ResearchPad - vacuoles https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Sulforaphane alters the acidification of the yeast vacuole]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfae5c839-6ad6-42c3-94aa-e143541a9415 Sulforaphane (SFN) is a compound [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)-butane] found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables that is currently of interest because of its potential as a chemopreventive and a chemotherapeutic drug. Recent studies in a diverse range of cellular and animal models have shown that SFN is involved in multiple intracellular pathways that regulate xenobiotic metabolism, inflammation, cell death, cell cycle progression, and epigenetic regulation. In order to better understand the mechanisms of action behind SFN-induced cell death, we undertook an unbiased genome wide screen with the yeast knockout (YKO) library to identify SFN sensitive (SFNS) mutants. The mutants were enriched with knockouts in genes linked to vacuolar function suggesting a link between this organelle and SFN's mechanism of action in yeast. Our subsequent work revealed that SFN increases the vacuolar pH of yeast cells and that varying the vacuolar pH can alter the sensitivity of yeast cells to the drug. In fact, several mutations that lower the vacuolar pH in yeast actually made the cells resistant to SFN (SFNR). Finally, we show that human lung cancer cells with more acidic compartments are also SFNR suggesting that SFN's mechanism of action identified in yeast may carry over to higher eukaryotic cells.

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<![CDATA[Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase is required for antifungal resistance and virulence of Candida glabrata]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52186dd5eed0c4847982ae

Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) is located in fungal vacuolar membranes. It is involved in multiple cellular processes, including the maintenance of intracellular ion homeostasis by maintaining acidic pH within the cell. The importance of V-ATPase in virulence has been demonstrated in several pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans. However, it remains to be determined in the clinically important fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. Increasing multidrug resistance of C. glabrata is becoming a critical issue in the clinical setting. In the current study, we demonstrated that the plecomacrolide V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin B1 exerts a synergistic effect with azole antifungal agents, including fluconazole and voriconazole, against a C. glabrata wild-type strain. Furthermore, the deletion of the VPH2 gene encoding an assembly factor of V-ATPase was sufficient to interfere with V-ATPase function in C. glabrata, resulting in impaired pH homeostasis in the vacuole and increased sensitivity to a variety of environmental stresses, such as alkaline conditions (pH 7.4), ion stress (Na+, Ca2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+ stress), exposure to the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 and antifungal agents (azoles and amphotericin B), and iron limitation. In addition, virulence of C. glabrata Δvph2 mutant in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis was reduced in comparison with that of the wild-type and VPH2-reconstituted strains. These findings support the notion that V-ATPase is a potential attractive target for the development of effective antifungal strategies.

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<![CDATA[The role of microtubules and the dynein/dynactin motor complex of host cells in the biogenesis of the Coxiella burnetii-containing vacuole]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466526d5eed0c484517b0f

Microtubules (Mts) are dynamic cytoskeleton structures that play a key role in vesicular transport. The Mts-mediated transport depends on motor proteins named kinesins and the dynein/dynactin motor complex. The Rab7 adapter protein FYCO1 controls the anterograde transport of the endocytic compartments through the interaction with the kinesin KIF5. Rab7 and its partner RILP induce the recruitment of dynein/dynactin to late endosomes regulating its retrograde transport to the perinuclear area to fuse with lysosomes. The late endosomal-lysosomal fusion is regulated by the HOPS complex through its interaction with RILP and the GTPase Arl8. Coxiella burnetii (Cb), the causative agent of Q fever, is an obligate intracellular pathogen, which generates a large compartment with autophagolysosomal characteristics named Cb-containing vacuole (CCV). The CCV forms through homotypic fusion between small non-replicative CCVs (nrCCV) and through heterotypic fusion with other compartments, such as endosomes and lysosomes. In this work, we characterise the role of Mts, motor proteins, RILP/Rab7 and Arl8 on the CCV biogenesis. The formation of the CCV was affected when either the dynamics and/or the acetylation state of Mts were modified. Similarly, the overexpression of the dynactin subunit non-functional mutants p150Glued and RILP led to the formation of small nrCCVs. This phenomenon is not observed in cells overexpressing WT proteins, the motor KIF5 or its interacting protein FYCO1. The formation of the CCV was normal in infected cells that overexpressed Arl8 alone or together with hVps41 (a HOPS subunit) or in cells co-overexpressing hVps41 and RILP. The dominant negative mutant of Arl8 and the non-functional hVps41 inhibited the formation of the CCV. When the formation of CCV was affected, the bacterial multiplication diminished. Our results suggest that nrCCVs recruit the molecular machinery that regulate the Mts-dependent retrograde transport, Rab7/RILP and the dynein/dynactin system, as well as the tethering processes such as HOPS complex and Arl8 to finally originate the CCV where C. burnetii multiplies.

