ResearchPad - urological-oncology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Health-related quality of life and rates of toxicity after high-dose-rate brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy for high-risk prostate cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nddedcf59-d397-47df-9114-35c4edaf3d4c High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer. Quality of life is an important factor when discussing therapy options for high-risk prostate cancer. This study evaluated adverse effects and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).Materials and MethodsNinety male patients (median age, 71 years; range, 50 to 79 years) with high-risk prostate cancer underwent HDR-BT after EBRT between December 2009 and January 2017 with a median follow-up of 43 months. A total of 57 patients (69.5%) answered the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life of Cancer Patients questionnaire (QLQ-C30; ver. 3.0), and 8 patients died during follow-up. In order to put the results of this study in context, we compared the results with reference data from the EORTC QLQ-C30 Scoring Manual. Correlations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values, International Prostate Symptom Score, and HRQOL measures were calculated.ResultsThe study participants reported better physical functioning and better global health compared with the reference data, but worse social, role, and cognitive functioning. We found negative statistically significant correlations between the last-measured PSA value and social functioning (p>0.01), cognitive functioning, pain, and constipation (all p<0.05). Toxicity rates were 10.0% for gastrointestinal and 12.2% for genitourinary adverse effects. All reported complications for toxicity were Grade I.ConclusionsThe described therapy results in high biochemical control rates with minimal adverse effects. Compared with reference groups, the HRQOL of this study cohort was acceptable. PSA values during follow-up seem to be a possible indicator to influence HRQOL. ]]> <![CDATA[Long-term oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy in clinically localized prostate cancer: 10-year follow-up in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4f559ead-0c3f-4c7f-87aa-3dbd21fa4c28 The clinical behavior of prostate cancer differs by race and ethnicity; however, data on the Korean population are scarce. We assessed the long-term oncologic outcomes of clinically localized prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in Korean men.Materials and MethodsWe analyzed 786 clinically localized prostate cancer patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, from June 1993 to June 2008. Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis and log-rank test were used to assess the oncologic outcomes.ResultsThe mean age of the patients was 64.9±6.6 years. Pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in 373 patients. Pathologic T and N stage cancer with local advancement and invasion were detected by radical prostatectomy in 307 and 22 patients, respectively. In total, 38 patients who underwent adjuvant therapy were excluded from the analysis of progression after biochemical recurrence (BCR), which occurred in 261 men. In total, 219 patients underwent salvage treatment. Local recurrence and distant metastasis occurred in 109 and 42 patients, respectively; 36 patients experienced metastasis with local recurrence. Castration-resistant prostate cancer developed in 22 patients, and overall and disease-specific mortality was noted in 148 and 23 patients, respectively. The median duration from operation to BCR, BCR to metastasis, and metastasis to disease-specific death was 25, 40, and 22 months, respectively.ConclusionsWe demonstrated the long-term prognosis of localized prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy among Koreans. Our results differ from those reported in the Western literature, with a lower prevalence of distant metastasis and shorter time to metastasis after BCR. ]]> <![CDATA[Development of the clinical calculator for mortality of patients with metastatic clear cell type renal cell carcinoma: An analysis of patients from Korean Renal Cancer Study Group database]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncecbbbe3-7614-41d6-8f1b-2a753b4a1443 To develop the clinical calculator for mortality of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) using Korean Renal Cancer Study Group (KRoCS) database.Materials and MethodsData from 1,115 patients with mRCC treated in 4 hospitals joining KRoCS between 1993 and 2016 were pooled. Five-year survival rates were calculated using Kaplan–Meier curve. A clinical calculator for 5-year mortality was developed using multivariable logistic regression analysis and validated externally using dataset including 916 patients from 4 other hospitals.ResultsOverall survival rates and cancer specific survival rate at 5 years were 28.5% and 29.4%, respectively. Among baseline factors, increased neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (≥4), synchronous metastasis, low albumin (<3.0 g/dL), and low hemoglobin (<lower limit of normal: male, 13 g/dL; female, 11.5 g/dL) were the significant factors in 5-year mortality. Good internal validity was demonstrated with area under the curve estimates being 0.774 at 5-year mortality calculation and the calibration plot. In the external validation, 758 (82.8%) died by 5 years among these patients, with the average model-predicted rate of 72.9%.ConclusionsA clinical calculator has been developed to quantify the risk of death for individual patients after treatment of mRCC. This tool may be useful for patients or their guardians who want to know their prognosis and to identify patients requiring aggressive therapy and additional supportive measures during and after treatment. ]]> <![CDATA[Survival prognoses of Heng intermediate-risk patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with immunotherapy or targeted therapy: A real-world, single-center retrospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6b60ba7c-9501-44d9-808f-60fc07367e5b

Purpose

This study aimed to compare progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in Heng intermediate-risk patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with first-line immunotherapy (IT) or targeted therapy (TT).

