ResearchPad - uterine-cancer https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Preoperative risk stratification in endometrial cancer (ENDORISK) by a Bayesian network model: A development and validation study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14690 Bayesian networks are graphical networks that are based on machine learning and can be used for prediction purposes without the need to have values for all predictor variables available for each patient.Approximately 10% of patients with endometrial cancer have lymph node metastasis.The risk of lymph node metastasis and poor outcome differs substantially between individuals.Preoperative identification of patients at risk for lymph node metastasis and poor outcome allows tailoring of individualized treatment.What did the researched do and find?A Bayesian network to predict the risk of lymph node metastasis and survival was constructed with data from a retrospective multicenter development cohort from 10 centers across Europe (n = 763).The predictive capability of the final network was tested in 2 external cohorts from the Netherlands (PIpelle Prospective ENDOmetrial carcinoma [PIPENDO], n = 384) and from Norway (Molecular Markers in Treatment in Endometrial Cancer [MoMaTEC], n = 446).What do these findings mean?The Bayesian network we propose allows refined risk stratification before surgery and is easily usable.Because of its graphical character, the interactions between the different variables included into the network are directly visualized.A prospective feasibility study will be needed prior to implementation in the clinic. ]]> <![CDATA[Plasma growth differentiation factor-15 is an independent marker for aggressive disease in endometrial cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c52d5eed0c484bd1926

Objective

Better biomarkers are needed in order to identify patients with endometrial carcinoma at risk of recurrence and who may profit from a more aggressive treatment regimen. Our objective was to explore the applicability of plasma growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) as a marker for recurrent disease, as well as a marker for poor prognosis and lymph node metastases.

Methods

EDTA-blood samples were obtained from 235 patients with endometrial cancer before primary surgery. For 36 of these patients, matching blood samples were collected at time of recurrence. Blood samples were also collected from 78 patients with endometrial hyperplasia. Plasma GDF-15 was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Preoperative pelvic MRI scans for 141 patients were investigated in parallel for imaging variables.

Results

Preoperative plasma level of GDF-15 was significantly higher for patients who experienced recurrence (1780 ng/L; 95% CI; 518–9475 ng/L) than for patients who did not develop recurrent disease (1236 ng/L; 95% CI; 307–7030 ng/L) (p<0.001). Plasma levels of GDF-15 at recurrence (2818 ng/L, 95% CI 2088–3548 ng/L) were significantly higher than plasma levels of GDF-15 measured at time of primary diagnosis (1857 ng/L, 95% CI; 1317–2398 ng/L) (p = 0.001). High plasma level GDF-15 independently predicts recurrent disease (OR = 3.14; 95% CI 2.10–4.76) and lymph node metastases (OR = 2.64; 95% CI 1.52–4.61). Patients with high plasma level of GDF-15 had significantly larger tumor volume (p = 0.008).

Conclusion

Elevated plasma level of GDF-15 is associated with aggressive disease and lymph node metastasis in endometrial carcinoma. GDF-15 may be helpful in indicating recurrent disease.

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<![CDATA[Mismatch repair deficiency and aberrations in the Notch and Hedgehog pathways are of prognostic value in patients with endometrial cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf7cd5eed0c484914705

The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of the Hedgehog (Gli, Patched-1, Shh, Smo) and Notch (Jag1, Notch2, Notch3) pathway members, in comparison to a panel of proteins (ER, PgR, HER2/neu, Ki67, p53, p16, PTEN and MMR) previously suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer, in association with clinical outcome and standard clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 204 patients with histological diagnosis of endometrial cancer treated from 2004 to 2013 were included. The evaluation of protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Univariate analysis showed that higher Ki67 labeling, expression of PTEN, p16, Notch2 and Notch3 proteins, as well as MMR proficiency were associated with increased relapse and mortality rate. Additionally, Patched-1 protein expression was associated with worse DFS, while p53 overexpression was associated with worse OS. In multivariate analyses, patients with MMR proficient tumors had more than double risk for death than patients with MMR deficient (MMRd) tumors (adjusted HR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.05–4.58, p = 0.036). Jag1 positivity conferred reduced mortality risk (HR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.23–0.97, p = 0.042). However, as shown by hierarchical clustering, patients fared better when their tumors expressed high Jag1 protein in the absence of Notch2 and Notch3, while they fared worse when all three proteins were highly expressed. Patched-1 positivity conferred higher risk for relapse (HR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.05–3.96, p = 0.036).