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<![CDATA[Genome-scale characterization of the vacuole nitrate transporter Chloride Channel (CLC) genes and their transcriptional responses to diverse nutrient stresses in allotetraploid rapeseed]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c254561d5eed0c48442c648

The Chloride Channel (CLC) gene family is reported to be involved in vacuolar nitrate (NO3-) transport. Nitrate distribution to the cytoplasm is beneficial for enhancing NO3- assimilation and plays an important role in the regulation of nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE). In this study, genomic information, high-throughput transcriptional profiles, and gene co-expression analysis were integrated to identify the CLCs (BnaCLCs) in Brassica napus. The decreased NO3- concentration in the clca-2 mutant up-regulated the activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase, contributing to increase N assimilation and higher NUE in Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome-wide identification of 22BnaCLC genes experienced strong purifying selection. Segmental duplication was the major driving force in the expansion of the BnaCLC gene family. The most abundant cis-acting regulatory elements in the gene promoters, including DNA-binding One Zinc Finger, W-box, MYB, and GATA-box, might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of BnaCLCs expression. High-throughput transcriptional profiles and quantitative real-time PCR results showed that BnaCLCs responded differentially to distinct NO3- regimes. Transcriptomics-assisted gene co-expression network analysis identified BnaA7.CLCa-3 as the core member of the BnaCLC family, and this gene might play a central role in vacuolar NO3- transport in crops. The BnaCLC members also showed distinct expression patterns under phosphate depletion and cadmium toxicity. Taken together, our results provide comprehensive insights into the vacuolar BnaCLCs and establish baseline information for future studies on BnaCLCs-mediated vacuolar NO3- storage and its effect on NUE.

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<![CDATA[Principles of intracellular bacterial pathogen spread from cell to cell]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0afcd5eed0c4844270be ]]> <![CDATA[A new simple method for quantification and locating P and N reserves in microalgal cells based on energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) elemental maps]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1966f7d5eed0c484b5376d

We established a new simple approach to study phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) reserves at subcellular level potentially applicable to various types of cells capable of accumulating P- and/or N-rich inclusions. Here, we report on using this approach for locating and assessing the abundance of the P and N reserves in microalgal and cyanobacterial cells. The approach includes separation of the signal from P- or N-rich structures from noise on the energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) P- or N-maps. The separation includes (i) relative entropy estimation for each pixel of the map, (ii) binary thresholding of the map, and (iii) segmenting the image to assess the inclusion relative area and localization in the cell section. The separation is based on comparing the a posteriori probability that a pixel of the map contains information about the sample vs. Gaussian a priori probability that the pixel contains noise. The difference is expressed as relative entropy value for the pixel; positive values are characteristic of the pixels containing the payload information about the sample. This is the first known method for quantification and locating at a subcellular level P-rich and N-rich inclusions including tiny (< 180 nm) structures. We demonstrated the applicability of the proposed method both to the cells of eukaryotic green microalgae and cyanobacteria. Using the new method, we elucidated the heterogeneity of the studied cells in accumulation of P and N reserves across different species. The proposed approach will be handy for any cytological and microbiological study requiring a comparative assessment of subcellular distribution of cyanophycin, polyphosphates or other type of P- or N-rich inclusions. An added value is the potential of this approach for automation of the data processing and evaluation enabling an unprecedented increase of the EFTEM analysis throughput.

