients, community and health care providers.

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<![CDATA[Effect of experimental, morphological and mechanical factors on the murine spinal cord subjected to transverse contusion: A finite element study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8463 Finite element models combined with animal experimental models of spinal cord injury provides the opportunity for investigating the effects of the injury mechanism on the neural tissue deformation and the resulting tissue damage. Thus, we developed a finite element model of the mouse cervical spinal cord in order to investigate the effect of morphological, experimental and mechanical factors on the spinal cord mechanical behavior subjected to transverse contusion. The overall mechanical behavior of the model was validated with experimental data of unilateral cervical contusion in mice. The effects of the spinal cord material properties, diameter and curvature, and of the impactor position and inclination on the strain distribution were investigated in 8 spinal cord anatomical regions of interest for 98 configurations of the model. Pareto analysis revealed that the material properties had a significant effect (p<0.01) for all regions of interest of the spinal cord and was the most influential factor for 7 out of 8 regions. This highlighted the need for comprehensive mechanical characterization of the gray and white matter in order to develop effective models capable of predicting tissue deformation during spinal cord injuries.

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<![CDATA[Traumatic Floating Clavicle: Is This a Rare Injury?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N455e4467-c2ff-4af7-94cd-e02b48ea843f Bipolar clavicle dislocation is thought to be a rare injury pattern. Even experienced orthopaedic surgeons may have not come across this entity during their careers. We report a misdiagnosed case of a 65-year-old male who underwent a motorcycle accident and was surgically treated six months post-injury. This case has been the ground for research since then. We have come to the conclusion that this type of injury is probably not so uncommon as previously thought. Careful evaluation is of immense importance during diagnosis protocol, and practitioners should be aware of this injury pattern in order to avoid misdiagnosis.

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<![CDATA[An Unusual Complex Posterolateral Osteoligamentous Injury of the Knee in an Adolescent]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N753c9c7b-99f1-4125-85bb-79298ed6e4b0 We present an unusual and complex case of a 16-year-old adolescent male who injured his right knee and sustained combined avulsion injuries of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) at the tibial insertion site, iliotibial band at lateral tibial condyle, and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) at femoral insertion site akin to osteoligamentous posterolateral corner injury. Anatomical reduction of the femoral LCL avulsion fragment was performed and fixed with a two 4-mm partially threaded cancellous screw. Iliotibial band avulsion was buttressed using Ellis t-plate and fixed with two 4-mm partially threaded cancellous screws. PCL avulsion fracture was conservatively treated owing to minimal displacement. At one-year follow-up, the patient was pain free with a range of motion of 0 to 150 degrees of flexion and had a pain free knee with no instability. Posterolateral corner injury in the patient was very significant as it involved LCL avulsion and iliotibial band avulsion, both of which are part of the posterolateral structures of the knee and also involve the growth plate. Fixation of the avulsion of Gerdy's tubercle with the buttress plate helps to provide additional stability to counteract the deforming forces of the iliotibial band. LCL is also the major stabilizer against varus forces, and hence fixation is required for stability while preventing growth disturbance. PCL avulsion can be treated conservatively in those patients where the fragment is undisplaced or minimally displaced. A good outcome can be achieved in skeletally immature patients who have osteoligamentous posterolateral corner injuries with associated avulsion fractures by using appropriate anatomical reduction and surgical fixation.

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<![CDATA[Complex Multiplanar Fracture of the Distal Femur with an Undescribed Pattern: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6edbfb56-d1a1-4710-bf23-e0a8b7f6fcd3 Distal femur fractures in younger age groups are associated with high-impact injury leading to severe comminution and soft tissue injuries. Most of the intra-articular distal femur fractures occur as a result of axial loading accompanied by a variable amount of flexion. An 18-year-old male patient who had met with a road traffic accident was brought to the trauma center. Radiographic examination revealed a fracture of the distal femur, predominantly involving the lateral condyle without any evidence of metaphyseal comminution, and lateral view showed a complete separation of both the condyles from the proximal shaft. This type of fracture pattern did not fit into any of the current classification systems of distal femoral fractures. The medial and lateral approaches were carried out simultaneously instead of the anterior midline approach, owing to the poor skin condition over the anterior aspect of the knee. These fractures are difficult to treat due to high articular involvement and present a tedious task for the surgeon. Anatomical reduction with preserved articular cartilage is the key to a good outcome in such complex fractures. Atypical fracture types are not uncommon, and they can be incorporated into existing or future classification systems, which may contribute to a better understanding and management of these fractures.

