ResearchPad - vancomycin https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Simultaneous administration of imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam with selected intravenous antimicrobials, a stewardship approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15724 Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam is a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor that has been recently FDA approved for complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections under the brand name Recarbrio®. It has activity against imipenem non-susceptible Pseudomonas species as well as KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Optimization of PK/PD of antimicrobials particularly in critically-ill patients is essential, but unfortunately, is hindered by separate administration that requires significant resources. The objective of the study is to investigate the compatibility of Y-site administration of imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam with a wide range of antimicrobials. After admixture, physical characteristics, pH changes and turbidity were measured for each 2-drug combination at a time. With the exception of amphotericin B deoxycholate, and posaconazole, imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam was compatible with a variety of antimicrobial agents. The compatibility profile described, will facilitate incorporation into hospital protocols, contribute to therapy optimization and guide clinicians to avoid successive administration, consequently resulting in reduction of total infusion time, optimization of PK/PD, economizing nursing time and cost containment.

]]>
<![CDATA[An attention based deep learning model of clinical events in the intensive care unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca08d5eed0c48452a6e2

This study trained long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks (RNNs) incorporating an attention mechanism to predict daily sepsis, myocardial infarction (MI), and vancomycin antibiotic administration over two week patient ICU courses in the MIMIC-III dataset. These models achieved next-day predictive AUC of 0.876 for sepsis, 0.823 for MI, and 0.833 for vancomycin administration. Attention maps built from these models highlighted those times when input variables most influenced predictions and could provide a degree of interpretability to clinicians. These models appeared to attend to variables that were proxies for clinician decision-making, demonstrating a challenge of using flexible deep learning approaches trained with EHR data to build clinical decision support. While continued development and refinement is needed, we believe that such models could one day prove useful in reducing information overload for ICU physicians by providing needed clinical decision support for a variety of clinically important tasks.

]]>
<![CDATA[Selection of an appropriate empiric antibiotic regimen in hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673063d5eed0c484f37a49

Background

Empiric antibiotic therapy for suspected hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis (HVO) should be initiated immediately in seriously ill patients and may be required in those with negative microbiological results. The aim of this study was to inform the appropriate selection of empiric antibiotic regimens for the treatment of suspected HVO by analyzing antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated bacteria from microbiologically proven HVO.

Method

We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients with microbiologically proven HVO in five tertiary-care hospitals over a 7-year period. The appropriateness of empiric antibiotic regimens was assessed based on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolated bacteria.

Results

In total, 358 cases of microbiologically proven HVO were identified. The main causative pathogens identified were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (33.5%), followed by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (24.9%), Enterobacteriaceae (19.3%), and Streptococcus species (11.7%). Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobes accounted for only 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively, of the causative pathogens. Overall, 73.5% of isolated pathogens were susceptible to levofloxacin plus rifampicin, 71.2% to levofloxacin plus clindamycin, and 64.5% to amoxicillin-clavulanate plus ciprofloxacin. The susceptibility to these oral combinations was lower in cases of healthcare-associated HVO (52.6%, 49.6%, and 37.6%, respectively) than in cases of community-acquired HVO (85.8%, 84.0%, and 80.4%, respectively). Vancomycin combined with ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, or cefepime was similarly appropriate (susceptibility rates of 93.0%, 94.1%, 95.8%, and 95.8%, respectively).

Conclusions

Based on our susceptibility data, vancomycin combined with a broad-spectrum cephalosporin or fluoroquinolone may be appropriate for empiric treatment of HVO. Fluoroquinolone-based oral combinations may be not appropriate due to frequent resistance to these agents, especially in cases of healthcare-associated HVO.