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<![CDATA[TOR-autophagy branch signaling via Imp1 dictates plant-microbe biotrophic interface longevity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bff0537d5eed0c484a3281f

Like other intracellular eukaryotic phytopathogens, the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe (Pyricularia) oryzae first infects living host cells by elaborating invasive hyphae (IH) surrounded by a plant-derived membrane. This forms an extended biotrophic interface enclosing an apoplastic compartment into which fungal effectors can be deployed to evade host detection. M. oryzae also forms a focal, plant membrane-rich structure, the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC), that accumulates cytoplasmic effectors for translocation into host cells. Molecular decision-making processes integrating fungal growth and metabolism in host cells with interface function and dynamics are unknown. Here, we report unanticipated roles for the M. oryzae Target-of-Rapamycin (TOR) nutrient-signaling pathway in mediating plant-fungal biotrophic interface membrane integrity. Through a forward genetics screen for M. oryzae mutant strains resistant to the specific TOR kinase inhibitor rapamycin, we discovered IMP1 encoding a novel vacuolar protein required for membrane trafficking, V-ATPase assembly, organelle acidification and autophagy induction. During infection, Δimp1 deletants developed intracellular IH in the first infected rice cell following cuticle penetration. However, fluorescently labeled effector probes revealed that interface membrane integrity became compromised as biotrophy progressed, abolishing the BIC and releasing apoplastic effectors into host cytoplasm. Growth between rice cells was restricted. TOR-independent autophagy activation in Δimp1 deletants (following infection) remediated interface function and cell-to-cell growth. Autophagy inhibition in wild type (following infection) recapitulated Δimp1. In addition to vacuoles, Imp1GFP localized to IH membranes in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our results suggest TOR-Imp1-autophagy branch signaling mediates membrane homeostasis to prevent catastrophic erosion of the biotrophic interface, thus facilitating fungal growth in living rice cells. The significance of this work lays in elaborating a novel molecular mechanism of infection stressing the dominance of fungal metabolism and metabolic control in sustaining long-term plant-microbe interactions. This work also has implications for understanding the enigmatic biotrophy to necrotrophy transition.

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<![CDATA[Apilimod, a candidate anticancer therapeutic, arrests not only PtdIns(3,5)P2 but also PtdIns5P synthesis by PIKfyve and induces bafilomycin A1-reversible aberrant endomembrane dilation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bae98ed40307c0c23a1c14f

PIKfyve, an evolutionarily conserved kinase synthesizing PtdIns5P and PtdIns(3,5)P2, is crucial for mammalian cell proliferation and viability. Accordingly, PIKfyve inhibitors are now in clinical trials as anti-cancer drugs. Among those, apilimod is the most promising, yet its potency to inhibit PIKfyve and affect endomembrane homeostasis is only partially characterized. We demonstrate here for the first time that apilimod powerfully inhibited in vitro synthesis of PtdIns5P along with that of PtdIns(3,5)P2. HPLC-based resolution of intracellular phosphoinositides (PIs) revealed that apilimod triggered a marked reduction of both lipids in the context of intact cells. Notably, there was also a profound rise in PtdIns3P resulting from arrested PtdIns3P consumption for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis. As typical for PIKfyve inhibition and the concomitant PtdIns(3,5)P2 reduction, apilimod induced the appearance of dilated endomembrane structures in the form of large translucent cytoplasmic vacuoles. Remarkably, bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) fully reversed the aberrant cell phenotype back to normal and completely precluded the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles when added prior to apilimod. Inspection of the PI profiles ruled out restoration of the reduced PtdIns(3,5)P2 pool as a molecular mechanism underlying BafA1 rescue. Rather, we found that BafA1 markedly attenuated the PtdIns3P elevation under PIKfyve inhibition. This was accompanied by profoundly decreased endosomal recruitment of fusogenic EEA1. Together, our data demonstrate that apilimod inhibits not only PtdIns(3,5)P2 but also PtdIns5P synthesis and that the cytoplasmic vacuolization triggered by the inhibitor is precluded or reversed by BafA1 through a mechanism associated, in part, with reduction in both PtdIns3P levels and EEA1 membrane recruitment.