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<![CDATA[Recurrent Shoulder Posteroinferior Subluxation Status Post Reverse Remplissage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nae12f32d-e831-4fbf-9588-cdb236735122 Posterior shoulder dislocation is an uncommon injury that typically follows intense contraction of the external rotator muscles, such as from seizure activity, high-velocity trauma, or intense electrical shock. The diagnosis is often missed or delayed, leading to complications such as functional deficits or osteonecrosis of the humeral head. Closed reduction can be utilized following an initial occurrence, however, repeated insult to the glenohumeral joint may lead to posterior instability. A reverse Hill-Sachs lesion, a vertical impacted fracture of the anteromedial aspect of the humeral head, can occur. Surgical treatment options for posterior instability include the modified McLaughlin procedure also known as the reverse remplissage procedure. Unfortunately, the success rates of this procedure are controversial.

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<![CDATA[Anesthesia Considerations and Infection Precautions for Trauma and Acute Care Cases During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: Recommendations From a Task Force of the Chinese Society of Anesthesiology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9630d159-e284-4007-85ef-b5ad8bea6a60 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread worldwide. During the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, most hospitals have postponed elective surgeries. However, some emergency surgeries, especially for trauma patients, are inevitable. For patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, a standard protocol addressing preoperative preparation, intraoperative management, and postoperative surveillance should be implemented to avoid nosocomial infection and ensure the safety of patients and the health care workforce. With reference to the guidelines and recommendations issued by the National Health Commission and Chinese Society of Anesthesiology, this article provides recommendations for anesthesia management of trauma and emergency surgery cases during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Complete Revascularization of Reimplanted Talus After Isolated Total Talar Extrusion: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6c7ab12a-2551-475c-a049-7224380db3ea Total traumatic extrusion of the talus is a rare and disabling ankle injury. Treatment may include talar reimplantation or talar body removal, but an optimal treatment protocol has not yet been established. Several case reports showed that disruption of the vascular supply and contamination could lead to major complications, such as infection and avascular necrosis, with the high risk of these complications being associated with both the traumatic ankle injury itself and subsequent talar reimplantation. No report to date has described the revascularization of a completely extruded talus, as shown by serial MRI, a less invasive surgical strategy consisting of immediate reimplantation, early administration of antibiotics, and a short period of cast immobilization followed by early motion exercises. The present study describes complete revascularization and good clinical outcomes in a 30-year-old man who underwent talus reimplantation after isolated total talar extrusion.

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<![CDATA[Case reported for iatrogenic cystectomy during cesarean delivery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8b86b41c-8e54-4d66-a8b0-a2fb51199562 Although bladder injury is a rare complication during cesarean delivery (CD), its incidence is increasing due to the growing trend in elective CD. Herein, we report a case of a 28-year-old woman, who presented during labor. An emergency CD and hysterectomy were done to control bleeding. The case was complicated by and inadvertent cystectomy. Urine was diverted immediately by ureterostomy. After five months, augmentation ileocytoplasty, bilateral ureteral re-implantation, and abdominal catheterizable stoma formation were carried out. This case highlights the surgical management of inadvertent cystectomy during CD.

