ResearchPad - ubiquitination https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[SPOP promotes ubiquitination and degradation of MyD88 to suppress the innate immune response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14645 MyD88 is a central adaptor that mediates initiation of the innate immune response and production of the proinflammatory cytokines that restrain pathogens and activate adaptive immunity. Although MyD88 is crucial for a host to prevent pathogenic infection, misregulation of its abundance might lead to autoimmune diseases. Thus, degradation of MyD88 is a key canonical mechanism for terminating cytokine production. Here, we characterized a novel E3 ligase, SPOP, that targets MyD88 for degradation. ChSPOP attenuated IL-1β production through K48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation of chMyD88, and thus impaired immune responses. Spop deficient mice showed more susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. These findings demonstrate that SPOP is a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent pathway activation triggered by LPS and Salmonella typhimurium, which helps the host to maintain immune homeostasis.

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<![CDATA[The degradation-promoting roles of deubiquitinases Ubp6 and Ubp3 in cytosolic and ER protein quality control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14498 The quality control of intracellular proteins is achieved by degrading misfolded proteins which cannot be refolded by molecular chaperones. In eukaryotes, such degradation is handled primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, it remained unclear whether and how protein quality control deploys various deubiquitinases. To address this question, we screened deletions or mutation of the 20 deubiquitinase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and discovered that almost half of the mutations slowed the removal of misfolded proteins whereas none of the remaining mutations accelerated this process significantly. Further characterization revealed that Ubp6 maintains the level of free ubiquitin to promote the elimination of misfolded cytosolic proteins, while Ubp3 supports the degradation of misfolded cytosolic and ER luminal proteins by different mechanisms.

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<![CDATA[<i>Ehrlichia chaffeensis</i> TRP120-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of tumor suppressor FBW7 increases oncoprotein stability and promotes infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13827 E. chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that replicates in mononuclear phagocytes by secreting effectors that manipulate host cell processes and exploit evolutionarily conserved pathways. This investigation reveals the complex and expanding role of the E. chaffeensis TRP120 moonlighting effector as a ubiquitin (Ub) ligase targeting host nuclear proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that E. chaffeensis TRP120 HECT Ub ligase targets the nuclear tumor suppressor Skp1-cullin-1-FBOX E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase complex substrate recognition subunit, F-BOX and WD domain repeating-containing 7 (FBW7) for degradation. FBW7 is a central regulator of broadly acting host cell oncoproteins involved in cell proliferation and survival. The reduction in FBW7 through TRP120-mediated ubiquitination increases cellular oncoprotein levels and promotes E. chaffeensis infection. This study illuminates novel bacterial effector-host interactions, the importance and interplay of both host and bacterial Ub ligases and the Ub-proteasome system for infection, and mechanisms whereby evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways are hijacked by obligately intracellular pathogens.

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<![CDATA[Toscana virus non-structural protein NSs acts as E3 ubiquitin ligase promoting RIG-I degradation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na0a913dc-a63b-43c4-adc6-448aab832714

It is known that the non-structural protein (NSs) of Toscana virus (TOSV), an emergent sandfly-borne virus causing meningitis or more severe central nervous system injuries in humans, exerts its function triggering RIG-I for degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner, thus breaking off the IFN-β production. The non-structural protein of different members of Bunyavirales has recently appeared as a fundamental protagonist in immunity evasion through ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation targets. We showed that TOSV NSs has an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, mapping at the carboxy-terminal domain and also involving the amino-terminal of the protein. Indeed, neither the amino- (NSsΔN) nor the carboxy- (NSsΔC) terminal-deleted mutants of TOSV NSs were able to cause ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of RIG-I. Moreover, the addition of the C-terminus of TOSV NSs to the homologous protein of the Sandfly Fever Naples Virus, belonging to the same genus and unable to inhibit IFN-β activity, conferred new properties to this protein, favoring RIG-I ubiquitination and its degradation. NSs lost its antagonistic activity to IFN when one of the terminal residues was missing. Therefore, we showed that NSs could behave as an atypical RING between RING (RBR) E3 ubiquitin ligases. This is the first report which identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in a viral protein among negative strand RNA viruses.

