ResearchPad - urology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Massively Dilated Lower Pole Ectopic Megaureter with Involuted Lower Pole Renal Moiety and Collecting System: An Exception to the Meyer-Weigert Rule]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11609 Duplicated collecting systems have a predictable draining pattern that is described by the Meyer-Weigert rule. When there are abnormalities associated with duplicating collecting systems, the upper pole moiety drains inferomedially (most commonly associated with obstruction), and the lower pole moiety drains superolaterally (most commonly associated with vesicoureteral reflux). We present a case of an infant with a duplicated collecting system that violates the Meyer-Weigert rule with lower pole megaureter with massive dilation, ectopic insertion, and associated involuted lower pole renal moiety. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of a lower pole ectopic ureter with an involuted lower pole renal moiety. 

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<![CDATA[Cryosurgery Versus Primary Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Locally Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Primary Radiotherapy: A Propensity-Matched Survival Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11574 Background

Optimal management of isolated local recurrence of prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy remains to be defined. Up-front androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used but may adversely affect the quality of life and is essentially a palliative treatment. Local salvage carries a different side-effect profile and is potentially curative, but it has not been compared to ADT.

Materials and methods

We conducted a propensity-matched analysis of cohorts of men treated with either whole gland cryotherapy (CRYO) or primary ADT following the diagnosis of locally recurrent prostate cancer. Our specific objectives were to compare overall survival (OS) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) between CRYO vs. ADT.

Results

After a one-to-one matching, 169 patients from each cohort were included in comparisons. Median follow-up time was 6.7 years (ADT) vs. 18 years (CRYO). The 10-year PCSM was 18.5% (ADT) vs. 16.2% (CRYO), which was not statistically different [hazard ratioo (HR): 0.69, 95% CI: 0.36-1.34, p=0.27]. The median OS was 12.3 years (CRYO) versus 10.2 years (ADT) (HR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.42-0.95, p=0.03).

Conclusions

While PCSM was similar between the two strategies, CRYO was associated with a longer OS compared to primary ADT. Given the retrospective nature of the trial, these results should be considered hypothesis-generating, and phase III trials comparing these two options are required to further explore these findings.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of Ureteroscopic Pneumatic Lithotripsy and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Proximal Ureteral Calculi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10715 Objective

The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness and complications of ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy (URS) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the management of patients with proximal ureteral stones.

Methods

In this trial, 150 patients presenting with proximal ureteral stones at the Department of Urology of Nishter Hospital Multan from November 2018 to November 2019 were allocated 1:1 to undergo URS or SWL. The presence of stone fragments <4 mm on follow-up was regarded as being stone free. The study outcomes included stone-free rates after first, second, and third treatment sessions and stone retropulsion into the kidneys.

Results

A total of 75 patients each underwent URS and SWL. The mean procedure times for SWL and URS were 61.61± 3.21 and 85.01±6.75 minutes, respectively (P=0.000), and the mean numbers of procedures were 1.51±0.49 and 1.01±0.42, respectively (P=0.000). Stone-free rates after the first, second, and third sessions of SWL were 64%, 77.3%, and 94.7%, respectively, whereas stone-free rates after the first, second, and third sessions of URS were 86.7%, 92%, and 100%, respectively. Rates of stone retropulsion into the kidneys in the SWL and URS groups were 0% and 6.7%, respectively (P=0.000).

Conclusion

Compared with SWL, URS had significantly higher stone-free rates in patients with proximal ureteral stones. Treatment costs and hospital stay were lower in the SWL group, whereas complication rates were comparable.

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<![CDATA[Postrenal Acute Renal Failure Due to Giant Fecaloma-related Bilateral Hydronephrosis: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10544 An 88-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal distention, fever, and constipation of about a week's duration. Laboratory tests showed impaired kidney function tests and fluid electrolyte values. Bilateral hydroureteronephrosis was observed on non-contrasted abdominal CT. Imaging revealed no intrinsic urological pathology (ureteral stones, etc.) that could lead to obstruction in the urinary system; however, excessively dilated and feces-loaded rectum and colon were observed. The patient was treated with conservative methods. Unfortunately, she passed away due to general condition disorder.