Aberrant expression of key components of the Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways, as well as MMRd may serve as independent prognostic factors for recurrence and survival in patients with endometrial cancer.

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<![CDATA[Molecular Imaging of endometrial sentinel lymph nodes utilizing fluorescent-labeled Tilmanocept during robotic-assisted surgery in a porcine model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a08db463d7e3fbe68912f

Molecular imaging with a fluorescent version of Tilmanocept may permit an accurate and facile detection of sentinel nodes of endometrial cancer. Tilmanocept accumulates in sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) by binding to a cell surface receptor unique to macrophages and dendritic cells. Four female Yorkshire pigs underwent cervical stromal injection of IRDye800-Tilmanocept, a molecular imaging agent tagged with near-infrared fluorescent dye and radiolabeled with gallium-68 and technetium-99m. PET/CT scans 1.5 hours post-injection provided pre-operative SLN mapping. Robotic-assisted lymphadenectomy was performed two days after injection, using the FireFly imaging system to identify nodes demonstrating fluorescent signal. After removal of fluorescent nodes, pelvic and periaortic node dissections were performed. Nodes were assayed for technetium-99m activity, and SLNs were established using the “10%-rule”, requiring that the radioactivity of additional SLNs be greater than 10% of the “hottest” SLN. Thirty-four nodal samples were assayed ex vivo for radioactivity. All the SLNs satisfying the “10%-rule” were detected using the FireFly system. Five fluorescent nodes were detected, corresponding with preoperative PET/CT scan. Three pigs had one SLN and one pig had two SLNs, with 100% concordance between fluorescence and radioactivity. Fluorescent-labeled Tilmanocept permits real-time intraoperative detection of SLNs during robotic-assisted lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer in a porcine model. When radiolabeled with gallium-68, Tilmanocept allows for preoperative localization of SLNs using PET/CT, and shows specificity to SLNs with persistent fluorescent signal, detectable using the FireFly system, for two days post-injection. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a phase I trial in human subjects is warranted, and that a long-term goal of an intra-operative administration of non-radioactive fluorescent-labeled Tilmanocept is possible.

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<![CDATA[The efficacy of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor in endometrial cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf5a6

Background

PD-0332991, the selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib, causes cell cycle arrest by inhibiting phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of PD-0332991 in endometrial cancer.

Methods and findings

Four human endometrial cancer cell lines, ECC, HEC1A, HEC108 and TEN, were treated with PD-0332991 and their function was evaluated. In vivo, the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in a model of subcutaneous endometrial cancer. An immunohistochemical analysis was performed in 337 endometrial cancer specimens. A proliferation assay revealed that 2 of the 4 cell lines that expressed Rb were sensitive to PD-0332991 with an IC50 of 0.65 μM (HEC1A) and 0.58 μM (HEC108), respectively. Both cell lines had G0/G1 cell cycle arrest after treatment with PD-0332991 according to flow cytometry. In vivo, PD-0332991 had antitumoral efficacy with a reduction in the activity of Ki67 and phosphorylation of Rb. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the positive rate of Rb was 67.7%, however, there was no significant relationship between the expression levels of Rb and the tumor grade.

Conclusions

PD-0332991 had therapeutic potential against endometrial cancer cell lines expressing Rb protein. Our immunohistochemical analysis revealed that approximately 70% of patients with endometrial cancer might have therapeutic indications for PD-0332991. Of note, the tumor grade had no impact on the indications for treatment.

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<![CDATA[Endometrial Cancers Harboring Mutated Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 Protein Are Successfully Treated With a New Small Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in an Orthotopic Mouse Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf49128d5eed0c4847616f0

Supplemental digital content is available in the text.