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<![CDATA[Cervical spine clearance after blunt trauma: current state of the art]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N905d7f6c-5c10-4663-b02a-1251c0ef849f No definite consensus exists for the clearance of the cervical spine (C-spine) after blunt trauma, despite many validated algorithms, recommendations and guidelines. We intend to answer the most relevant questions with which physicians are confronted when clearing C-spines after blunt trauma in emergency departments (EDs). To exclude significant C-spine injuries we designed an algorithm to be compatible with clinical practice, to simplify patient management and avoid unrewarding evaluation.We conducted an exploratory PubMed search including articles published from January 2000 to October 2018. Keywords used were “cervical spine”, “injury”, “clearance”, “Canadian C-spine Rule”, “CCR” and “national emergency x-radiography utilization study”. Clinical and experimental studies were included in a detailed review.We based our literature review on 33 articles. While answering fundamental triage questions from daily clinical practice, the current literature is discussed in detail. We designed an algorithm for the C-spine clearance suitable for any trauma centre with a high-quality multiplanar reconstruction computerized tomography (CT) scan continuously available.The high sensitivity of the Canadian C-spine Rule (CCR) prevents missing C-spine injuries while limiting the amount of unnecessary radiologic examinations. Plain radiographs were fully abandoned for C-spine clearance. A negative CT scan is sufficient to clear the majority of C-spine injuries and allows for collar removal. In case of motor symptoms or radio-clinical discrepancy, the advice of a specialized spine surgeon must be requested. Magnetic resonance imaging must not be routinely used. Neck pain despite negative imaging is not a reason to delay removal of stiff cervical collars.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:253-259. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.190047

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<![CDATA[Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Versus Radial Head Arthroplasty for Mason III Radial Head Fractures: Appraising the Current Literature Evidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N44afc619-267e-4503-8bf0-886049f73eb4 Fractures of the radial head are common and account for one-third of elbow fractures. Management has evolved over the past few decades as have the techniques and implants used to treat them. However, no standardized treatment protocol exists because of the complexity with which these fractures may present. The complex, unstable, displaced, and multi-fragmentary fractures, also known as Mason type III fractures, remain one of the most challenging fractures to treat, especially if associated with other elbow injuries. There are various surgical treatment options available, including open reduction and internal fixation or radial head arthroplasty.

The purpose of this study was to systematically review the current literature that assessed open reduction and internal fixation compare to radial head replacement to identify the best surgical treatment protocol for the management of Mason type III radial head fracture.

All published clinical trials claiming to evaluate or cited elsewhere as being authoritative regarding the surgical treatment of radial head fractures were identified and evaluated. Studies in foreign languages (not in English) were excluded.

Based on two randomized controlled trials, this review showed some weak evidence that arthroplasty results in better functional elbow outcomes and lower complication rates as compared to open reduction and internal fixation. There is a scarcity of good quality comparative studies and multicenter randomized controlled trials should be considered.

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<![CDATA[Epidermolysis Bullosa: A Case of Successful Total Hip Arthroplasty]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc11e9593-799f-4a09-8244-ccded50b38e9 Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare dermatological disease in which patients suffer from skin fragility and blisters. One of the major complications is the development of skin infections, which may preclude surgical intervention. We present a case of a 49-year-old female with a past medical history of EB, who presented to the emergency department (ED) with right groin pain of one-hour duration after falling on her right side. The patient underwent a successful open reduction and internal fixation for her right hip without complications. Over the course of three months after the procedure, she experienced worsening of the pain accompanied by skin necrosis and total collapse of the femoral head. Subsequent total hip replacement surgery was performed using a cementless (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) prosthesis and fixated via cannulated screws. To decrease the risk of infection, IV cefazolin was given as a prophylactic antibiotic preoperatively. Vancomycin IV and imipenem/cilastatin IV were given for four days postoperatively. We made sure that our patient is experiencing the least possible pain by giving sufficient analgesics after the surgery. We used morphine, paracetamol, and gabapentin for pain control. For 25 days after the surgery, the patient did not complain of any pain. Upon follow-up, sutures were removed, and no surgical wound infection, rashes, or lacerations were noted. We encourage orthopedic surgeons dealing with patients suffering from dermatological conditions with fragile skin such as EB and decreased level of activity that requires total hip arthroplasty to proceed with the surgical intervention after considering adequate infection control to improve quality of life. 