]]>
<![CDATA[Comparison of in vitro static and dynamic assays to evaluate the efficacy of an antimicrobial drug combination against Staphylococcus aureus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52184dd5eed0c484797b05

An easily implementable strategy to reduce treatment failures in severe bacterial infections is to combine already available antibiotics. However, most in vitro combination assays are performed by exposing standard bacterial inocula to constant concentrations of antibiotics over less than 24h, which can be poorly representative of clinical situations. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of static and dynamic in vitro Time-Kill Studies (TKS) to identify the potential benefits of an antibiotic combination (here, amikacin and vancomycin) on two different inoculum sizes of two S. aureus strains. In the static TKS (sTKS), performed by exposing both strains over 24h to constant antibiotic concentrations, the activity of the two drugs combined was not significantly different the better drug used alone. However, the dynamic TKS (dTKS) performed over 5 days by exposing one strain to fluctuating concentrations representative of those observed in patients showed that, with the large inoculum, the activities of the drugs, used alone or in combination, significantly differed over time. Vancomycin did not kill bacteria, amikacin led to bacterial regrowth whereas the combination progressively decreased the bacterial load. Thus, dTKS revealed an enhanced effect of the combination on a large inoculum not observed in sTKS. The discrepancy between the sTKS and dTKS results highlights that the assessment of the efficacy of a combination for severe infections associated with a high bacterial load could be demanding. These situations probably require the implementation of dynamic assays over the entire expected treatment duration rather than the sole static assays performed with steady drug concentrations over 24h.

]]>
<![CDATA[Matrix metalloprotease-1 inhibits and disrupts Enterococcus faecalis biofilms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c42436bd5eed0c4845e0123

Enterococcus faecalis is a major opportunistic pathogen that readily forms protective biofilms leading to chronic infections. Biofilms protect bacteria from detergent solutions, antimicrobial agents, environmental stress, and effectively make bacteria 10 to 1000-fold more resistant to antibiotic treatment. Extracellular proteins and polysaccharides are primary components of biofilms and play a key role in cell survival, microbial persistence, cellular interaction, and maturation of E. faecalis biofilms. Degradation of biofilm components by mammalian proteases is an effective antibiofilm strategy because proteases are known to degrade bacterial proteins leading to bacterial cell lysis and growth inhibition. Here, we show that human matrix metalloprotease-1 inhibits and disrupts E. faecalis biofilms. MMPs are cell-secreted zinc- and calcium-dependent proteases that degrade and regulate various structural components of the extracellular matrix. Human MMP1 is known to degrade type-1 collagen and can also cleave a wide range of substrates. We found that recombinant human MMP1 significantly inhibited and disrupted biofilms of vancomycin sensitive and vancomycin resistant E. faecalis strains. The mechanism of antibiofilm activity is speculated to be linked with bacterial growth inhibition and degradation of biofilm matrix proteins by MMP1. These findings suggest that human MMP1 can potentially be used as a potent antibiofilm agent against E. faecalis biofilms.

]]>
<![CDATA[Penicillin skin testing in methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A cost-effectiveness analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0135d5eed0c48403937e

Background

Beta-lactams are the mainstay for treating methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections complicated by bacteremia due to superior outcomes compared with vancomycin. With approximately 11% of inpatients reporting a penicillin (PCN) allergy, many patients receive suboptimal treatment for MSSA bacteremia.

Objective

Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of penicillin skin testing (PST) in adult patients with self-reported PCN allergy in an inpatient setting undergoing treatment for MSSA bacteremia.

Methods

A decision analytic model was developed comparing an acute care PST intervention to a scenario with no confirmatory allergy testing. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) from the health-sector perspective over a 1-year time horizon using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as the measure for effectiveness. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the uncertainty of the ICER estimation.

Results

Over a 1-year time horizon, PST services applied to all MSSA bacteremia patients reporting a PCN-allergy would result in a cost per patient of $12,559 and 0.73 QALYs while no PST services would have a higher cost per patient of $13,219 and 0.66 QALYs per patient. This resulted in a cost-effectiveness estimate of -$9,429 per QALY gained. Varying the cost of implementing PST services determined a break-even point of $959.98 where any PST cost less than this amount would actually be cost saving.