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<![CDATA[MicroRNA-93 Promotes Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition of Endometrial Carcinoma Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daccab0ee8fa60bb4770

MicroRNA-93, derived from a paralog (miR-106b-25) of the miR-17-92 cluster, is involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of many cancers such as breast, colorectal, hepatocellular, lung, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer. However, the role of miR-93 in endometrial carcinoma and the potential molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Our results showed that miR-93 was overexpressed in endometrial carcinoma tissues than normal endometrial tissues. The endometrial carcinoma cell lines HEC-1B and Ishikawa were transfected with miR-93-5P, after which cell migration and invasion ability and the expression of relevant molecules were detected. MiR-93 overexpression promoted cell migration and invasion, and downregulated E-cadherin expression while increasing N-cadherin expression. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-93 may directly bind to the 3′ untranslated region of forkhead box A1 (FOXA1); furthermore, miR-93 overexpression downregulated FOXA1 expression while miR-93 inhibitor transfection upregulated FOXA1 expression at both mRNA and protein level. In addition, transfection with the most effective FOXA1 small interfering RNA promoted both endometrial cancer cell migration and invasion, and downregulated E-cadherin expression while upregulating N-cadherin expression. Therefore, we suggest that miR-93 may promote the process of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in endometrial carcinoma cells by targeting FOXA1.

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<![CDATA[Clinical Significance of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 2, a Serum Biomarker Candidate for Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da78ab0ee8fa60b97665

Background

There is currently no reliable serum biomarker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC), a highly lethal histological subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Previously, using a proteome-based approach, we identified tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) as a candidate serum biomarker for CCC. In this study, we sought to evaluate the clinical diagnostic performance of TFPI2 in preoperative prediction of CCC.

Methods

Serum TFPI2 levels were measured in serum samples from a retrospective training set consisting of patients with benign and borderline ovarian tumors, EOC subtypes, and uterine diseases. Via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, we compared the diagnostic performance of TFPI2 with that of CA125 in discrimination of patients with ovarian CCC from other patient groups. The observed diagnostic performances were examined in a prospective validation set.

Results

The 268-patient training set included 29 patients with ovarian CCC. Unlike CA125, which was also elevated in patients with endometriosis and several EOC subtypes, serum TFPI2 levels were specifically elevated only in ovarian CCC patients, consistent with the mRNA expression pattern in tumor tissues. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of serum TFPI2 was obviously higher than that of CA125 for discrimination of CCC from other ovarian diseases (AUC = 0.891 versus 0.595). Applying a cut-off value of 280 pg/mL, TFPI2 could distinguish early-stage (FIGO I and II) CCC from endometriosis with 72.2% sensitivity, 93.3% specificity, and 88.8% accuracy. Similar results were confirmed in an independent 156-patient prospective validation set.

Conclusions

TFPI2 is a useful serum biomarker for preoperative clinical diagnosis of CCC.

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<![CDATA[Post-diagnosis body mass index and mortality among women diagnosed with endometrial cancer: Results from the Women’s Health Initiative]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc565

Higher body mass index (BMI) measured before endometrial cancer diagnosis has been associated with greater risk of developing endometrial cancer and higher mortality, but the association between BMI measured after diagnosis and mortality risk is unclear. We identified 467 women (91 deaths) in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) with information on BMI measured after diagnosis and used Cox proportional hazards regression to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all-cause mortality. Comparing BMI 35+ with <25 kg/m2, we observed no association with all-cause mortality (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.55–1.91). Our study does not support the hypothesis that higher BMI after endometrial cancer diagnosis is associated with poorer survival.

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<![CDATA[Genomic Analysis of Uterine Lavage Fluid Detects Early Endometrial Cancers and Reveals a Prevalent Landscape of Driver Mutations in Women without Histopathologic Evidence of Cancer: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e6ab0ee8fa60b6b44d

Background

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, and its incidence and associated mortality are increasing. Despite the immediate need to detect these cancers at an earlier stage, there is no effective screening methodology or protocol for endometrial cancer. The comprehensive, genomics-based analysis of endometrial cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed many of the molecular defects that define this cancer. Based on these cancer genome results, and in a prospective study, we hypothesized that the use of ultra-deep, targeted gene sequencing could detect somatic mutations in uterine lavage fluid obtained from women undergoing hysteroscopy as a means of molecular screening and diagnosis.

Methods and Findings

Uterine lavage and paired blood samples were collected and analyzed from 107 consecutive patients who were undergoing hysteroscopy and curettage for diagnostic evaluation from this single-institution study. The lavage fluid was separated into cellular and acellular fractions by centrifugation. Cellular and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) were isolated from each lavage. Two targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) gene panels, one composed of 56 genes and the other of 12 genes, were used for ultra-deep sequencing. To rule out potential NGS-based errors, orthogonal mutation validation was performed using digital PCR and Sanger sequencing.