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<![CDATA[Early girl is a novel component of the Fat signaling pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52c2d5eed0c4842bcfaa

The Drosophila protocadherins Dachsous and Fat regulate growth and tissue polarity by modulating the levels, membrane localization and polarity of the atypical myosin Dachs. Localization to the apical junctional membrane is critical for Dachs function, and the adapter protein Vamana/Dlish and palmitoyl transferase Approximated are required for Dachs membrane localization. However, how Dachs levels are regulated is poorly understood. Here we identify the early girl gene as playing an essential role in Fat signaling by limiting the levels of Dachs protein. early girl mutants display overgrowth of the wings and reduced cross vein spacing, hallmark features of mutations affecting Fat signaling. Genetic experiments reveal that it functions in parallel with Fat to regulate Dachs. early girl encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase, physically interacts with Dachs, and regulates its protein stability. Concomitant loss of early girl and approximated results in accumulation of Dachs and Vamana in cytoplasmic punctae, suggesting that it also regulates their trafficking to the apical membrane. Our findings establish a crucial role for early girl in Fat signaling, involving regulation of Dachs and Vamana, two key downstream effectors of this pathway.

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<![CDATA[Deregulation of LRSAM1 expression impairs the levels of TSG101, UBE2N, VPS28, MDM2 and EGFR]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d54d5eed0c484c825ab

CMT is the most common hereditary neuromuscular disorder of the peripheral nervous system with a prevalence of 1/2500 individuals and it is caused by mutations in more than 80 genes. LRSAM1, a RING finger ubiquitin ligase also known as TSG101-associated ligase (TAL), has been associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2P (CMT2P) and to date eight causative mutations have been identified. Little is currently known on the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to the disease. We investigated the effect of LRSAM1 deregulation on possible LRSAM1 interacting molecules in cell based models. Possible LRSAM1 interacting molecules were identified using protein-protein interaction databases and literature data. Expression analysis of these molecules was performed in both CMT2P patient and control lymphoblastoid cell lines as well as in LRSAM1 and TSG101 downregulated SH-SY5Y cells.TSG101, UBE2N, VPS28, EGFR and MDM2 levels were significantly decreased in the CMT2P patient lymphoblastoid cell line as well as in LRSAM1 downregulated cells. TSG101 downregulation had a significant effect only on the expression of VPS28 and MDM2 and it did not affect the levels of LRSAM1. This study confirms that LRSAM1 is a regulator of TSG101 expression. Furthermore, deregulation of LRSAM1 significantly affects the levels of UBE2N, VPS28, EGFR and MDM2.

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<![CDATA[MEKK3 coordinates with FBW7 to regulate WDR62 stability and neurogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c23f305d5eed0c484049ed6

Mutations of WD repeat domain 62 (WDR62) lead to autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH), and down-regulation of WDR62 expression causes the loss of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). However, how WDR62 is regulated and hence controls neurogenesis and brain size remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3) forms a complex with WDR62 to promote c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling synergistically in the control of neurogenesis. The deletion of Mekk3, Wdr62, or Jnk1 resulted in phenocopied defects, including premature NPC differentiation. We further showed that WDR62 protein is positively regulated by MEKK3 and JNK1 in the developing brain and that the defects of wdr62 deficiency can be rescued by the transgenic expression of JNK1. Meanwhile, WDR62 is also negatively regulated by T1053 phosphorylation, leading to the recruitment of F-box and WD repeat domain-containing protein 7 (FBW7) and proteasomal degradation. Our findings demonstrate that the coordinated reciprocal and bidirectional regulation among MEKK3, FBW7, WDR62, and JNK1, is required for fine-tuned JNK signaling for the control of balanced NPC self-renewal and differentiation during cortical development.