Materials and Methods

From 2000 to 2017, a total of 186 intermediate-risk mRCC patients treated with first-line IT (n=64, 34.4%) or TT (n=122, 65.6%) were retrospectively evaluated for PFS, OS, and CSS using the Kaplan–Meier method with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards models for their risk factors with a p-value for significance of <0.05.

Results

During a median 5.08-month of systemic treatment and 92.22 months of follow-up, the median PFS, OS, and CSS were 5.16, 18.44, and 19.04 months, respectively. The comparison of baseline characteristics between the two groups showed a significantly higher rate of T3–4 stages, a lower rate of high nuclear grades, shorter follow-up, longer treatment durations, lesser rates of cytoreductive nephrectomy, a lower objective response rate, and no cases of complete response in the TT group compared with the IT group (p<0.05). The survival comparisons between the two groups showed that PFS was significantly different, whereas OS and CSS were not significantly different. The multivariate analyses showed that synchronous metastatic type(hazard ratio [HR], 2.285), IT (HR, 1.746), and treatment-free interval <1 year (HR, 1.926) were significant factors for PFS, whereas none of the risk factors were significant for OS or CSS.

Conclusions

TT significantly prolonged PFS compared with IT, whereas long-term survival was not significantly different in intermediate-risk mRCC patients.

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<![CDATA[Impact of diagnostic ureteroscopy before radical nephroureterectomy on intravesical recurrence in patients with upper tract urothelial cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na9dc821e-f345-4667-96e3-0f0cfa9d06b9

Purpose

To evaluate the impact of diagnostic ureteroscopy performed before radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) on intravesical recurrence (IVR) in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).

Materials and Methods

From May 2003 to December 2018, patients who underwent RNU for UTUC were enrolled and divided into two groups according to whether they underwent preoperative ureteroscopy (Pre-U vs. Non-U). We excluded patients who had a history of bladder cancer and did not receive bladder cuff resection during surgery. Perioperative parameters were compared between the two groups by use of t-tests or chi-square tests. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to assess the association between Pre-U and IVR.

Results

Of the 453 total patients, 226 patients (49.9%, Pre-U group) had received diagnostic ureteroscopy before RNU, and 227 patients (50.1%, Non-U group) had not. IVR occurred in 99 patients (43.8%) in the Pre-U group and 61 patients (26.9%) in the Non-U group (p=0.001). The median time to recurrence was 107 months. The 5-year IVR-free survival rates were 56.2% and 73.1% in the Pre-U and Non-U groups, respectively (log rank test, p<0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that Pre-U was a significant factor (hazard ratio, 1.413; 95% confidence interval, 1.015–1.965; p=0.040) after adjustment for other factors including tumor stage, location, etc.

Conclusions

Preoperative diagnostic ureteroscopy before RNU was a significant factor for IVR. Therefore, we should carefully consider Pre-U before RNU for nonobvious ureteral lesions. These results should be validated in a prospective study.

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<![CDATA[BRCA1-associated protein 1 expression and prognostic role in prostate adenocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5f8cd7cb-3351-4af6-83c3-53b68988b2a5

Purpose

As prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, finding novel markers for prognosis is crucial. BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP-1), a nuclear-localized deubiquitinating enzyme, has been reported in several human cancers. However, its prognostic role in PCa remains unknown. Herein, we assessed the prognostic and clinicopathologic significance of BAP-1 in PCa.

Materials and Methods

Seventy surgical specimens from radical prostatectomy cases were examined. Two cores per case were selected for construction of tissue microarrays (TMAs). After the exclusion of two cases because of tissue sparsity, BAP-1 immunohistochemical expression was evaluated in 68 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded TMA tissue blocks. The immunohistochemical stain was scored according to proportion of nuclear staining: negative (<10% of tumor cells) or positive (≥10% of tumor cells).