Seven patients were diagnosed with endometrial cancer based on classic histopathologic analysis. Six of these patients had stage IA cancer, and one of these cancers was only detectable as a microscopic focus within a polyp. All seven patients were found to have significant cancer-associated gene mutations in both cell pellet and cfDNA fractions. In the four patients in whom adequate tumor sample was available, all tumor mutations above a specific allele fraction were present in the uterine lavage DNA samples. Mutations originally only detected in lavage fluid fractions were later confirmed to be present in tumor but at allele fractions significantly less than 1%. Of the remaining 95 patients diagnosed with benign or non-cancer pathology, 44 had no significant cancer mutations detected. Intriguingly, 51 patients without histopathologic evidence of cancer had relatively high allele fraction (1.0%–30.4%), cancer-associated mutations. Participants with detected driver and potential driver mutations were significantly older (mean age mutated = 57.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.30–∞, mean age no mutations = 50.35; p-value = 0.002; Benjamini-Hochberg [BH] adjusted p-value = 0.015) and more likely to be post-menopausal (p-value = 0.004; BH-adjusted p-value = 0.015) than those without these mutations. No associations were detected between mutation status and race/ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, parity, and smoking status. Long-term follow-up was not presently available in this prospective study for those women without histopathologic evidence of cancer.

Conclusions

Using ultra-deep NGS, we identified somatic mutations in DNA extracted both from cell pellets and a never previously reported cfDNA fraction from the uterine lavage. Using our targeted sequencing approach, endometrial driver mutations were identified in all seven women who received a cancer diagnosis based on classic histopathology of tissue curettage obtained at the time of hysteroscopy. In addition, relatively high allele fraction driver mutations were identified in the lavage fluid of approximately half of the women without a cancer diagnosis. Increasing age and post-menopausal status were associated with the presence of these cancer-associated mutations, suggesting the prevalent existence of a premalignant landscape in women without clinical evidence of cancer. Given that a uterine lavage can be easily and quickly performed even outside of the operating room and in a physician’s office-based setting, our findings suggest the future possibility of this approach for screening women for the earliest stages of endometrial cancer. However, our findings suggest that further insight into development of cancer or its interruption are needed before translation to the clinic.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Polymorphisms of TGFB1, TGFBR1, SNAI1 and TWIST1 Are Associated with Endometrial Cancer Susceptibility in Chinese Han Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e1ab0ee8fa60b69820

Endometrial cancer (EC) is a complex disease involving multiple gene-gene and gene–environment interactions. TGF-β signaling plays pivotal roles in EC development. This study aimed to investigate whether the genetic polymorphisms of TGF-β signaling related genes TGFB1, TGFBR1, SNAI1 and TWIST1 contribute to EC susceptibility. Using the TaqMan Genotyping Assay, 19 tagging-SNPs of these four genes were genotyped in 516 EC cases and 707 controls among Chinese Han women. Logistic regression (LR) showed that the genetic variants of TGFB1 rs1800469, TGFBR1 rs6478974 and rs10733710, TWIST1 rs4721745 were associated with decreased EC risk, and these four loci showed a dose-dependent effect (Ptrend < 0.0001). Classification and regression tree (CART) demonstrated that women carrying both the genotypes of TGFBR1 rs6478974 TT and rs10512263 TC/CC had the highest risk of EC (aOR = 7.86, 95% CI = 3.42–18.07, P<0.0001). Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) revealed that TGFB1 rs1800469 plus TGFBR1 rs6478974 was the best interactional model to detect EC risk. LR, CART and MDR all revealed that TGFBR1 rs6478974 was the most important protective locus for EC. In haplotype association study, TGFBR1 haplotype CACGA carrier showed the lowest EC risk among women with longer menarche-first full term pregnancy intervals (˃11 years) and BMI˂24 (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.17–0.90, P = 0.0275). These results suggest that polymorphisms in TGFB1, TGFBR1, SNAI1 and TWIST1 may modulate EC susceptibility, both separately and corporately.