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<![CDATA[The ESCRT and autophagy machineries cooperate to repair ESX-1-dependent damage at the Mycobacterium-containing vacuole but have opposite impact on containing the infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6059d0d5eed0c4847cbf91

Phagocytic cells capture and kill most invader microbes within the bactericidal phagosome, but some pathogens subvert killing by damaging the compartment and escaping to the cytosol. To prevent the leakage of pathogen virulence and host defence factors, as well as bacteria escape, host cells have to contain and repair the membrane damage, or finally eliminate the cytosolic bacteria. All eukaryotic cells engage various repair mechanisms to ensure plasma membrane integrity and proper compartmentalization of organelles, including the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) and autophagy machineries. We show that during infection of Dictyostelium discoideum with Mycobacterium marinum, the ESCRT-I component Tsg101, the ESCRT-III protein Snf7/Chmp4/Vps32 and the AAA-ATPase Vps4 are recruited to sites of damage at the Mycobacterium-containing vacuole. Interestingly, damage separately recruits the ESCRT and the autophagy machineries. In addition, the recruitment of Vps32 and Vps4 to repair sterile membrane damage depends on Tsg101 but appears independent of Ca2+. Finally, in absence of Tsg101, M. marinum accesses prematurely the cytosol, where the autophagy machinery restricts its growth. We propose that ESCRT has an evolutionary conserved function to repair small membrane damage and to contain intracellular pathogens in intact compartments.

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<![CDATA[Non-proteolytic ubiquitin modification of PPARγ by Smurf1 protects the liver from steatosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c23f26ed5eed0c484046a2b

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by abnormal accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in the liver and other metabolic syndrome symptoms, but its molecular genetic causes are not completely understood. Here, we show that mice deficient for ubiquitin ligase (E3) Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) spontaneously develop hepatic steatosis as they age and exhibit the exacerbated phenotype under a high-fat diet (HFD). Our data indicate that loss of Smurf1 up-regulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its target genes involved in lipid synthesis and fatty acid uptake. We further show that PPARγ is a direct substrate of Smurf1-mediated non-proteolytic lysine 63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin modification that suppresses its transcriptional activity, and treatment of Smurf1-deficient mice with a PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, completely reversed the lipid accumulation in the liver. Finally, we demonstrate an inverse correlation of low SMURF1 expression to high body mass index (BMI) values in human patients, thus revealing a new role of SMURF1 in NAFLD pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Predicting protein targets for drug-like compounds using transcriptomics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e77d5eed0c484d26bce

An expanded chemical space is essential for improved identification of small molecules for emerging therapeutic targets. However, the identification of targets for novel compounds is biased towards the synthesis of known scaffolds that bind familiar protein families, limiting the exploration of chemical space. To change this paradigm, we validated a new pipeline that identifies small molecule-protein interactions and works even for compounds lacking similarity to known drugs. Based on differential mRNA profiles in multiple cell types exposed to drugs and in which gene knockdowns (KD) were conducted, we showed that drugs induce gene regulatory networks that correlate with those produced after silencing protein-coding genes. Next, we applied supervised machine learning to exploit drug-KD signature correlations and enriched our predictions using an orthogonal structure-based screen. As a proof-of-principle for this regimen, top-10/top-100 target prediction accuracies of 26% and 41%, respectively, were achieved on a validation of set 152 FDA-approved drugs and 3104 potential targets. We then predicted targets for 1680 compounds and validated chemical interactors with four targets that have proven difficult to chemically modulate, including non-covalent inhibitors of HRAS and KRAS. Importantly, drug-target interactions manifest as gene expression correlations between drug treatment and both target gene KD and KD of genes that act up- or down-stream of the target, even for relatively weak binders. These correlations provide new insights on the cellular response of disrupting protein interactions and highlight the complex genetic phenotypes of drug treatment. With further refinement, our pipeline may accelerate the identification and development of novel chemical classes by screening compound-target interactions.

