ResearchPad - unemployment-rates https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Is poverty the mother of crime? Evidence from homicide rates in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15772 Income inequality is blamed for being the main driver of violent crime by the majority of the literature. However, earlier work on the topic largely neglects the role of poverty and income levels as opposed to income inequality. The current paper uses all court verdicts for homicide cases in China between 2014 and 2016, as well as various inequality measures calculated from 2005 mini census data together with a host of control variables to shed light on the relationship at the detailed Chinese prefecture-level. The results suggest that it is the poverty and low income level, rather than income inequality, that is positively related to homicide rates. We show that the internal rural-urban migration from more violent localities contributes to the destination cities’ homicide rates. The poverty-homicide association implies that instead of “relative deprivation”, “absolute deprivation” is mainly responsible for violent crime. Poverty is the mother of crime. —Marcus Aurelius (121-180AD), Emperor of the Roman Empire.

]]>
<![CDATA[Household crowding as a potential mediator of socioeconomic determinants of tuberculosis incidence in Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc8a3

Although many studies have identified social conditions associated with tuberculosis, contextual and individual factors have rarely been analysed simultaneously. Consequently, we aimed to identify contextual and individual factors associated with tuberculosis incidence in general population in Brazil in 2010. We also assessed whether household crowding mediates the association between socioeconomic determinants and tuberculosis incidence. Individual data of tuberculosis cases were obtained from 5,565 municipalities in Brazil in 2010 (last year of national census), and merged with contextual variables. The associations were evaluated in a multilevel analysis using negative binomial regression. After adjusting for individual factors (age, sex and race) and geographic region, the following contextual factors were associated with tuberculosis incidence rate: AIDS incidence rate [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–1.24], unemployment rate (IRR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.13–1.19), Gini coefficient (IRR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02–1.08), proportion of inmates (IRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.09–1.14), mean per capita household income (IRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91–0.97) and primary care coverage (IRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92–0.96). Inclusion of household crowding in the multivariate model led to a loss of the associations of both Gini coefficient and mean per capita household income. In conclusion, our findings suggest that income inequality and poverty, as determinants of tuberculosis incidence, can be mediated by household crowding. Moreover, prison population can represent a potential social reservoir of tuberculosis in Brazil and should be addressed as a priority for disease control. Finally, the negative association between primary health coverage and tuberculosis incidence highlights the importance of this level of care as a strategy to control this disease.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association between the Density of Physicians and Suicide Rates in Japan: Nationwide Ecological Study Using a Spatial Bayesian Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e0ab0ee8fa60b6934d

Background

Regional disparity in suicide rates is a serious problem worldwide. One possible cause is unequal distribution of the health workforce, especially psychiatrists. Research about the association between regional physician numbers and suicide rates is therefore important but studies are rare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between physician numbers and suicide rates in Japan, by municipality.

Methods

The study included all the municipalities in Japan (n = 1,896). We estimated smoothed standardized mortality ratios of suicide rates for each municipality and evaluated the association between health workforce and suicide rates using a hierarchical Bayesian model accounting for spatially correlated random effects, a conditional autoregressive model. We assumed a Poisson distribution for the observed number of suicides and set the expected number of suicides as the offset variable. The explanatory variables were numbers of physicians, a binary variable for the presence of psychiatrists, and social covariates.

Results

After adjustment for socioeconomic factors, suicide rates in municipalities that had at least one psychiatrist were lower than those in the other municipalities. There was, however, a positive and statistically significant association between the number of physicians and suicide rates.

Conclusions

Suicide rates in municipalities that had at least one psychiatrist were lower than those in other municipalities, but the number of physicians was positively and significantly related with suicide rates. To improve the regional disparity in suicide rates, the government should encourage psychiatrists to participate in community-based suicide prevention programs and to settle in municipalities that currently have no psychiatrists. The government and other stakeholders should also construct better networks between psychiatrists and non-psychiatrists to support sharing of information for suicide prevention.

]]>
<![CDATA[No Spillover Effect of the Foreclosure Crisis on Weight Change: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da61ab0ee8fa60b90f8f

The emerging body of research suggests the unprecedented increase in housing foreclosures and unemployment between 2007 and 2009 had detrimental effects on health. Using data from electronic health records of 105,919 patients with diabetes in Northern California, this study examined how increases in foreclosure rates from 2006 to 2010 affected weight change. We anticipated that two of the pathways that explain how the spike in foreclosure rates affects weight gain—increasing stress and declining salutary health behaviors- would be acute in a population with diabetes because of metabolic sensitivity to stressors and health behaviors. Controlling for unemployment, housing prices, temporal trends, and time-invariant confounders with individual fixed effects, we found no evidence of an association between the foreclosure rate in each patient's census block of residence and body mass index. Our results suggest, although more than half of the population was exposed to at least one foreclosure within their census block, the foreclosure crisis did not independently impact weight change.

