ResearchPad - tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Changes and prognostic values of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte subsets after primary systemic therapy in breast cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14496 Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) levels have prognostic and predictive values in treatment-naïve breast cancers. However, there have been controversies regarding TIL subset changes and their clinical implications in post-treatment breast cancers. This study aimed to explore change and prognostic significance of TIL subset infiltration after primary systemic therapy (PST) in breast cancer. One-hundred-fifty-five patients who had residual disease after anthracycline- or anthracycline plus taxane-based PST were included. The quantities of intratumoral and stromal TIL subsets (CD8+, CD4+, and FOXP3+ TILs) in pre- and post-PST breast cancer samples, as well as changes between them, were analyzed along with their correlations with clinicopathologic features and outcome of patients. As a whole, intratumoral CD8+ and CD4+ TILs increased after PST while stromal TILs decreased. Both intratumoral and stromal FOXP3+ TILs decreased after PST. The chemo-sensitive group [residual cancer burden (RCB) class I and II] showed the same pattern of change in intratumoral CD8+ TILs as the whole group, whereas the chemo-resistant group (RCB class III) showed no significant change in intratumoral CD8+ TIL infiltration after PST. Survival analyses for each TIL subset as well as their ratios revealed that high levels of intratumoral, stromal, and total CD8+ TIL infiltration after PST were independent predictors of longer patient survival. In subgroup analyses, CD8+ TIL infiltration after PST revealed prognostic significance in the chemo-resistant group but not in the chemo-sensitive group. In conclusion, infiltration of CD8+, CD4+, and FOXP3+ TIL changed after PST in the intratumoral and stromal compartments. Especially, increase of intratumoral CD8+ TILs was associated with chemo-responsiveness. Moreover, CD8+ TIL status in residual tumors after PST may be used as a potential prognostic marker in breast cancer patients who receive PST and provide additional prognostic information to chemo-resistant group.

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<![CDATA[Heat Shock Protein-90 Inhibitors Enhance Antigen Expression on Melanomas and Increase T Cell Recognition of Tumor Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da79ab0ee8fa60b97e94

In an effort to enhance antigen-specific T cell recognition of cancer cells, we have examined numerous modulators of antigen-expression. In this report we demonstrate that twelve different Hsp90 inhibitors (iHsp90) share the ability to increase the expression of differentiation antigens and MHC Class I antigens. These iHsp90 are active in several molecular and cellular assays on a series of tumor cell lines, including eleven human melanomas, a murine B16 melanoma, and two human glioma-derived cell lines. Intra-cytoplasmic antibody staining showed that all of the tested iHsp90 increased expression of the melanocyte differentiation antigens Melan-A/MART-1, gp100, and TRP-2, as well as MHC Class I. The gliomas showed enhanced gp100 and MHC staining. Quantitative analysis of mRNA levels showed a parallel increase in message transcription, and a reporter assay shows induction of promoter activity for Melan-A/MART-1 gene. In addition, iHsp90 increased recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for Melan-A/MART-1. In contrast to direct Hsp90 client proteins, the increased levels of full-length differentiation antigens that result from iHsp90 treatment are most likely the result of transcriptional activation of their encoding genes. In combination, these results suggest that iHsp90 improve recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for a melanoma-associated antigen as a result of increasing the expressed intracellular antigen pool available for processing and presentation by MHC Class I, along with increased levels of MHC Class I itself. As these Hsp90 inhibitors do not interfere with T cell function, they could have potential for use in immunotherapy of cancer.

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<![CDATA[CXCL17 Expression Predicts Poor Prognosis and Correlates with Adverse Immune Infiltration in Hepatocellular Carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3fab0ee8fa60b89682

CXC ligand 17 (CXCL17) is a novel CXC chemokine whose clinical significance remains largely unknown. In the present study, we characterized the prognostic value of CXCL17 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluated the association of CXCL17 with immune infiltration. We examined CXCL17 expression in 227 HCC tissue specimens by immunohistochemical staining, and correlated CXCL17 expression patterns with clinicopathological features, prognosis, and immune infiltrate density (CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, macrophages). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that both increased intratumoral CXCL17 (P = 0.015 for overall survival [OS], P = 0.003 for recurrence-free survival [RFS]) and peritumoral CXCL17 (P = 0.002 for OS, P<0.001 for RFS) were associated with shorter OS and RFS. Patients in the CXCL17low group had significantly lower 5-year recurrence rate compared with patients in the CXCL17high group (peritumoral: 53.1% vs. 77.7%, P<0.001, intratumoral: 58.6% vs. 73.0%, P = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified peritumoral CXCL17 as an independent prognostic factor for both OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.066, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.296–3.292, P = 0.002) and RFS (HR = 1.844, 95% CI = 1.218–2.793, P = 0.004). Moreover, CXCL17 expression was associated with more CD68 and less CD4 cell infiltration (both P<0.05). The combination of CXCL17 density and immune infiltration could be used to further classify patients into subsets with different prognosis for RFS. Our results provide the first evidence that tumor-infiltrating CXCL17+ cell density is an independent prognostic factor that predicts both OS and RFS in HCC. CXCL17 production correlated with adverse immune infiltration and might be an important target for anti-HCC therapies.