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<![CDATA[Interactions between the mRNA and Rps3/uS3 at the entry tunnel of the ribosomal small subunit are important for no-go decay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c059de2d5eed0c4849c962d

No-go Decay (NGD) is a process that has evolved to deal with stalled ribosomes resulting from structural blocks or aberrant mRNAs. The process is distinguished by an endonucleolytic cleavage prior to degradation of the transcript. While many of the details of the pathway have been described, the identity of the endonuclease remains unknown. Here we identify residues of the small subunit ribosomal protein Rps3 that are important for NGD by affecting the cleavage reaction. Mutation of residues within the ribosomal entry tunnel that contact the incoming mRNA leads to significantly reduced accumulation of cleavage products, independent of the type of stall sequence, and renders cells sensitive to damaging agents thought to trigger NGD. These phenotypes are distinct from those seen in combination with other NGD factors, suggesting a separate role for Rps3 in NGD. Conversely, ribosomal proteins ubiquitination is not affected by rps3 mutations, indicating that upstream ribosome quality control (RQC) events are not dependent on these residues. Together, these results suggest that Rps3 is important for quality control on the ribosome and strongly supports the notion that the ribosome itself plays a central role in the endonucleolytic cleavage reaction during NGD.

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<![CDATA[Flu’s cues: Exploiting host post-translational modifications to direct the influenza virus replication cycle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0e98a5d5eed0c484eaaed3 ]]> <![CDATA[Ubiquitination of alpha-synuclein filaments by Nedd4 ligases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b60175f463d7e3bf2e777da

Alpha-synuclein can form beta-sheet filaments, the accumulation of which plays a key role in the development of Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. It has previously been shown that alpha-synuclein is a substrate for the HECT domain-containing ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, and is subject to ubiquitin-mediated endosomal degradation. We show here that alpha-synuclein filaments are much better substrates for ubiquitination in vitro than monomeric alpha-synuclein, and that this increased susceptibility cannot be mimicked by the mere clustering of monomers. Recognition by Nedd4 family enzymes is not through the conventional binding of PPxY-containing sequences to WW domains of the ligase, but it also involves C2 and HECT domains. The disease-causing alpha-synuclein mutant A53T is a much less efficient substrate for Nedd4 ligases than the wild-type protein. We suggest that preferential recognition, ubiquitination and degradation of beta-sheet-containing filaments may help to limit toxicity, and that A53T alpha-synuclein may be more toxic, at least in part because it avoids this fate.

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<![CDATA[Mps1Mph1 Kinase Phosphorylates Mad3 to Inhibit Cdc20Slp1-APC/C and Maintain Spindle Checkpoint Arrests]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadcab0ee8fa60bba059

The spindle checkpoint is a mitotic surveillance system which ensures equal segregation of sister chromatids. It delays anaphase onset by inhibiting the action of the E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C). Mad3/BubR1 is a key component of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) which binds and inhibits the APC/C early in mitosis. Mps1Mph1 kinase is critical for checkpoint signalling and MCC-APC/C inhibition, yet few substrates have been identified. Here we identify Mad3 as a substrate of fission yeast Mps1Mph1 kinase. We map and mutate phosphorylation sites in Mad3, producing mutants that are targeted to kinetochores and assembled into MCC, yet display reduced APC/C binding and are unable to maintain checkpoint arrests. We show biochemically that Mad3 phospho-mimics are potent APC/C inhibitors in vitro, demonstrating that Mad3p modification can directly influence Cdc20Slp1-APC/C activity. This genetic dissection of APC/C inhibition demonstrates that Mps1Mph1 kinase-dependent modifications of Mad3 and Mad2 act in a concerted manner to maintain spindle checkpoint arrests.

