ResearchPad - unusual-presentation-of-more-common-disease-injury https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Pericardial relapse of multiple myeloma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9099 In patients who experience relapse of multiple myeloma, upwards of 30% can have extramedullary disease. The presence of extramedullary multiple myeloma is typically associated with adverse cytogenetics and a poor prognosis. Organs most commonly involved include the liver, skin, central nervous system, pleural effusions, kidney, lymph nodes, and pancreas. We present the case of a 53-year-old man with IgA kappa multiple myeloma with the adverse cytogenetic findings of t(4;14) and 1q21 gain who had achieved a stringent complete (sCR) response after initial therapy with carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone. Stringent complete response is defined as the normalization of the free light chain ratio in the serum and an absence of clonal cells in the bone marrow in additiion to criteria needed to achieve complete response. Prior to undergoing a planned autologous stem cell transplant, this patient experienced cardiac tamponade secondary to extramedullary relapse of his multiple myeloma which was limited to the pericardium. In response, his treatment regimen was transitioned to pomalidomide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide for three cycles after which he again achieved sCR and ultimately underwent autologous stem cell transplant. Post-transplant consolidation therapy was administered in the form of pomalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone, followed by pomalidomide and bortezomib maintenance, which he has continued to receive for 3 years without evidence of disease progression.

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<![CDATA[Delayed diagnosis of postcardiac injury syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9e56f2d5eed0c48423ed4b

Postcardiac injury syndrome (PCIS) is a rare condition that is considered to have a trauma-induced autoimmune mechanism triggered by damage to pericardial and/or pleural tissues. We report a case of PCIS accompanied by systemic oedema after thymectomy. A 73-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for dyspnoea and oedema, 9 months after thymectomy. Evaluation revealed the presence of pericardial effusion, pleural effusion and systemic oedema. Differential diagnosis included constrictive pericarditis (secondary to tuberculosis), serositis caused by collagen disease and malignancy. Detailed investigations led to the diagnosis of PCIS, which was successfully treated with prednisolone. This report focuses on the diagnostic approach to PCIS. Since it took time to make a final diagnosis in our patient, we analysed several past case reports and series to determine the cause of the delay in diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with salt-wasting crisis and arrhythmia: a case study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c82b2efd5eed0c484e5a8ab

We report a case of a 10-day-old male infant who presented to the emergency department with severe electrolyte imbalance and life-threatening arrhythmia. The parents reported a 3-day history of poor feeding and lethargy. On examination, he was bradycardic (heart rate of 65 beats/min) with signs of dehydration. His ECG showed broad complex bradycardia. Blood gas showed metabolic acidosis with hyponatraemia and hyperkalaemia. A probable diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with salt-wasting crisis was made and treatment was commenced. He was given saline bolus, nebulised salbutamol, calcium gluconate and hydrocortisone. Following the above interventions, his heart rate rose to 150 beats/min with a regular sinus rhythm within a period of 40 min. The diagnosis of CAH secondary to 21-hydroxylase deficiency with mutation in CYP21A2 was confirmed by genetic studies. He was discharged home with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone and sodium chloride.

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<![CDATA[Case of steroid-resistant Crohn’s-associated bronchiolitis in the setting of quiescent gastrointestinal disease treated with infliximab]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c394524d5eed0c484a30b2c

A fit, 36-year-old man with a history of Crohn’s disease previously treated with azathioprine, presented acutely with progressive shortness of breath on exertion and pleuritic chest pain. At the time of presentation, his Crohn’s disease was quiescent, supported by a normal faecal calprotectin. The initial chest CT suggested the presence of a diffuse inflammatory disorder and he was subsequently started on high dose oral steroids. Despite 4 months of steroid therapy, there was minimal improvement. Following discussion at the inflammatory bowel disease multidisciplinary team meeting, a decision was made to commence infliximab. Subsequently, he made a dramatic clinical and physiological recovery. His forced expiratory volume in 1 s improved from 2.22 L/min (50% predicted) to 3.65 L/min (93% predicted) and he returned to baseline levels of exercise.

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<![CDATA[Case of olmesartan-associated enteropathy and transient positive antitissue transglutaminase serology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c394517d5eed0c484a307a1

Olmesartan-associated enteropathy (OAE) is increasingly being recognised as a major differential diagnosis in patients with villous atrophy and negative coeliac disease (CD) serology. OAE and positive coeliac markers have rarely been reported. We report a case of diarrhoea and small bowel villous blunting associated with a transient elevation of antitissue transglutaminase antibody (ATTG). On discontinuation of olmesartan, symptoms improved, repeat biopsies were normal and levels of ATTG also returned normal. We discuss a possible explanation for the transient elevation in ATTG and the significance of considering OAE/CD overlap.

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<![CDATA[Acute subretinal abscess in Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia with endophthalmitis showcased by multimodal retinal imaging and with 2-year follow-up]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c39450ed5eed0c484a304dd

A middle-aged man presented to emergency services with central vision loss in the setting of flu-like illness with fever. A striking subfoveal abscess was observed in the right fundus. Focal acute chorioretinal inflammation was noted in the asymptomatic fellow eye. Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia was subsequently diagnosed. He presented with undiagnosed HIV infection and latent syphilis. Serial high-definition multimodal retinal imaging showcased resolution of the dome-shaped subretinal abscess following treatment with intravenous flucloxacillin. A chorioretinal scar swiftly replaced the subfoveal abscess. Peripheral right vision and full left vision was retained. Vision loss due to endogenous endophthalmitis in systemic sepsis is an emergency requiring prompt multidisciplinary care. Sight and life are at risk—thus this is not a diagnosis to miss! Early recognition is paramount to health and in retaining vision. We briefly review relevant literature and portray how multimodal imaging guided response to treatment of acute subretinal abscess.

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<![CDATA[Unexpected source of Proteus mirabilis bacteraemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c394512d5eed0c484a30623

Mycotic (infected) aneurysm involving the thoracic aorta is an exceedingly rare and life-threatening condition that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report an unusual source of Proteus mirabilis bacteraemia thought to be due to an infected aneurysm in the thoracic aortic arch in an elderly woman. Source of gram-negative bacteraemia is usually isolated to an intra-abdominal or a pelvic source. Proteus bacteraemia from an intrathoracic pathology is very uncommon, and in this case led to a delay in diagnosis. Although an infected aneurysm is a rare source of gram-negative bacteraemia, it must always be considered when common causes of bacteraemia have been ruled out especially in patients with vascular risk factors.

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<![CDATA[Influenza-induced rhabdomyolysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c394510d5eed0c484a3055f

Rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown with release of damaging proteins that can have devastating consequences. Acute influenza infection is being increasingly recognised as an underlying aetiology. We report an unusual case of severe rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure due to influenza A infection that improved with high-dose oseltamivir and intravenous fluids. In our case, we also noticed a temporal relation between fever spikes and subsequent increase in serum creatine kinase. The precise mechanism between the rise in temperature and creatine kinase is unclear but it could be due to direct viral invasion of myocytes or due to release of new viral progeny following replication in the myocyte.

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