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<![CDATA[COVID-19 research: promising tracks leading to uro-oncology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10374 <![CDATA[ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction and Complete Heart Block in a Nitrate-free Patient using a New Emerging Substance called Rhino]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9475 The pervasive use of counterfeit sexual enhancement supplements is increasing worldwide. There are thousands of vendors on the internet while local gas stations and convenience stores are selling it across the United States (US). We report a case of right coronary artery ST-segment elevation and complete heart block in a nitrate-free patient shortly after consuming three 950 mg pills of a sexual enhancer known as rhino and completing sexual intercourse. Coronary angiography revealed 100% occlusion of the right coronary artery and a drug-eluting stent was inserted with a transvenous pacer that he tolerated well, and recovered without complications. The counterfeit drug has gained traction for its high user satisfaction and low cost among recreational customers. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), through its MedWatch program, has frequently released citations to consumers warning them against rhino since 2015, while their labs have recognized two prime ingredients: sildenafil and tadalafil. Although adverse cardiac risk with this therapeutic class is low, we aim to parse out its temporal relationship with rhino, an enhancer containing 14-200 times the prescription limits of sildenafil and tadalafil.

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<![CDATA[Does Gleason score of positive surgical margin after radical prostatectomy affect biochemical recurrence and oncological outcomes? Protocol for systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0960b75d-51f4-4ece-bdf9-1b092938e960 Positive surgical margins (PSM) in cancer patients are commonly associated with worse prognosis and a higher risk of secondary treatment. However, the relevance of this parameter in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) remains controversial, given the inconsistencies in its ability to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) and oncological outcomes. Hence, further assessment of the utility of surgical margins for prostate cancer prognosis is required to predict these outcomes more accurately. Over the last decade, studies have used the Gleason score (GS) of positive margins to predict outcomes. Herein, the authors aim to conduct a systematic review investigating the role of GS of PSM after radical prostatectomy in predicting BCR and oncological outcomes.Methods and analysisWe will perform a search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS and COCHRANE databases. The review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We will screen titles and abstracts to select articles appropriate for full-text review. Studies discussing GS of PSM after RP will be included. Given the change in reporting of GS, only articles from 2005 to 2019 will be included. The quality of the studies chosen will be assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa tool for non-randomised and Cochrane risk of bias for randomised control studies. We will adopt the grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluation framework to comment on quality of cumulative evidence. The primary outcome measure will be time to BCR. Secondary outcome measures include secondary treatment, disease-specific survival, disease progression-free and overall mortality at follow-up period. We aim to perform a meta-analysis if the level of heterogeneity is acceptable (I2 <50%).Ethics and disseminationThe review does not require ethics approval as it is a review of published literature. The findings of the review will be submitted for peer-reviewed publications and presented at scientific meetings.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42019131800. ]]> <![CDATA[Robot-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site upper urinary tract surgery with da Vinci Xi surgical system: Initial experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N79cafcfd-ae16-4e84-83b5-4415aaad4c34 The da Vinci Xi robot surgical system was newly released with several upgrades and modifications made to its previous Si platform; to further enhance the capabilities to carry out minimally invasive surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative outcomes of robot laparoendoscopic single-site surgery performed with the da Vinci Xi system.Materials and MethodsRetrospective chart review of patients undergoing of robot laparoendoscopic single-site by a single surgeon using the Xi single-site platform from November 2016 and May 2019. For the da Vinci Xi system, multichannel port and “Lap Single Vision” port access platform were placed through a single periumbilical incision.ResultsFourteen patients underwent single-site surgery with benign cases (n=9) and partial nephrectomy cases (n=5). Among surgeries for the partial nephrectomy patients, one case of conversion to multiport robotic surgery occurred due to difficulty of tumor resection. Other major intraoperative complication, renal vein injury, was occurred in a patient who underwent a pyelolithotomy. The patient required a blood transfusion however, we were able to repair the vascular injury using prolene suture without additional port placement and open conversion. In our series, there were no conversions to open. The postoperative course was uneventful in all patients; only Clavien–Dindo III complications occurred.ConclusionsOur preliminary experience with robot laparoendoscopic single-site surgery using the da Vinci Xi system demonstrated feasibility and safety in selected patients. Further studies with a greater number of patients in multiple settings will help to fully elucidate the role of da Vinci Xi surgical system in single-site surgery. ]]> <![CDATA[Open ureteroplasty with buccal mucosa graft for long proximal strictures: A good option for a rare problem]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N58aad288-1b43-4a22-a993-404a96aedd61 To report a single surgeon experience with one year follow-up after open ureteroplasty with buccal mucosa graft (OUBMG) in the rare situation of long segment proximal ureteral strictures.Materials and MethodsFour patients with long segment proximal ureteral stricture underwent OU-BMG between February and July 2017. Functional outcome was assessed by pre- and postoperative serum creatinine, ultrasound and renal scintigraphy as well as patient reported outcomes.ResultsFour patients with an average stricture length of 4 cm underwent OU-BMG between February and July 2017. No major postoperative complications occurred. Retrograde uretero-pyelography 6 weeks postoperatively revealed a watertight anastomosis followed by immediate emptying of the renal pelvis and ureter in all four patients. Ureteroscopy at this time showed a wide lumen with well-vascularized pink mucosa. After a mean follow-up time of 12.5 (12–14) months, postoperative serum creatinine was unimpaired. Renal scintigraphy revealed no signs of renal obstruction. With regard to intraoral surgery, no difficulties with mouth opening or intraoral dryness or numbness were reported.ConclusionsFor patients with long segment ureteral strictures OU-BMG is a safe technique with excellent surgical and functional outcomes. Hence, the application of this technique should be encouraged and regarded as one of the standard options in case of this rare problem. ]]> <![CDATA[Effect of bisphosphonates on the crystallization of stone-forming salts in synthetic urine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9424dd57-c0ad-4eeb-952e-371b044b387c We investigated the inhibitory effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) on the crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), calcium phosphate (CaP), and magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) in synthetic urine, aiming to see 1) which specific BPs work best on a particular type of crystal and 2) what is the lowest concentration of BPs that inhibits crystal formation.Materials and MethodsCrystals from synthetic urine were exposed to different concentrations of BPs. Urinary turbidity was used as a marker of crystallization and was measured by spectrophotometry by use of a validated method in our laboratory. The percent inhibitory activity (IA) was calculated by using the formula: (ab )/a×100, where a is baseline maximal turbidity and b is maximal turbidity with various concentrations of medication. Potassium citrate and magnesium citrate were used as positive controls.ResultsAt the lowest dose of 0.001 mg/mL, risedronate induced the highest IA of 37% on CaP, whereas ibandronate had the strongest IA on COM (24%). To initiate the inhibition of MAP crystallization, risedronate required a two-fold higher concentration (0.002 mg/mL) to reach 30% IA, whereas etidronate required a four-fold higher concentration (0.004 mg/mL) to reach 42% IA.ConclusionsBPs are good inhibitors of crystallization in synthetic urine, with risedronate and ibandronate being the most potent. At a low clinically acceptable dose, their highest inhibitory action was on CaP and COM crystals. Higher doses were needed to prevent MAP crystallization. Further investigation of the use of BPs in kidney stone prevention is warranted. ]]> <![CDATA[Small Cell Carcinoma of the Prostate: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N658eb756-734a-4e4c-ac9a-ae7754cf31bf