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<![CDATA[The Drosophila orthologue of the INT6 onco-protein regulates mitotic microtubule growth and kinetochore structure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be03ad

INT6/eIF3e is a highly conserved component of the translation initiation complex that interacts with both the 26S proteasome and the COP9 signalosome, two complexes implicated in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. The INT6 gene was originally identified as the insertion site of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), and later shown to be involved in human tumorigenesis. Here we show that depletion of the Drosophila orthologue of INT6 (Int6) results in short mitotic spindles and deformed centromeres and kinetochores with low intra-kinetochore distance. Poleward flux of microtubule subunits during metaphase is reduced, although fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) demonstrates that microtubules remain dynamic both near the kinetochores and at spindle poles. Mitotic progression is delayed during metaphase due to the activity of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Interestingly, a deubiquitinated form of the kinesin Klp67A (a putative orthologue of human Kif18A) accumulates near the kinetochores in Int6-depleted cells. Consistent with this finding, Klp67A overexpression mimics the Int6 RNAi phenotype. Furthermore, simultaneous depletion of Int6 and Klp67A results in a phenotype identical to RNAi of just Klp67A, which indicates that Klp67A deficiency is epistatic over Int6 deficiency. We propose that Int6-mediated ubiquitination is required to control the activity of Klp67A. In the absence of this control, excess of Klp67A at the kinetochore suppresses microtubule plus-end polymerization, which in turn results in reduced microtubule flux, spindle shortening, and centromere/kinetochore deformation.

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<![CDATA[The E3 Ligase APIP10 Connects the Effector AvrPiz-t to the NLR Receptor Piz-t in Rice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da45ab0ee8fa60b8b806

Although nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are the major immune receptors in plants, the mechanism that controls their activation and immune signaling remains elusive. Here, we report that the avirulence effector AvrPiz-t from Magnaporthe oryzae targets the rice E3 ligase APIP10 for degradation, but that APIP10, in return, ubiquitinates AvrPiz-t and thereby causes its degradation. Silencing of APIP10 in the non-Piz-t background compromises the basal defense against M. oryzae. Conversely, silencing of APIP10 in the Piz-t background causes cell death, significant accumulation of Piz-t, and enhanced resistance to M. oryzae, suggesting that APIP10 is a negative regulator of Piz-t. We show that APIP10 promotes degradation of Piz-t via the 26S proteasome system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AvrPiz-t stabilizes Piz-t during M. oryzae infection. Together, our results show that APIP10 is a novel E3 ligase that functionally connects the fungal effector AvrPiz-t to its NLR receptor Piz-t in rice.

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<![CDATA[Phosphorylation of Mitochondrial Polyubiquitin by PINK1 Promotes Parkin Mitochondrial Tethering]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da93ab0ee8fa60ba0dcd

The kinase PINK1 and the E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase Parkin participate in mitochondrial quality control. The phosphorylation of Ser65 in Parkin's ubiquitin-like (UBl) domain by PINK1 stimulates Parkin activation and translocation to damaged mitochondria, which induces mitophagy generating polyUb chain. However, Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation is insufficient for Parkin mitochondrial translocation. Here we report that Ser65 in polyUb chain is also phosphorylated by PINK1, and that phosphorylated polyUb chain on mitochondria tethers Parkin at mitochondria. The expression of Tom70MTS-4xUb SE, which mimics phospho-Ser65 polyUb chains on the mitochondria, activated Parkin E3 activity and its mitochondrial translocation. An E3-dead form of Parkin translocated to mitochondria with reduced membrane potential in the presence of Tom70MTS-4xUb SE, whereas non-phospho-polyUb mutant Tom70MTS-4xUb SA abrogated Parkin translocation. Parkin binds to the phospho-polyUb chain through its RING1-In-Between-RING (IBR) domains, but its RING0-linker is also required for mitochondrial translocation. Moreover, the expression of Tom70MTS-4xUb SE improved mitochondrial degeneration in PINK1-deficient, but not Parkin-deficient, Drosophila. Our study suggests that the phosphorylation of mitochondrial polyUb by PINK1 is implicated in both Parkin activation and mitochondrial translocation, predicting a chain reaction mechanism of mitochondrial phospho-polyUb production by which rapid translocation of Parkin is achieved.