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<![CDATA[Iatrogenic gallbladder perforation secondary to Veress needle placement: a complication of robotic nephrectomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N31dce4b6-7c4e-4ff3-9da7-86d9a2dbbc11 <![CDATA[Combined Posterior-Anterior Interbody Fusion in the Management of Traumatic Lumbosacral Dissociation: A Case Report and Review of Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncdf08392-85ea-4128-bbcc-7581c2b65e94

Traumatic lumbosacral dissociation is a unique, but well-documented, phenomenon that generally stems from high-energy impact injuries to the lower lumbar spine. Patients typically present with complicated and multisystem injuries with wide-ranging neurological deficits below the level of trauma. This presents stark challenges regarding the diagnosis, management, and surgical correction technique utilized. In this study, we present the case of a 21-year-old, morbidly obese, male patient that presented after a traumatic motor vehicle accident with L5-S1 lumbosacroiliac dissociation, cauda equina syndrome, and left lower extremity monoplegia. The degree of disruption warranted a 360° approach, we opted for an anterior lumbar interbody fusion followed by a posterior, lumbar interbody, short segment fusion. We review the case and relevant literature of similar lumbosacral dissociation studies with their management options and outcomes. Due to the rare nature of these devastating injuries, there remains wide variability in their management, with a combination of open anterior and posterior approaches resulting in variable long-term outcomes. The management of these rare injuries will require appropriate consideration of the patient’s unique etiology, coexisting injuries, and radiological imaging in deciding surgical stabilization techniques.

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<![CDATA[Pneumonia in Trauma Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nea5d16ed-a224-4395-b019-37a35da6a0bd

Purpose of Review

This article reviews the new definitions of pneumonia, discusses risk factors for pneumonia among trauma patients, presents the latest evidence for prevention strategies, discusses the best ways to make the diagnosis, and reviews the microbiology and treatment for trauma patients with pneumonia.

Recent Findings

Pneumonia can be prevented by decreasing the duration of mechanical ventilation using daily paired spontaneous awakening and breathing trials, but not with early tracheostomy placement. Other useful prevention strategies include semirecumbent positioning and oral care. Mini-BAL is a sensitive and specific means of securing the diagnosis of pneumonia that does not require a physician to be present and is therefore especially useful in busy trauma centers.

Summary

Pneumonia is a frequent complication among trauma patients. Risk factors are largely unmodifiable. However, trauma centers can institute routine daily paired spontaneous awakening and breathing trials to decrease the duration of ventilation and incidence of pneumonia. Future research is needed to further characterize the microbiology of pneumonia among trauma patients.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of Clinical and Radiological Results of Humeral Diaphyseal Fractures with Treated Sarmiento Brace]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2039e1f3-631c-4126-814b-d4f136172305

Aim

In our study, we aimed to evaluate the duration and rate of the union of adult humerus diaphysis fractures treated with a functional brace.

Methods

Forty-six adult patients admitted to our hospital with humeral diaphyseal fracture between January 2010 and April 2014 and treated with a functional brace were evaluated retrospectively. The demographic data, fracture type, level of fracture, and presence of bone union of the patients were evaluated from clinic records. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Quick-DASH) questionnaire score of the patients was registered for patients and analyzed, and its correlation with parameters such as patient age and fracture bone union time was evaluated.

Results

It was observed that of the patients with the mean age of 45.5 years, six (13.6%) had non-union and five had delayed bone union (10.86%). Three (6.5%) patients had radial nerve injury, and all recovered without sequelae. Out of the patients with the bone union, 12 (30%) had an angulation above give degrees, and 3 (7.5%) had radiological shortness. The mean Quick-DASH score was 6.7, and there was no statistically significant correlation with parameters such as fracture type, level, angulation, radiological shortness and radial nerve involvement (p>0.05).

Conclusions

A functional brace is a good treatment choice with low complication rates and has satisfactory bone union rates in humerus diaphyseal fractures. 

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<![CDATA[Two-staged anterior urethroplasty using skin flap outside the scrotum: A case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na1b73f55-6f74-4788-8392-72176f0d1a5d

A thirty-eight-year-old man presented with acute urinary retention due to a long complicated strictures between the meatus and the bulbar urethra. During the first surgery, in addition to the penile skin flap, the flap of the incised skin at 10mm outside the scrotum strip-like tissue was moved medially and sutured onto the incised urethra. After 12 months of the first surgery, we performed the urethroplasty from the bulbar urethra to the meatus. Postoperatively, the patient voided without complications. Thus, this technique using a skin flap outside the scrotum is effective in long complicated urethral strictures.