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<![CDATA[Inverse Relationship between Progesterone Receptor and Myc in Endometrial Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f7ab0ee8fa60b70c0d

Endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic malignancy, is a hormonally-regulated disease. Response to progestin therapy positively correlates with hormone receptor expression, in particular progesterone receptor (PR). However, many advanced tumors lose PR expression. We recently reported that the efficacy of progestin therapy can be significantly enhanced by combining progestin with epigenetic modulators, which we term “molecularly enhanced progestin therapy.” What remained unclear was the mechanism of action and if estrogen receptor α (ERα), the principle inducer of PR, is necessary to restore functional expression of PR via molecularly enhanced progestin therapy. Therefore, we modeled advanced endometrial tumors that have lost both ERα and PR expression by generating ERα-null endometrial cancer cell lines. CRISPR-Cas9 technology was used to delete ERα at the genomic level. Our data demonstrate that treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) was sufficient to restore functional PR expression, even in cells devoid of ERα. Our studies also revealed that HDACi treatment results in marked downregulation of the oncogene Myc. We established that PR is a negative transcriptional regulator of Myc in endometrial cancer in the presence or absence of ERα, which is in contrast to studies in breast cancer cells. First, estrogen stimulation augmented PR expression and decreased Myc in endometrial cancer cell lines. Second, progesterone increased PR activity yet blunted Myc mRNA and protein expression. Finally, overexpression of PR by adenoviral transduction in ERα-null endometrial cancer cells significantly decreased expression of Myc and Myc-regulated genes. Analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database of endometrial tumors identified an inverse correlation between PR and Myc mRNA levels, with a corresponding inverse correlation between PR and Myc downstream transcriptional targets SRD5A1, CDK2 and CCNB1. Together, these data reveal a previously unanticipated inverse relationship between the tumor suppressor PR and the oncogene Myc in endometrial cancer.

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<![CDATA[Inherited Disease Genetics Improves the Identification of Cancer-Associated Genes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e1ab0ee8fa60b697d8

The identification of biologically significant variants in cancer genomes is critical to therapeutic discovery, but it is limited by the statistical power needed to discern driver from passenger. Independent biological data can be used to filter cancer exomes and increase statistical power. Large genetic databases for inherited diseases are uniquely suited to this task because they contain specific amino acid alterations with known pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms. However, no rigorous method to overlay this information onto the cancer exome exists. Here, we present a computational methodology that overlays any variant database onto the somatic mutations in all cancer exomes. We validate the computation experimentally and identify novel associations in a re-analysis of 7362 cancer exomes. This analysis identified activating SOS1 mutations associated with Noonan syndrome as significantly altered in melanoma and the first kinase-activating mutations in ACVR1 associated with adult tumors. Beyond a filter, significant variants found in both rare cancers and rare inherited diseases increase the unmet medical need for therapeutics that target these variants and may bootstrap drug discovery efforts in orphan indications.

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<![CDATA[Duration of Adulthood Overweight, Obesity, and Cancer Risk in the Women’s Health Initiative: A Longitudinal Study from the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f4ab0ee8fa60b6fbb3

Background

High body mass index (BMI) has become the leading risk factor of disease burden in high-income countries. While recent studies have suggested that the risk of cancer related to obesity is mediated by time, insights into the dose-response relationship and the cumulative impact of overweight and obesity during the life course on cancer risk remain scarce. To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the impact of adulthood overweight and obesity duration on the risk of cancer in a large cohort of postmenopausal women.

Methods and Findings

Participants from the observational study of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) with BMI information from at least three occasions during follow-up, free of cancer at baseline, and with complete covariate information were included (n = 73,913). Trajectories of BMI across ages were estimated using a quadratic growth model; overweight duration (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), obesity duration (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), and weighted cumulative overweight and obese years, which take into account the degree of overweight and obesity over time (a measure similar to pack-years of cigarette smoking), were calculated using predicted BMIs. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to determine the cancer risk associated with overweight and obesity duration. In secondary analyses, the influence of important effect modifiers and confounders, such as smoking status, postmenopausal hormone use, and ethnicity, was assessed. A longer duration of overweight was significantly associated with the incidence of all obesity-related cancers (hazard ratio [HR] per 10-y increment: 1.07, 95% CI 1.06–1.09). For postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer, every 10-y increase in adulthood overweight duration was associated with a 5% and 17% increase in risk, respectively. On adjusting for intensity of overweight, these figures rose to 8% and 37%, respectively. Risks of postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer related to overweight duration were much more pronounced in women who never used postmenopausal hormones. This study has limitations because some of the anthropometric information was obtained from retrospective self-reports. Furthermore, data from longitudinal studies with long-term follow-up and repeated anthropometric measures are typically subject to missing data at various time points, which was also the case in this study. Yet, this limitation was partially overcome by using growth curve models, which enabled us to impute data at missing time points for each participant.