Small cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is a rare malignancy that is considered a lethal entity of prostate cancer. Once it is diagnosed, patients characteristically experience an aggressive clinical course with poor overall survival rates, which unfortunately still holds even with modern treatments. In this report, we discuss the case of a 63-year-old African American male who initially presented to the hospital with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 9.41 ng/mL and was found to have locally extensive SCCP. After one cycle of chemotherapy, the patient's symptoms worsened, and his disease continued to progress with an increased metastatic burden. In a matter of just a few months, the patient’s disease progressed from a locally advanced entity to a diffusely metastatic one, showcasing the true aggressive nature of this disease. Through an extensive literature review, this case report also sheds further light on SCCP's histological characteristics, its apparent differences from adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and its aggressive nature even through treatment.

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<![CDATA[Beta-sitosterol-induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne31cb388-be23-4b77-92d1-7e507c886335

While drug-induced pancreatitis from corticosteroids has been well described in the medical literature, the exact mechanism is unclear. We present the first reported case of drug-induced pancreatitis from beta-sitosterol, a naturally occurring plant sterol structurally similar to cholesterol, obtained primarily through Western diet and supplementation.

A 57-year-old male with a history of situs inversus and benign prostatic hyperplasia presented from an outside facility with a two-day history of worsening epigastric pain radiating to the right upper quadrant. Lipase was markedly elevated at 572 U/L. CT scan and ultrasound of the abdomen were remarkable for acute pancreatitis with acute necrotic collections and normal appearing gallbladder and bile ducts without the presence of gallstones. The patient was managed with aggressive intravenous hydration and supportive management and had resolution of symptoms. At his follow-up appointment, the patient disclosed that he had started a new herbal supplement, beta-sitosterol, on the morning after his symptoms began. Abdominal magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography obtained at follow-up appointment showed interval resolution of pancreatitis and normal biliary anatomy. In the absence of classical risk factors for acute pancreatitis, a diagnosis of drug-induced pancreatitis secondary to beta-sitosterol was made. The patient was advised to avoid beta-sitosterol, and thus continued to remain asymptomatic.