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<![CDATA[The value of pre-operative MRI in management of penile fractures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2b070843-0158-47c6-b9c1-e3e6a6a88f19

Penile fracture is a urological emergency which requires urgent assessment and surgical intervention to avoid long term complications. In this report, we describe a case in which penile MRI was used for initial assessment and surgical planning. This allowed exact localisation of the tunical tear and allowed direct incision over the tear for repair. In this case, the man avoided circumcision, which would be often required with the conventional degloving approach.

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<![CDATA[An unusual variant of Zinner syndrome with ureteral ectopia from an atrophied supernumerary kidney]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6c8e31a8-5332-4228-9f27-421e9a8e3db9

This case presents an unusual variation of Zinner syndrome with a patient found to have an ectopic ureteral insertion of the seminal vesicle from a supernumerary pelvic kidney and complete duplication of the ipsilateral, otherwise normal renal unit. The case offers an interesting variant of a previously established syndrome with successful treatment involving robotic resection of an ectopic ureter and seminal vesiculectomy, resulting in resolution of the patient's symptoms.

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<![CDATA[Increased Brain Tissue Oxygen Monitoring Threshold to Improve Hospital Course in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N69e4ad3c-848f-4860-8ace-4070a79258e2

Introduction

This article is a retrospective analysis of the neurosurgical census at our institution to determine an optimal threshold for brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2). The use of brain tissue oxygen monitoring has been in place for approximately three decades but data suggesting optimal thresholds to improve outcomes have been lacking. Though there are multiple modalities to monitor cerebral oxygenation, the monitoring of brain tissue oxygen tension has been deemed the gold standard. Still, it is not clear exactly how reductions in PbtO2 should be treated or what appropriate thresholds to treat might be. The aim of our study was to determine if our threshold of 28 mmHg for a good functional outcome could be correlated to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).

Methods

A retrospective analysis of the Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC) Neurosurgery Census was performed. Patients from 2017-2019 who had placement of Licox® cerebral oxygen monitoring sensors (Integra® Lifesciences, Plainsboro Township, New Jersey) were included in the analysis. Fifteen patients were consecutively identified, all of which presented with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data on age, gender, days in the intensive care unit (ICU), days before discharge or end of medical care, admission GCS, hospital length of stay, GOS, maximum and minimum PbtO2 values for five days following insertion, minimum and maximum intracranial pressures (ICPs), and brain temperature were included for analysis. Patient data were separated into two groups; those with consistently higher PbtO2 scores (≥ 28 mmHg; n = 7) and those with inconsistent/lower PbtO2 scores (< 28 mmHg; n = 8). Standard student t-tests were used to find potential statistical differences between the groups (α = 0.05).

Results

There were seven patients in the consistently high PbtO2 category (≥ 28 mmHg) and eight patients in the inconsistent/low PbtO2 category (<28 mmHg). The average maximum and minimum PbtO2 for the group displaying worse outcomes (as defined by GCS/GOS) was 23.0 mmHg and 14 mmHg, respectively. Those with consistent Day 2 PbtO2 scores of ≥ 28 mmHg had significantly higher GCS scores at discharge/end of medical care (p < 0.05). Average GCS for the patient group with >28 mmHg PbtO2 averaged over Days 2-5 group was 11.4 (n=7). Average GCS for the <28 group was 7.0 (n=8). The GCS for the >28 group was 63% higher than found in the <28 group (p = 0.03). GOS scores were significantly higher in those with consistently higher PbtO2 (≥ 28) than those with lower PbtO2 scores (< 28). The averages were 3.5 in the higher PbtO2 group as compared to 2 in the lower PbtO2 group.

Conclusion

Along with ICP monitors and monitoring in the assessment of CPP, brain tissue oxygenation allows yet another metric by which to optimize treatment in TBI patients. At our institution, a PbtO2 level of ≥ 28 mmHg is targeted in order to facilitate a good functional outcome in TBI patients. Keeping patients at this level improves GCS and GOS at discharge/end of medical treatment.

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