Conclusions

In summary, this study showed that a longer duration of overweight and obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing several forms of cancer. Furthermore, the degree of overweight experienced during adulthood seemed to play an important role in the risk of developing cancer, especially for endometrial cancer. Although the observational nature of our study precludes inferring causality or making clinical recommendations, our findings suggest that reducing overweight duration in adulthood could reduce cancer risk and that obesity prevention is important from early onset. If this is true, health care teams should recognize the potential of obesity management in cancer prevention and that excess body weight in women is important to manage regardless of the age of the patient.

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<![CDATA[Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in Endometrial Cancer Using Serum CA125 Combined with Immunohistochemical Markers PR and Ki67, and a Comparison with Other Prediction Models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2bab0ee8fa60b827c5

We aimed to evaluate the value of immunohistochemical markers and serum CA125 in predicting the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in women with endometrial cancer and to identify a low-risk group of LNM. The medical records of 370 patients with endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical staging in the Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University were collected and retrospectively reviewed. Immunohistochemical markers were screened. A model using serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125) level, the immunohistochemical markers progesterone receptor (PR) and Ki67 was created for prediction of LNM. A predicted probability of 4% among these patients was defined as low risk. The developed model was externally validated in 200 patients from Shanghai Cancer Center. The efficiency of the model was compared with three other reported prediction models. Patients with serum CA125 < 30.0 IU/mL, either or both of positive PR staining > 50% and Ki67 < 40% in cancer lesion were defined as low risk for LNM. The model showed good discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.82. The model classified 61.9% (229/370) of patients as being at low risk for LNM. Among these 229 patients, 6 patients (2.6%) had LNM and the negative predictive value was 97.4% (223/229). The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 84.6% and 67.4% respectively. In the validation cohort, the model classified 59.5% (119/200) of patients as low-risk, 3 out of these 119 patients (2.5%) has LNM. Our model showed a predictive power similar to those of two previously reported prediction models. The prediction model using serum CA125 and the immunohistochemical markers PR and Ki67 is useful to predict patients with a low risk of LNM and has the potential to provide valuable guidance to clinicians in the treatment of patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer.

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<![CDATA[Association between Body Mass Index and Physical Function among Endometrial Cancer Survivors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab9ab0ee8fa60badd22

Objectives

We sought to quantify the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical function among endometrial cancer survivors. Understanding this relationship would help healthcare providers target efforts to refer obese endometrial cancer survivors to weight loss and exercise interventions.

Methods

We conducted a survey of 213 endometrial cancer survivors who received cancer care at an academic l health system between 2006 and 2010. Physical function subscale was quantified using physical functional component score from the SF-12 questionnaire. We compared physical function of endometrial cancer survivors to population-based age-standardized normative values.

Results

Among the 213 patients, 16% were normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2), and 52% were obese (≥30 kg/m2). Higher BMI categories were associated with lower physical function (Ptrend = 0.003), as a continuous variable each 5kg/m2 higher BMI, physical function score was lower by 0.15 points (β = -0.15; P = 0.045). Compared to population-based age-standardized normative values, patients <75yrs reported lower physical function, whereas patients ≥75yrs reported better physical function. BMI was the only covariate associated with differences in physical function between survivors and age-standardized normative values (P = 0.039).

Conclusions

Among endometrial cancer survivors, higher BMI is associated with lower physical function. Younger endometrial cancer survivors report lower physical function compared to age-standardized normative values. Healthcare providers should be aware that younger, obese endometrial cancer survivors may particularly benefit from interventions such as exercise and weight loss to increase or preserve physical function.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic and Clinical Significance of miRNA-205 in Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daadab0ee8fa60baa207