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<![CDATA[A component of the TOR (Target Of Rapamycin) nutrient-sensing pathway plays a role in circadian rhythmicity in Neurospora crassa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b49ab72463d7e11e6cdb2eb

The TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway is a highly-conserved signaling pathway in eukaryotes that regulates cellular growth and stress responses. The cellular response to amino acids or carbon sources such as glucose requires anchoring of the TOR kinase complex to the lysosomal/vacuolar membrane by the Ragulator (mammals) or EGO (yeast) protein complex. Here we report a connection between the TOR pathway and circadian (daily) rhythmicity. The molecular mechanism of circadian rhythmicity in all eukaryotes has long been thought to be transcription/translation feedback loops (TTFLs). In the model eukaryote Neurospora crassa, a TTFL including FRQ (frequency) and WCC (white collar complex) has been intensively studied. However, it is also well-known that rhythmicity can be seen in the absence of TTFL functioning. We previously isolated uv90 as a mutation that compromises FRQ-less rhythms and also damps the circadian oscillator when FRQ is present. We have now mapped the uv90 gene and identified it as NCU05950, homologous to the TOR pathway proteins EGO1 (yeast) and LAMTOR1 (mammals), and we have named the N. crassa protein VTA (vacuolar TOR-associated protein). The protein is anchored to the outer vacuolar membrane and deletion of putative acylation sites destroys this localization as well as the protein’s function in rhythmicity. A deletion of VTA is compromised in its growth responses to amino acids and glucose. We conclude that a key protein in the complex that anchors TOR to the vacuole plays a role in maintaining circadian (daily) rhythmicity. Our results establish a connection between the TOR pathway and circadian rhythms and point towards a network integrating metabolism and the circadian system.

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<![CDATA[The Organization of Controller Motifs Leading to Robust Plant Iron Homeostasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da11ab0ee8fa60b79835

Iron is an essential element needed by all organisms for growth and development. Because iron becomes toxic at higher concentrations iron is under homeostatic control. Plants face also the problem that iron in the soil is tightly bound to oxygen and difficult to access. Plants have therefore developed special mechanisms for iron uptake and regulation. During the last years key components of plant iron regulation have been identified. How these components integrate and maintain robust iron homeostasis is presently not well understood. Here we use a computational approach to identify mechanisms for robust iron homeostasis in non-graminaceous plants. In comparison with experimental results certain control arrangements can be eliminated, among them that iron homeostasis is solely based on an iron-dependent degradation of the transporter IRT1. Recent IRT1 overexpression experiments suggested that IRT1-degradation is iron-independent. This suggestion appears to be misleading. We show that iron signaling pathways under IRT1 overexpression conditions become saturated, leading to a breakdown in iron regulation and to the observed iron-independent degradation of IRT1. A model, which complies with experimental data places the regulation of cytosolic iron at the transcript level of the transcription factor FIT. Including the experimental observation that FIT induces inhibition of IRT1 turnover we found a significant improvement in the system’s response time, suggesting a functional role for the FIT-mediated inhibition of IRT1 degradation. By combining iron uptake with storage and remobilization mechanisms a model is obtained which in a concerted manner integrates iron uptake, storage and remobilization. In agreement with experiments the model does not store iron during its high-affinity uptake. As an iron biofortification approach we discuss the possibility how iron can be accumulated even during high-affinity uptake.