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<![CDATA[Absence of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Is a Reproducible Predictive Factor for Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis: A Multicenter Database Study by the Brazilian Melanoma Group]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab2ab0ee8fa60babc00

Aims

The aim of this study is to confirm the function of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis.

Materials and Methods

This retrospective study included 633 patients with invasive melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in 7 referral centers certified by the Brazilian Melanoma Group. Independent risk factors of sentinel node metastasis (SNL) were identified by multiple logistic regression.

Results

SLN metastasis was detected in 101 of 633 cases (16.1%) and in 93 of 428 patients (21.7%) when melanomas ≤ 1mm were excluded. By multiple logistic regression, the absence of TILs was as an independent risk factor of SLN metastasis (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1–3.0), in addition to Breslow index (greater than 2.00 mm), lymph vascular invasion, and presence of mitosis.

Conclusion

SLNB can identify patients who might benefit from immunotherapy, and the determination of predictors of SLNB positivity can help select the proper population for this type of therapy. The absence of TILs is a reproducible parameter that can predict SLNB positivity in melanoma patients, since this study was made with several centers with different dermatopathologists.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of FoxP3+ T-Regulatory Cells and CD8+T-Cells in Ovarian Carcinoma: Location and Tumor Infiltration Patterns Are Key Prognostic Markers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2fab0ee8fa60b83ef0

Purpose

Tumor infiltrating CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory immune cells (Treg) have been associated with impaired anti- tumor immune response and unfavorable prognosis for patients affected by ovarian carcinoma, whereas CD8+ T-cells have been found to positively influence survival rates in a large panel of solid tumors. Recently, density, location and tumor infiltration patterns of the respective immune cell subtypes have been identified as key prognostic factors for different types of tumors.

Patients and Methods

We stained 210 human ovarian carcinoma samples immunhistochemically for FoxP3 and CD8 to identify the impact different immune cell patterns have on generally accepted prognostic variables as well as on overall survival.

Results

We found that FoxP3+ cells located within lymphoid aggregates surrounding the tumor were strongly associated with reduced survival time (P = 0.007). Central accumulation of CD8+ effector cells within the tumor bed shows a positive effect on survival (P = 0,001).

Conclusion

The distribution pattern of immune cells within the tumor environment strongly influences prognosis and overall survival time of patients with ovarian carcinoma.

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<![CDATA[Vascular endothelial growth factor A amplification in colorectal cancer is associated with reduced M1 and M2 macrophages and diminished PD-1-expressing lymphocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc843

VEGFA is an angiogenic factor secreted by tumors, in particular those with VEGFA amplification, as well as by macrophages and lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment. Here we sought to define the presence of M1/M2 macrophages, PD-1-positive lymphocytes and PD-L1 tumoral and stromal expression in colorectal cancers harboring VEGFA amplification or chromosome 6 polysomy. 38 CRCs of which 13 harbored VEGFA amplification, 6 with Chr6 polysomy and 19 with neutral VEGFA copy number were assessed by immunohistochemistry for CD68 (marker for M1/M2 macrophages), CD163 (M2 macrophages), programmed death 1(PD-1)- tumor infiltrating and stromal lymphocytes as well as tumoral and stromal PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression. CRCs with VEGFA amplification or Chr6 polysomy were associated with decreased M1/M2 macrophages, reduced PD-1-expressing lymphocyte infiltration, as well as reduced stromal expression of PD-L1 at the tumor front. Compared to intermediate-grade CRCs, high-grade CRCs were associated with increased M1/M2 macrophages and increased tumoral expression of PD-L1. Our results suggest that VEGFA amplification or Chr6 polysomy is associated with an altered tumor immune microenvironment.

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