Endometrial cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the reproductive female tract, with endometrioid endometrial cancer being the most frequent type. Despite the relatively favourable prognosis in cases of endometrial cancer, there is a necessity to evaluate clinical and prognostic utility of new molecular markers. MiRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that take part in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Altered expression of miRNAs may be associated with cancer initiation, progression and metastatic capabilities. MiRNA-205 seems to be one of the key regulators of gene expression in endometrial cancer. In this study, we investigated clinical and prognostic role of miRNA-205 in endometrioid endometrial cancer. After total RNA extraction from 100 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to define miRNA-205 expression levels. The aim of the study was to evaluate miRNA-205 expression levels in regard to patients’ clinical and histopathological features, such as: survival rate, recurrence rate, staging, myometrial invasion, grading and lymph nodes involvement. Higher levels of miRNA-205 expression were observed in tumours with less than half of myometrial invasion and non-advanced cancers. Kaplan-Maier analysis revealed that higher levels of miRNA-205 were associated with better overall survival (p = 0,034). These results indicate potential clinical utility of miRNA-205 as a prognostic marker.

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<![CDATA[Does hysteroscopy worsen prognosis in women with type II endometrial carcinoma?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc172

Background

Prior studies evaluating the impact of hysteroscopy on outcomes in endometrial cancer have predominantly evaluated type I tumors. We sought to evaluate whether hysteroscopy worsens prognosis in type II endometrial cancer.

Methods

A retrospective cohort analysis of 140 patients from two institutions with type II endometrial cancer was performed. Women who underwent either diagnostic hysteroscopy (HSC) or dilation and curettage (D&C) for cancer diagnosis from June 2001 until June 2010 were included. The clinical and pathologic characteristics, including peritoneal cytology results were reviewed. The primary endpoint was disease-specific survival (DSS). The exposure of interest was hysteroscopy. Survival curves were projected using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test.

Results

There was no difference in age, histology, stage, depth of myometrial invasion, adnexal involvement, or nodal metastasis between HSC and D&C patients. Positive cytology was found in 16/54 (30%) patients following HSC and in 10/86 (12%) following D&C (p = 0.008). Fourteen patients with stage I and II disease had positive peritoneal cytology, with 11/40 (27.5%) patients in the HSC group and 3/59 (5%) patients in the D&C group(p = 0.002). Median DSS was clinically different for the HSC and D&C groups, but statistical significance was not reached (53 versus 63.5 months, p = 0.34). For stage I and II patients, 18/99 (18%) were dead of EC, with a median DSS of 60 months for HSC and 71 months for D&C (p = 0.82). Overall 46 (33%) patients developed a recurrence, with 18/54 (33%) in the HSC group compared to 28/86 (32%) in the D&C group (p = 0.92). There was no difference in recurrence location between groups.

Conclusions

Diagnostic hysteroscopy significantly increased the rate of positive peritoneal cytology at the time of surgical staging in this cohort of patients with type II EC. However, we were unable to detect a difference in prognosis as measured by DSS.

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<![CDATA[Identification of endometrial cancer methylation features using combined methylation analysis methods]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc429

Background

DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark that is frequently altered in tumors. DNA methylation features are attractive biomarkers for disease states given the stability of DNA methylation in living cells and in biologic specimens typically available for analysis. Widespread accumulation of methylation in regulatory elements in some cancers (specifically the CpG island methylator phenotype, CIMP) can play an important role in tumorigenesis. High resolution assessment of CIMP for the entire genome, however, remains cost prohibitive and requires quantities of DNA not available for many tissue samples of interest. Genome-wide scans of methylation have been undertaken for large numbers of tumors, and higher resolution analyses for a limited number of cancer specimens. Methods for analyzing such large datasets and integrating findings from different studies continue to evolve. An approach for comparison of findings from a genome-wide assessment of the methylated component of tumor DNA and more widely applied methylation scans was developed.

Methods

Methylomes for 76 primary endometrial cancer and 12 normal endometrial samples were generated using methylated fragment capture and second generation sequencing, MethylCap-seq. Publically available Infinium HumanMethylation 450 data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were compared to MethylCap-seq data.

Results

Analysis of methylation in promoter CpG islands (CGIs) identified a subset of tumors with a methylator phenotype. We used a two-stage approach to develop a 13-region methylation signature associated with a “hypermethylator state.” High level methylation for the 13-region methylation signatures was associated with mismatch repair deficiency, high mutation rate, and low somatic copy number alteration in the TCGA test set. In addition, the signature devised showed good agreement with previously described methylation clusters devised by TCGA.

Conclusion

We identified a methylation signature for a “hypermethylator phenotype” in endometrial cancer and developed methods that may prove useful for identifying extreme methylation phenotypes in other cancers.

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