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<![CDATA[Gliding Associated Proteins Play Essential Roles during the Formation of the Inner Membrane Complex of Toxoplasma gondii]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7fab0ee8fa60b9a1fa

The inner membrane complex (IMC) of apicomplexan parasites is a specialised structure localised beneath the parasite’s plasma membrane, and is important for parasite stability and intracellular replication. Furthermore, it serves as an anchor for the myosin A motor complex, termed the glideosome. While the role of this protein complex in parasite motility and host cell invasion has been well described, additional roles during the asexual life cycle are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that core elements of the glideosome, the gliding associated proteins GAP40 and GAP50 as well as members of the GAPM family, have critical roles in the biogenesis of the IMC during intracellular replication. Deletion or disruption of these genes resulted in the rapid collapse of developing parasites after initiation of the cell cycle and led to redistribution of other glideosome components.

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<![CDATA[Nuclear genome stability in long-term cultivated callus lines of Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc423

Long-term cultivated Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. (Tartary buckwheat) morphogenic and non-morphogenic callus lines are interesting systems for gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for the genetic stability and instability of a plant tissue culture. In this work, we used histological sections and transmission electron microscopy to identify and describe the morphology of the nuclei of all of the analysed callus lines. We demonstrated that the embryogenic callus cells had prominent round nuclei that did not contain heterochromatin clumps in contrast to the non-morphogenic callus lines, in which we found nuclei that had multiple lobes. Flow cytometry analysis revealed significant differences in the relative DNA content between the analysed calli. All of the analysed morphogenic callus lines had peaks from 2C to 8C as compared to the non-morphogenic callus lines, whose peaks did not reflect any regular DNA content and exceeded 8C and 16C for the line 6p1 and 16C and 32C for the callus line 10p2A. The results showed that non-morphogenic calli are of an aneuploid nature. The TUNEL test enabled us to visualise the nuclei that had DNA fragmentation in both the morphogenic and non-morphogenic lines. We revealed significantly higher frequencies of positively labelled nuclei in the non-morphogenic lines than in the morphogenic lines. In the case of the morphogenic lines, the highest observed frequency of TUNEL-positive nuclei was 7.7% for lines 2–3. In the non-morphogenic calli, the highest level of DNA damage (68.5%) was revealed in line 6p1. These results clearly indicate greater genome stability in the morphogenic lines.

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<![CDATA[Robust growth of avirulent phase II Coxiella burnetii in bone marrow-derived murine macrophages]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc329

Published data show that murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) restrict growth of avirulent phase II, but not virulent phase I, Coxiella burnetii. Growth restriction of phase II bacteria is thought to result from potentiated recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which leads to production of inhibitory effector molecules. Past studies have used conditioned medium from L-929 murine fibroblasts as a source of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) to promote differentiation of bone marrow-derived myeloid precursors into macrophages. However, uncharacterized components of conditioned medium, such as variable amounts of type I interferons, can affect macrophage activation status and their permissiveness for infection. In the current study, we show that the C. burnetii Nine Mile phase II (NMII) strain grows robustly in primary macrophages from C57BL/6J mice when bone marrow cells are differentiated with recombinant murine M-CSF (rmM-CSF). Bacteria were readily internalized by BMDM, and replicated within degradative, LAMP1-positive vacuoles to achieve roughly 3 logs of growth over 6 days. Uninfected BMDM did not appreciably express CD38 or Egr2, markers of classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages, respectively, nor did infection change the lack of polarization. In accordance with an M0 phenotype, infected BMDM produced moderate amounts of TNF and nitric oxide. Similar NMII growth results were obtained using C57BL/6J myeloid progenitors immortalized with an estrogen-regulated Hoxb8 (ER-Hoxb8) oncogene. To demonstrate the utility of the ER-Hoxb8 system, myeloid progenitors from natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) C57BL/6J knock-in mice were transduced with ER-Hoxb8, and macrophages were derived from immortalized progenitors using rmM-CSF and infected with NMII. No difference in growth was observed when compared to macrophages from wild type mice, indicating depletion of metal ions by the Nramp1 transporter does not negatively impact NMII growth. Results with NMII were recapitulated in primary macrophages where C57BL/6J Nramp1+ BMDM efficiently killed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. M-CSF differentiated murine macrophages from bone marrow and conditional ER-Hoxb8 myeloid progenitors will be useful ex vivo models for studying Coxiella-macrophage interactions.