]]>
<![CDATA[Accessibility and socio-economic development of human settlements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be1167

Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements. We investigate herein the connectivity and accessibility of all 1814 human settlements (population centers exceeding 200 persons) in Australia, and how they relate to the socio-economic characteristics of, and opportunities in, each population center. Assuming population as a proxy indicator of available opportunities, we present a simple ranking metric for a settlement using the number of population and the distance required to access all other settlements (and the corresponding opportunities therein). We find a strikingly unequal distribution of access to opportunities in Australia, with a marked prominence of opportunities in capital cities in four of the eight states. The two largest cities of Sydney and Melbourne have a dominant position across all socio-economic indicators, compared to all the other cities. In general, we observe across all the settlements that a decrease in access to opportunities is associated with relatively greater socio-economic disadvantage including increased median age and unemployment rate and decreased median household income. Our methodology can be used to better understand the potential benefits of improved accessibility based on infrastructure development, especially for remote areas and for cities and towns with many socio-economically disadvantaged population.

]]>
<![CDATA[Media effects on suicide methods: A case study on Hong Kong 1998-2005]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc66d

Background

Previous studies have suggested that mass media’s reports of new suicide methods will increase suicides using the same method. The same pattern seems not to apply to a conventional suicide method, unless it was used by a celebrity.

Objective

1) to examine media effects on both new and non-new suicide methods during 1998 and 2005 in Hong Kong (HK), when a new method by burning charcoal (CB suicide) was spreading in the region. 2) to examine how CB competed with non-CB methods in terms of media coverage and “recruiting” suicidal persons in the socio-economic context.

Methods

A self- and mutual- exciting process model was fitted to the data, adjusting for divorce rate, unemployment rate, and property price index. Breaking the whole period into onset, peak, and post-peak stages, the model was fitted again to examine the differences.

Results

Comparable copycat effects were found on both CB and non-CB suicide news. The only cross-method media effects were found in the onset stage when non-CB suicide news showed suppressing effect on CB suicides. CB suicides reported a significant self-excitation effect. A higher divorce rate and lower property price index were associated with significantly more suicides incidences and more suicide news.

Conclusions

The emerging of CB suicide method did not substitute media coverage of non-CB suicide in HK. Media effects in this case were not limited to new suicide method or celebrity suicide. The effects were further fueled by adverse socio-economic conditions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Social Monitoring Matters for Deterring Social Deviance in Stable but Not Mobile Socio-Ecological Contexts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8eab0ee8fa60b9f309

Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one’s reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists—who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community—tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in perceptions of relational mobility moderated the effects of social monitoring on cheating in a die-under-cup game. Specifically, social monitoring cues reduced the likelihood of cheating but only among participants who perceived their immediate social environment to be low in relational mobility. The same results were replicated in Study 3, an experiment in which participants’ perception of relational mobility was manipulated before completing an online maze game that allowed them to earn extra cash. In the low mobility condition, the percentage of participants who continued working on the mazes after reaching the time limit decreased as a function of social monitoring; however, this pattern was not observed in the high mobility condition. Together, our findings suggest that socioecological context matters for understanding effective mechanisms of social control.

]]>
<![CDATA[Increase in Unemployment over the 2000’s: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0dab0ee8fa60bcab4f

Background

Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population.

Methods

We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics.

Results

The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV’s unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34–1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59–2.67).

Conclusions

These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e5ab0ee8fa60b6b1f1

Objective

Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context.

Methods

We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing.

Findings

Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.133), lower mobile phone access (β1 = -0.053, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.089), lower unemployment rates (β1 = -0.020, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.048), and a lower proportion of low-income households (β1 = -0.048, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.084). Municipalities with more low-income households also have marginally higher TB testing rates, however, this association is not statistically significant (β1 = -0.025, p = 0.676, R2 = 0.001). There is no relationship between TB prevalence and the proportion of informal settlement households (β1 = 0.021, p = 0.136, R2 = 0.014).

Conclusions

These analyses reveal that the set of characteristics identified by the Global Plan as defining key populations do not adequately predict populations with high TB burden. For example, we find that higher TB prevalence is correlated with more urbanized municipalities but not with informal settlements. We highlight several factors that are counter-intuitively those most associated with high TB burdens and which should therefore play a large role in any effective targeting strategy. Targeting active case finding to key populations at higher risk of infection or poor clinical outcomes may prove more cost effective than broad efforts. However, these results should increase caution in current targeting of active case finding interventions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Self-reported unemployment status and recession: An analysis on the Italian population with and without mental health problems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcc4f

Purpose

During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis.

Methods

We used data from the National surveys on “Health conditions and use of health services” carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions.

Results

The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country.

Conclusions

These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems.

]]>
<![CDATA[An Evaluation of the Non-Neutrality of Money]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da18ab0ee8fa60b7bf3e

This paper evaluates the effect of a change in the quantity of money on relative prices in the U.S. economy based on quarterly time-series for the period of 1959 to 2013. We also estimate the implication of a change in relative prices on the rate of inflation and macroeconomic variables. The empirical results indicate that the change of money supply not only affects relative prices but also affects the inflation rate and real variables, such as investment, natural rate of unemployment and potential GDP, through the change in relative prices. The relevant finding of our study is that money is not neutral in a non-traditional sense because a change in the money supply disturbs relative prices and, consequently, the allocation of resources in the economy. This finding has serious implications that must be considered in the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy.

]]>