Conclusions

Patients reporting a PCN allergy on admission may receive sub-optimal alternative therapies to beta-lactams, such as vancomycin, for MSSA bacteremia. This economic analysis demonstrates that inpatient PST services confirming PCN allergy are cost-effective for patients with MSSA bacteremia.

]]>
<![CDATA[Antibiotic susceptibility, cytotoxicity, and protease activity of viridans group streptococci causing endophthalmitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c269771d5eed0c48470f88f

The viridans group streptococci comprise multiple species and have gained more recognition in recent years as common etiologic agents of bacterial endophthalmitis. The purpose of this study was to identify the species of human endophthalmitis isolates of viridans streptococci and to characterize their potential virulence attributes. The species of 22 endophthalmitis strains of viridans streptococci were identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight. Susceptibilities to 3 antibiotics commonly used for bacterial endophthalmitis were determined. The extracellular milieu of each strain was tested for cytotoxicity of retinal pigmented epithelial cells, hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes, and protease activity using gelatin zymography. Identified species were Streptococcus mitis/oralis, S. salivarius, S. vestibularis, S. parasanguinis, S. mutans, S. constellatus, and S. gordonii. One strain of S. pseudoporcinus was also identified. All strains were sensitive to vancomycin, 77% were resistant to amikacin, and 27% had intermediate resistance to ceftazidime. Extracellular milieu from all strains except one (S. pseudoporcinus) were largely devoid of toxicity to retinal pigmented epithelial cells and sheep erythrocytes. Twelve strains, 10 of which were S. mitis/oralis, produced protease activity. Interestingly, not all of the S. mitis/oralis strains were proteolytic. These findings highlight the diversity of virulence factor production in ocular strains of the viridans streptococci not only at the group level but also at the species level.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pediatric Vancomycin Use in 421 Hospitals in the United States, 2008]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9aab0ee8fa60ba37dc

Background

Recommendations to prevent the spread of vancomycin resistance have been in place since 1995 and include guidelines for inpatient pediatric use of vancomycin. The emergence of large databases allows us to describe variation in pediatric vancomycin across hospitals. We analyzed a database with hospitalizations for children under 18 at 421 hospitals in 2008.

Methodology/Principal Findings

The Premier hospital 2008 database, consisting of records for 877,201 pediatric hospitalizations in 421 hospitals, was analyzed. Stratified analyses and logistic mixed effects models were used to calculate the probability of vancomycin use while considering random effects of hospital variation, hospital fixed effects and patient effects, and the hierarchical structure of the data. Most hospitals (221) had fewer than 10 hospitalizations with vancomycin use in the study period, and 47 hospitals reported no vancomycin use in 17,271 pediatric hospitalizations. At the other end of the continuum, 21 hospitals (5.6% of hospitals) each had over 200 hospitalizations with vancomycin use, and together, accounted for more than 50% of the pediatric hospitalizations with vancomycin use. The mixed effects modeling showed hospital variation in the probability of vancomycin use that was statistically significant after controlling for teaching status, urban or rural location, size, region of the country, patient ethnic group, payor status, and APR-mortality and severity codes.

Conclusions/Significance

The number and percentage of pediatric hospitalizations with vancomycin use varied greatly across hospitals and was not explained by hospital or patient characteristics in our logistic models. Public health efforts to reduce vancomycin use should be intensified at hospitals with highest use.