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<![CDATA[Identification of small molecules that disrupt vacuolar function in the pathogen Candida albicans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc421

The fungal vacuole is a large acidified organelle that performs a variety of cellular functions. At least a sub-set of these functions are crucial for pathogenic species of fungi, such as Candida albicans, to survive within and invade mammalian tissue as mutants with severe defects in vacuolar biogenesis are avirulent. We therefore sought to identify chemical probes that disrupt the normal function and/or integrity of the fungal vacuole to provide tools for the functional analysis of this organelle as well as potential experimental therapeutics. A convenient indicator of vacuolar integrity based upon the intracellular accumulation of an endogenously produced pigment was adapted to identify Vacuole Disrupting chemical Agents (VDAs). Several chemical libraries were screened and a set of 29 compounds demonstrated to reproducibly cause loss of pigmentation, including 9 azole antifungals, a statin and 3 NSAIDs. Quantitative analysis of vacuolar morphology revealed that (excluding the azoles) a sub-set of 14 VDAs significantly alter vacuolar number, size and/or shape. Many C. albicans mutants with impaired vacuolar function are deficient in the formation of hyphal elements, a process essential for its pathogenicity. Accordingly, all 14 VDAs negatively impact C. albicans hyphal morphogenesis. Fungal selectivity was observed for approximately half of the VDA compounds identified, since they did not alter the morphology of the equivalent mammalian organelle, the lysosome. Collectively, these compounds comprise of a new collection of chemical probes that directly or indirectly perturb normal vacuolar function in C. albicans.

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<![CDATA[Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da30ab0ee8fa60b844ca

Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins.

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<![CDATA[Dual role of the Toxoplasma gondii clathrin adaptor AP1 in the sorting of rhoptry and microneme proteins and in parasite division]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf3fe

Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL). Disruption of the μ1 subunit resulted in the mis-sorting of microneme proteins at the level of the Trans-Golgi-Network (TGN). Furthermore, we demonstrated that TgAP1 regulates rhoptry biogenesis by activating rhoptry protein exit from the TGN, but also participates in the post-Golgi maturation process of preROP compartments into apically anchored club-shaped mature organelles. For this latter activity, our data indicate a specific functional relationship between TgAP1 and the Rab5A-positive endosome-like compartment. In addition, we unraveled an original role for TgAP1 in the regulation of parasite division. APμ1-depleted parasites undergo normal daughter cell budding and basal complex assembly but fail to segregate at the end of cytokinesis.

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<![CDATA[Macropinosomes are Key Players in Early Shigella Invasion and Vacuolar Escape in Epithelial Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daafab0ee8fa60baae1d

Intracellular pathogens include all viruses, many bacteria and parasites capable of invading and surviving within host cells. Key to survival is the subversion of host cell pathways by the pathogen for the purpose of propagation and evading the immune system. The intracellular bacterium Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades host cells in a vacuole that is subsequently ruptured to allow growth of the pathogen within the host cytoplasm. S. flexneri invasion has been classically described as a macropinocytosis-like process, however the underlying details and the role of macropinosomes in the intracellular bacterial lifestyle have remained elusive. We applied dynamic imaging and advanced large volume correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) to study the highly transient events of S. flexneri’s early invasion into host epithelial cells and elucidate some of its fundamental features. First, we demonstrate a clear distinction between two compartments formed during the first step of invasion: the bacterial containing vacuole and surrounding macropinosomes, often considered identical. Next, we report a functional link between macropinosomes and the process of vacuolar rupture, demonstrating that rupture timing is dependent on the availability of macropinosomes as well as the activity of the small GTPase Rab11 recruited directly to macropinosomes. We go on to reveal that the bacterial containing vacuole and macropinosomes come into direct contact at the onset of vacuolar rupture. Finally, we demonstrate that S. flexneri does not subvert pre-existing host endocytic vesicles during the invasion steps leading to vacuolar rupture, and propose that macropinosomes are the major compartment involved in these events. These results provide the basis for a new model of the early steps of S. flexneri epithelial cell invasion, establishing a different view of the enigmatic process of cytoplasmic access by invasive bacterial pathogens.