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<![CDATA[A Ubiquitin Shuttle DC-UbP/UBTD2 Reconciles Protein Ubiquitination and Deubiquitination via Linking UbE1 and USP5 Enzymes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0bab0ee8fa60bca57a

The ubiquitination levels of protein substrates in eukaryotic cells are delicately orchestrated by various protein cofactors and enzymes. Dendritic cell-derived ubiquitin (Ub)-like protein (DC-UbP), also named as Ub domain-containing protein 2 (UBTD2), is a potential Ub shuttle protein comprised of a Ub-like (UbL) domain and a Ub-binding domain (UBD), but its biological function remains largely unknown. We identified two Ub-related enzymes, the deubiquitinating enzyme USP5 and the Ub-activating enzyme UbE1, as interacting partners of DC-UbP from HEK 293T cells. Biochemical studies revealed that the tandem UBA domains of USP5 and the C-terminal Ub-fold domain (UFD) of UbE1 directly interacted with the C-terminal UbL domain of DC-UbP but on the distinct surfaces. Overexpression of DC-UbP in HEK 293T cells enhanced the association of these two enzymes and thus prompted cellular ubiquitination, whereas knockdown of the protein reduced the cellular ubiquitination level. Together, DC-UbP may integrate the functions of USP5 and UbE1 through interacting with them, and thus reconcile the cellular ubiquitination and deubiquitination processes.

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<![CDATA[Small Molecule Deubiquitinase Inhibitors Promote Macrophage Anti-Infective Capacity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf7ab0ee8fa60bc35e5

The global spread of anti-microbial resistance requires urgent attention, and diverse alternative strategies have been suggested to address this public health concern. Host-directed immunomodulatory therapies represent one approach that could reduce selection for resistant bacterial strains. Recently, the small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitor WP1130 was reported as a potential anti-infective drug against important human food-borne pathogens, notably Listeria monocytogenes and noroviruses. Utilization of WP1130 itself is limited due to poor solubility, but given the potential of this new compound, we initiated an iterative rational design approach to synthesize new derivatives with increased solubility that retained anti-infective activity. Here, we test a small library of novel synthetic molecules based on the structure of the parent compound, WP1130, for anti-infective activity in vitro. Our studies identify a promising candidate, compound 9, which reduced intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes at concentrations that caused minimal cellular toxicity. Compound 9 itself had no bactericidal activity and only modestly slowed Listeria growth rate in liquid broth culture, suggesting that this drug acts as an anti-infective compound by modulating host-cell function. Moreover, this new compound also showed anti-infective activity against murine norovirus (MNV-1) and human norovirus, using the Norwalk virus replicon system. This small molecule inhibitor may provide a chemical platform for further development of therapeutic deubiquitinase inhibitors with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity.

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<![CDATA[Hepatitis B Virus-Induced Parkin-Dependent Recruitment of Linear Ubiquitin Assembly Complex (LUBAC) to Mitochondria and Attenuation of Innate Immunity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da37ab0ee8fa60b86bb8

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) suppresses innate immune signaling to establish persistent infection. Although HBV is a DNA virus, its pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA) can be sensed by RIG-I and activates MAVS to mediate interferon (IFN) λ synthesis. Despite of the activation of RIG-I-MAVS axis by pgRNA, the underlying mechanism explaining how HBV infection fails to induce interferon-αβ (IFN) synthesis remained uncharacterized. We demonstrate that HBV induced parkin is able to recruit the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC) to mitochondria and abrogates IFN β synthesis. Parkin interacts with MAVS, accumulates unanchored linear polyubiquitin chains on MAVS via LUBAC, to disrupt MAVS signalosome and attenuate IRF3 activation. This study highlights the novel role of parkin in antiviral signaling which involves LUBAC being recruited to the mitochondria. These results provide avenues of investigations on the role of mitochondrial dynamics in innate immunity.

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