]]>
<![CDATA[Antimicrobial Combinations against Pan-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates with Different Resistance Mechanisms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4dab0ee8fa60bdb080

The study investigated the effect of antibiotic combinations against 20 clinical isolates of A. baumannii (seven colistin-resistant and 13 colistin-susceptible) with different resistance mechanisms. Clinical data, treatment, and patient mortality were evaluated. The following methods were used: MIC, PCRs, and outer membrane protein (OMP) analysis. Synergy was investigated using the checkerboard and time-kill methods. Clonality was evaluated by PFGE. Based on clonality, the whole genome sequence of six A. baumannii isolates was analyzed. All isolates were resistant to meropenem, rifampicin, and fosfomycin. OXA-23 and OXA-143 were the most frequent carbapenemases found. Four isolates showed loss of a 43kDa OMP. The colistin-susceptible isolates belonged to different clones and showed the highest synergistic effect with fosfomycin-amikacin. Among colistin-resistant isolates, the highest synergistic effect was observed with the combinations of colistin-rifampicin followed by colistin-vancomycin. All colistin-resistant isolates harbored blaOXA-23-like and belonged to CC113. Clinical and demographic data were available for 18 of 20 patients. Fourteen received treatment and eight patients died during treatment. The most frequent site of infection was the blood in 13 of 14 patients. Seven patients received vancomycin plus an active drug against A. baumannii; however, mortality did not differ in this group. The synergistic effect was similar for colistin-susceptible isolates of distinct clonal origin presenting with the same resistance mechanism. Overall mortality and death during treatment was high, and despite the high synergism in vitro with vancomycin, death did not differ comparing the use or not of vancomycin plus an active drug against A. baumannii.

]]>
<![CDATA[ThioFinder: A Web-Based Tool for the Identification of Thiopeptide Gene Clusters in DNA Sequences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da53ab0ee8fa60b8e5f7

Thiopeptides are a growing class of sulfur-rich, highly modified heterocyclic peptides that are mainly active against Gram-positive bacteria including various drug-resistant pathogens. Recent studies also reveal that many thiopeptides inhibit the proliferation of human cancer cells, further expanding their application potentials for clinical use. Thiopeptide biosynthesis shares a common paradigm, featuring a ribosomally synthesized precursor peptide and conserved posttranslational modifications, to afford a characteristic core system, but differs in tailoring to furnish individual members. Identification of new thiopeptide gene clusters, by taking advantage of increasing information of DNA sequences from bacteria, may facilitate new thiopeptide discovery and enrichment of the unique biosynthetic elements to produce novel drug leads by applying the principle of combinatorial biosynthesis. In this study, we have developed a web-based tool ThioFinder to rapidly identify thiopeptide biosynthetic gene cluster from DNA sequence using a profile Hidden Markov Model approach. Fifty-four new putative thiopeptide biosynthetic gene clusters were found in the sequenced bacterial genomes of previously unknown producing microorganisms. ThioFinder is fully supported by an open-access database ThioBase, which contains the sufficient information of the 99 known thiopeptides regarding the chemical structure, biological activity, producing organism, and biosynthetic gene (cluster) along with the associated genome if available. The ThioFinder website offers researchers a unique resource and great flexibility for sequence analysis of thiopeptide biosynthetic gene clusters. ThioFinder is freely available at http://db-mml.sjtu.edu.cn/ThioFinder/.

]]>
<![CDATA[Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A-Mediated Incorporation of Peptides: Effect of Peptide Modification on Incorporation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa5ab0ee8fa60ba720c

The endogenous Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (SrtA) transpeptidase covalently anchors cell wall-anchored (CWA) proteins equipped with a specific recognition motif (LPXTG) into the peptidoglycan layer of the staphylococcal cell wall. Previous in situ experiments have shown that SrtA is also able to incorporate exogenous, fluorescently labelled, synthetic substrates equipped with the LPXTG motif (K(FITC)LPETG-amide) into the bacterial cell wall, albeit at high concentrations of 500 μM to 1 mM. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of substrate modification on the incorporation efficiency. This revealed that (i) by elongation of LPETG-amide with a sequence of positively charged amino acids, derived from the C-terminal domain of physiological SrtA substrates, the incorporation efficiency was increased by 20-fold at 10 μM, 100 μM and 250 μM; (ii) Substituting aspartic acid (E) for methionine increased the incorporation of the resulting K(FITC)LPMTG-amide approximately three times at all concentrations tested; (iii) conjugation of the lipid II binding antibiotic vancomycin to K(FITC)LPMTG-amide resulted in the same incorporation levels as K(FITC)LPETG-amide, but much more efficient at an impressive 500-fold lower substrate concentration. These newly developed synthetic substrates can potentially find broad applications in for example the in situ imaging of bacteria; the incorporation of antibody recruiting moieties; the targeted delivery and covalent incorporation of antimicrobial compounds into the bacterial cell wall.