We describe the first reported case of drug-induced pancreatitis from beta-sitosterol, a common phytosterol found in many over the counter supplements worldwide. After a thorough workup to exclude other causes, our case demonstrates consistent resolution of symptoms and pancreatic enzymes along with normal imaging following discontinuation of the offending agent.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of immediate versus delayed streak plate inoculation on urine bacterial culture and susceptibility testing in dogs and cats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N81ba3498-cbed-497e-ad26-a15409adc2e7

Abstract

Background

Quantitative bacterial culture and susceptibility testing is the gold standard diagnostic for determining bacterial urinary tract infection. Transport of samples to external reference laboratories is common practice in veterinary medicine.

Objective

To compare bacterial culture and susceptibility results from clinical urine samples when streak plate inoculation is performed immediately after sample collection versus after transport to a reference laboratory. To determine the clinical implications of discrepant culture results.

Animals

One hundred and ninety‐four canine and 45 feline urine samples that were submitted for urinalysis and urine culture and susceptibility testing.

Methods

This was a prospective, cross‐sectional study. Streak plate inoculations were performed on urine samples immediately after collection and also after transport to a reference laboratory. Samples were stored in plain sterile tubes and refrigerated up to 24 hours before transport. Culture results were compared, and discordant results were evaluated for clinical relevance. Signalment, comorbidities, lower urinary tract signs, and antimicrobial history were recorded.

Results

Kappa coefficient for agreement between plating methods was 0.884. Twenty‐two (71%) of 31 discrepant results were determined to have no clinical impact. Though 35% of clean midstream samples had discrepant culture results, only 8% of these had clinical impact. Conversely, 8.6% from cystocentesis were discrepant, but 41% of these had clinical impact.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Provided urine samples are stored and transported appropriately, the immediate preplating of urine for culture and susceptibility testing is unnecessary in the majority of cases. Despite more discrepancies in plating methods for midstream samples, the minority were of clinical importance.

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<![CDATA[Urine cortisol‐creatinine and protein‐creatinine ratios in urine samples from healthy dogs collected at home and in hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N029afea0-969a-462a-a96b-cb5d72af0a44

Abstract

Background

Recently, urine protein:creatinine ratios (UPC) were shown to be lower in urine samples from dogs collected at home (AH) as compared to those collected in hospital (IH). Stress‐inducing procedures and travel to the hospital have been hypothesized to cause prerenal proteinuria.

Objectives

Evaluate patient stress using urine cortisol:creatinine ratios (UCCr) and correlate UCCr to UPC in urine samples obtained AH and IH.

Animals

Thirty‐six healthy, client‐owned dogs.

Methods

Prospective, non‐masked study. Two voided urine samples were obtained (AH and IH). Complete urinalysis as well as UPC and UCCr were performed. Clients graded their dogs' stress level AH, in transport, and IH.

Results

The UCCr was significantly higher in IH samples than in AH samples (P < .0001), but UPC was not significantly different between AH and IH urine samples (P = .14). In all samples and in both collection settings, UCCr was not significantly correlated with UPC. Travel time and time IH were not correlated with change in UCCr or UPC. In 8 dogs with borderline or overt proteinuria, no significant difference was found in UPC between settings, but UCCr was significantly higher in IH samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The UPC was not higher when measured in urine samples collected IH compared to AH. Dogs had higher UCCr IH, but UCCr was not associated with UPC. Stress, as estimated by UCCr, did not affect proteinuria. Further evidence is needed to support the claim that stress may result in proteinuria in healthy dogs.

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<![CDATA[Characteristics associated with bacterial growth in urine in 451 proteinuric dogs (2008‐2018)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd1a629ec-e60b-4b95-88fe-bc95b571e638

Abstract

Background

Urine cultures are frequently recommended to rule out infection as a postrenal cause of proteinuria.

Objective

Identify characteristics associated with bacterial growth in urine in proteinuric dogs.

Animals

Four hundred and fifty‐one dogs admitted to a teaching hospital between January 2008 and January 2018 with urine protein‐to‐creatinine ratios (UPCs) >0.5.