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<![CDATA[The ESCRT regulator Did2 maintains the balance between long-distance endosomal transport and endocytic trafficking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf41b

In highly polarised cells, like fungal hyphae, early endosomes function in both endocytosis as well as long-distance transport of various cargo including mRNA and protein complexes. However, knowledge on the crosstalk between these seemingly different trafficking processes is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the ESCRT regulator Did2 coordinates endosomal transport in fungal hyphae of Ustilago maydis. Loss of Did2 results in defective vacuolar targeting, less processive long-distance transport and abnormal shuttling of early endosomes. Importantly, the late endosomal protein Rab7 and vacuolar protease Prc1 exhibit increased shuttling on these aberrant endosomes suggesting defects in endosomal maturation and identity. Consistently, molecular motors fail to attach efficiently explaining the disturbed processive movement. Furthermore, the endosomal mRNP linker protein Upa1 is hardly present on endosomes resulting in defects in long-distance mRNA transport. In conclusion, the ESCRT regulator Did2 coordinates precise maturation of endosomes and thus provides the correct membrane identity for efficient endosomal long-distance transport.

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<![CDATA[Ste12/Fab1 phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase is required for nitrogen-regulated mitotic commitment and cell size control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbed1

Tight coupling of cell growth and cell cycle progression enable cells to adjust their rate of division, and therefore size, to the demands of proliferation in varying nutritional environments. Nutrient stress promotes inhibition of Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) activity. In fission yeast, reduced TORC1 activity advances mitotic onset and switches growth to a sustained proliferation at reduced cell size. A screen for mutants, that failed to advance mitosis upon nitrogen stress, identified a mutant in the PIKFYVE 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase fission yeast homolog Ste12. Ste12PIKFYVE deficient mutants were unable to advance the cell cycle to reduce cell size after a nitrogen downshift to poor nitrogen (proline) growth conditions. While it is well established that PI(3,5)P2 signalling is required for autophagy and that Ste12PIKFYVE mutants have enlarged vacuoles (yeast lysosomes), neither a block to autophagy or mutants that independently have enlarged vacuoles had any impact upon nitrogen control of mitotic commitment. The addition of rapamycin to Ste12PIKFYVE deficient mutants reduced cell size at division to suggest that Ste12PIKFYVE possibly functions upstream of TORC1. ste12 mutants display increased Torin1 (TOR inhibitor) sensitivity. However, no major impact on TORC1 or TORC2 activity was observed in the ste12 deficient mutants. In summary, Ste12PIKFYVE is required for nitrogen-stress mediated advancement of mitosis to reduce cell size at division.

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<![CDATA[Identification of Yeast Mutants Exhibiting Altered Sensitivity to Valinomycin and Nigericin Demonstrate Pleiotropic Effects of Ionophores on Cellular Processes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da60ab0ee8fa60b90da4

Ionophores such as valinomycin and nigericin are potent tools for studying the impact of ion perturbance on cellular functions. To obtain a broader picture about molecular components involved in mediating the effects of these drugs on yeast cells under respiratory growth conditions, we performed a screening of the haploid deletion mutant library covering the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nonessential genes. We identified nearly 130 genes whose absence leads either to resistance or to hypersensitivity to valinomycin and/or nigericin. The processes affected by their protein products range from mitochondrial functions through ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance to vacuolar biogenesis and stress response. Comparison of the results with independent screenings performed by our and other laboratories demonstrates that although mitochondria might represent the main target for both ionophores, cellular response to the drugs is very complex and involves an intricate network of proteins connecting mitochondria, vacuoles, and other membrane compartments.

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