Results

BAP-1 expression was negative in 30 cases (44.1%) and positive in 38 cases (55.9%). Positive BAP-1 expression was more common in pT3b disease than in pT2 (p=0.038). A high preoperative prostate-specific antigen level was correlated with BAP-1 expression (p=0.014). Age, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and grade group were not significantly correlated with BAP-1 expression. Patients with positive BAP-1 expression showed significantly shorter disease-free survival (p=0.013). Additionally, BAP-1 was an independent prognostic factor of PCa (p=0.035; hazard ratio, 9.277; 95% confidence interval, 1.165–73.892).

Conclusions

Our study findings showed an association of BAP-1 expression with poor PCa prognosis and suggest a potential role for BAP-1 as a prognostic biomarker for PCa.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic significance of preoperative and follow-up neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c427527d5eed0c484667da2

Purpose

To evaluate the significance of preoperative and follow-up neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as prognostic factors for recurrence in patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (NMCCRCC).

Materials and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 309 patients with NMCCRCC who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy. The prognostic significance of various clinicopathological variables, preoperative NLR (pNLR) and PLR (pPLR), and NLR and PLR at recurrence or quasi-recurrence (rNLR and rPLR) for recurrence-free survival (RFS) was analyzed.

Results

At mean follow-up of 93 months, 44 patients (14.2%) developed recurrence. In the univariate analysis, clinical presentation, tumor size, pathologic tumor stage, Fuhrman grade, pNLR, pPLR and rNLR were significant prognostic factors for RFS. In the multivariate analysis using pNLR and pPLR as continuous variables, tumor size, pathologic tumor stage and pPLR were independent prognostic factors for RFS. In the multivariate analysis using pNLR and pPLR as dichotomous variables, tumor size, pathologic tumor stage, Fuhrman grade and pNLR ≥1.7 were independent prognostic factors for RFS. In multivariate analyses using rNLR and rPLR, only tumor size and pathologic tumor stage were independent prognostic factors for RFS. In a subset of patients with recurrence or at least 42 months follow-up without recurrence, rNLR ≥1.9 was significantly associated with worse RFS, albeit without independent significance.

Conclusions

pNLR and pPLR are independent prognostic factors for RFS in patients with NMCCRCC. We propose that postoperative follow-up NLR of 1.9 and higher with one or more adverse clinicopathological factors should prompt radiologic evaluation for possible metastasis.

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<![CDATA[What is the best urinary diversion after laparoscopic radical cystectomy?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ad635f5463d7e5236c43b0d ]]> <![CDATA[Location of Positive Surgical Margin and Its Association With Biochemical Recurrence Rate Do Not Differ Significantly in Four Different Types of Radical Prostatectomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5adb4b03463d7e7520732271

Purpose

To analyze the location of the positive surgical margin (PSM) and its association with the biochemical recurrence (BCR) rate in cases of radical prostatectomy (RP) according to the type of surgery.

Materials and Methods

We retrospectively analyzed 1,880 cases of RP. Baseline characteristics were analyzed. Locations of the PSM were recorded in the four surgery groups as apex, anterior, posterolateral, and base and were analyzed by using chi-square test. The association of the location of the PSM with the BCR rate was analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis according to the type of surgery, which included radical perineal prostatectomy (RPP, n=633), radical retroperitoneal prostatectomy (RRP, n=309), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP, n=164), and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP, n=774).

Results

A PSM was found in a total of 336 cases (18%): 122 cases of RPP (18%), 67 cases of RRP (17%), 29 cases of LRP (17%), and 119 cases of RALRP (15%). The PSM rate did not differ significantly by surgical type (p=0.142). The location of the PSM was the apex in 136 cases (7.2%), anterior in 67 cases (3.5%), posterolateral in 139 cases (7.3%), and base in 95 cases (5.0%), and showed no significant difference according to surgical type (p=0.536, p=0.557, p=0.062, and p=0.109, respectively). The BCR rate according to the location of the PSM did not differ significantly for the four types of surgery (p=0.694, p=0.301, p=0.445, and p=0.309 for RPP, RRP, LRP, and RALRP, respectively).

Conclusions

The location of the PSM seemed to be unrelated to type of RP. There was no significant correlation between the BCR rate and the location of the PSM for any of the RP types.

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