Methods

Retrospective study included dogs with a UPC, urinalysis, and quantitative urine culture (QUC) performed within a 72‐hour period by searching electronic records. Dogs with recent antimicrobial therapy, urine collected by methods other than cystocentesis, or UPC ≤0.5 were excluded. Signalment, comorbidities, serum BUN and creatinine concentrations, urinalysis findings, and QUC results were recorded. The association between these characteristics and presence of bacterial growth in urine was assessed by univariable and multivariable analysis.

Results

Thirty of four hundred fifty‐one dogs (6.7%) had bacterial growth in urine. Of these, 18 (60.0%) had active urine sediment. Bacterial growth in urine was associated with pyuria (odd ratio [OR] 25.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9‐79.6, P < .001), bacteriuria (OR 11.1, 95% CI 3.2‐39.1, P < .001), and lower urinary tract disease (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.9‐23.0; P = .0028). If QUC was prompted based on these criteria, 8/451 (1.8%) of proteinuric dogs would have had undetected bacterial growth.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The proportion of proteinuric dogs with both inactive urine sediment and bacterial growth in urine was low, suggesting that QUC might not be necessary in the evaluation of all proteinuric dogs. An active urine sediment or lower urinary tract disease should prompt QUC for proteinuric dogs.

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<![CDATA[Acute kidney injury due to Leptospira interrogans in 4 foals and use of renal replacement therapy with intermittent hemodiafiltration in 1 foal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4b811237-ab44-41c0-a809-faa6e33df7d4

Abstract

Four 2‐month‐old foals were presented to an equine hospital with acute kidney injury caused by Leptospira interrogans infection. Clinical signs were nonspecific and included lethargy, fever, and unwillingness to nurse. The most important hematologic and clinicopathologic findings were azotemia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, and hypochloremia. The diagnosis was based on urinary real‐time PCR, serology using a microscopic agglutination test, or both. The most important serovars involved were L. interrogans serogroup australis serovar Bratislava and Australis. Treatment consisted of IV fluid therapy and antimicrobial treatment. Renal replacement therapy with hemodiafiltration was performed in 1 of the foals. All foals survived to discharge. This report highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment in foals with acute kidney injury caused by L. interrogans infection.

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<![CDATA[Identification of a three-m6A related gene risk score model as a potential prognostic biomarker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N74ee694d-f7d1-4f2f-b6ee-acc76d7b2c1e

Background

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been shown to play important roles in regulating gene expression and phenotypes in both health and disease. Here, our purpose is to construct a m6A-regulrator-based risk score (RS) for prediction of the prognosis of ccRCC.

Methods

We used clinical and expression data of m6A related genes from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset and the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) Cox regression analysis to develop an RS to predict survival of patients with ccRCC, and analyzed correlations between RS and other clinical indicators such as age, grade and stage. Validation of this RS was then engaged in another cohort, E-MTAB-1980 from the ArrayExpress dataset. Finally, we used quantitative real-time PCR to analyze the expression profile of genes consists of the RS.

Results

A three-gene RS including METTL3, METTL14 and HNRNPA2B1 which can predict overall survival (OS) of ccRCC patients from TCGA. After applying this RS into the validation cohort from Arrayexpress, we found that it successfully reproduced the result; furthermore, the results of PCR validation were in line with our analysis.

Conclusion

To sum up, our study has identified an RS composed of m6A related genes that may predict the prognosis of ccRCC patients, which might be helpful for future therapeutic strategies. Our results call for further experimental studies for validations.

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<![CDATA[Renal expression and urinary excretion of liver‐type fatty acid‐binding protein in cats with renal disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9612d178-09b4-4a29-8745-f2a0052639a2

Abstract

Background

Liver‐type fatty acid‐binding protein (L‐FABP) is a biomarker for early detection of renal disease in humans. Liver‐type fatty acid‐binding protein is cytotoxic oxidation products secreted from proximal tubules under ischemia and oxidative stress.

Objective

To examine renal expression and quantify urinary excretion of L‐FABP in catswith renal disease.

Animals

One hundred and thirty‐four client‐owned cats including 34 cats with serum creatinine (sCre) values >1.6 mg/dL and 10 other cats that died in clinics.

Methods

Tissue expressions of L‐FABP were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Urinary L‐FABP (uL‐FABP) and serum L‐FABP (sL‐FABP) levels were determined by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. Anti‐liver‐type fatty acid‐binding protein antibody immunostained renal sections.

Results

Feline kidneys express L‐FABP. Strong L‐FABP signals were observed in the lumens of proximal tubular cells in 5 cats with high uL‐FABP excretion, but not in 5 cats with low uL‐FABP excretion. In 9 normal cats, uL‐FABP index was <1.2 μg/g urinary creatinine (uCre). High uL‐FABP indexes (>10.0 μg/g uCre) were detected in 7 of 100 cats with low sCre (<1.6 mg/dL) and 18 of 44 cats with high sCre (>1.6 mg/dL). There was a weak correlation between L‐FABP index and sCre, serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), or blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and these correlation coefficients were increased by analyzing only data of cats with sCre >1.6 mg/dL. There was a weak correlation between u L‐FABP index and sL‐FABP in all tested cats, but not in cats with high sCre.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

This study demonstrates correlations between L‐FABP and current renal biomarkers for chronic kidney disease in cats, such as sCre and SDMA. Liver‐type fatty acid‐binding protein may be a potential biomarker to predict early pathophysiological events in feline kidneys.

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<![CDATA[Measurement of preprandial and postprandial urine calcium to creatinine ratios in male Miniature Schnauzers with and without urolithiasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne6b2effd-0997-4eaa-9be3-20306831cf87

Abstract

Background

We aimed to identify a simple test for excessive calciuresis and predict calcium oxalate (CaOx) disease in Miniature Schnauzers. We investigated the impact of postprandial time on the urine calcium to creatinine ratio (UCa/Cr) in male dogs of this breed, with the goal of improving the utility of the UCa/Cr.

Hypotheses

(1) Significant differences will exist in preprandial and postprandial UCa/Cr between CaOx urolith‐forming and control Schnauzers. (2) The UCa/Cr will increase significantly from the first morning baseline at 1 postprandial time point(s) in both control and CaOx urolith‐forming dogs. (3) Biochemical abnormalities and other variables may be associated with urolith status.

Animals

Twenty‐four male Miniature Schnauzer dogs, consisting of 9 with (urolith formers) and 15 without (controls) CaOx uroliths.

Methods

Urine was collected before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after feeding a standardized diet. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify the UCa/Cr cutoff that most accurately differentiates dogs based on urolith status.

Results

Urolith formers had significantly higher mean UCa/Cr over the course of 8 hours. The postprandial change in UCa/Cr was not significant at any time point between or within groups. The cutoff UCa/Cr value of 0.06 had a specificity of 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80%‐100%) and a sensitivity of 56% (95% CI, 21%‐86%) for identifying CaOx urolithiasis.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Urolith‐forming male Miniature Schnauzers have excessive calciuresis, and the postprandial sampling time up to 8 hours is not critical. This simple urine measurement has potential as a marker of CaOx disease.

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<![CDATA[Transurethral cystoscopy in dogs with recurrent urinary tract infections: Retrospective study (2011‐2018)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6534702e-96c5-4964-b648-36fa033c9cdf

Abstract

Background

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in female dogs and recurrent infections often require investigation by transurethral cystoscopy.

Hypothesis/Objectives

Describe the findings of transurethral cystoscopy in dogs presented for recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI).

Animals

Fifty‐three client‐owned dogs with RUTI were included in the study.

Methods

Retrospective study. Data collected from medical records included signalment, clinical findings, bladder wall culture, cystoscopic, and histopathologic findings. UTI was defined as: presence of compatible clinical signs and at least 2 out of 3 of the following criteria: (1) pyuria, (2) positive urine culture, (3) resolution of clinical signs with antibiotic treatment. Recurrence of UTI was defined as at least 2 episodes of UTI within 6 months or at least 3 or more in 1 year.

Results

The mean age at presentation was 3.8 years with a majority of female dogs (48/53), 40/48 of which were spayed. Main breeds were Labrador (10/53), Australian Shepherd (4/53), and Miniature Schnauzer (3/53). A hooded vulva was noted in 33/48 of females. Transurethral cystoscopy showed anomalies in 45/53 of cases: mucosal edema (19/53), vestibulovaginal septal remnant (15/48), lymphoid follicles (8/53), short urethra (6/53), and ectopic ureter (5/53). Urine culture at the time of cystoscopy was positive in 13/49. Bladder wall edema and ulceration were the most common findings on histopathology (25/39).

Conclusion and Clinical Importance

RUTI occurred more frequently in spayed female dogs. Transurethral cystoscopy is useful in the diagnosis and treatment of anomalies in dogs with RUTIs.

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