]]>
<![CDATA[Elution and Mechanical Strength of Vancomycin-Loaded Bone Cement: In Vitro Study of the Influence of Brand Combination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db07ab0ee8fa60bc8d92

Antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is widely used in orthopaedic surgery for both prevention and treatment of infection. Little is known about the effect of different brand combinations of antibiotic and bone cement on the elution profile and mechanical strength of ALBC. Standardized specimens that consisted of one of the 4 brands of bone cement and one of the 3 brands of vancomycin were fashioned, producing 12 combinations of ALBC. Two dosages of vancomycin in 40g bone cement were used to represent the high (4g vancomycin) and low (1g vancomycin) dose groups. Concentrations of vancomycin elution from ALBC was measured for up to 336 hours. The ultimate compression strength was tested at axial compression using a material testing machine before and after elution. In both high-dose and low-dose groups, Lyo-Vancin in PALACOS bone cement resulted in the highest cumulative elution and Vanco in Simplex P bone cement resulted in the lowest elution (458% and 65% higher in high- and low-dose groups, respectively). The mechanical strength was not significantly compromised in all groups with low dose vancomycin (range: 70.31 ± 2.74 MPa to 87.28 ± 8.26MPa after elution). However, with the addition of high dose vancomycin, there was a mixed amount of reduction in the ultimate compression strength after cement aging, ranging from 5% (Vanco in Simplex P, 81.10 ± 0.48 MPa after elution) to 38% (Sterile vancomycin in CMW, 60.94 ± 5.74 MPa after elution). We concluded that the selection of brands of vancomycin and bone cement has a great impact on the release efficacy and mechanical strength of ALBC.

]]>
<![CDATA[Synergy between Vancomycin and Nafcillin against Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf4ab0ee8fa60bc237a

Introduction

Continued pressure from glycopeptide use has led to non-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus including heterogeneously vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA). Infections with hVISA are associated with poor patient outcomes, thus incentivizing novel treatments. Evidence suggests that vancomycin and anti-staphylococcal penicillin susceptibility are inversely related which indicates that the use of this combination may be particularly useful against methicillin-resistant S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, such as hVISA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for synergy between vancomycin and nafcillin against hVISA.

Methods

Twenty-five hVISA strains were evaluated for vancomycin and nafcillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by broth microdilution in duplicate. Potential for synergy was assessed by time-kill at 1/2x MIC in triplicate. Five strains were chosen, representing the range nafcillin MIC’s available in the cohort –4, 16, 64, 128, and 256 µg/mL, and were run in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model in duplicate over 72 hours to evaluate the potential of the combination with simulated human pharmacokinetics. In addition, 4 fully glycopeptide susceptible strains of S. aureus including 2 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and 2 methicillin-resistant (MRSA) were run in the PK/PD model for comparison.

Results

In the time-kill, 92% of strains (23 of 25) displayed synergy with the combination of vancomycin and nafcillin. In the PK/PD model, all five strains of hVISA showed an improvement in overall activity (P≤0.004) and organism burden at 72 hours (P≤0.001) with the combination compared to either drug alone. The combination was also successful against both MRSA and MSSA in overall activity (P≤0.009) and organism burden at 72 hours (P≤0.016), though the magnitude of the effect was diminished against MSSA.

Conclusions

The combination of vancomycin and nafcillin significantly improved antibacterial activity against hVISA, MRSA, and MSSA compared to either drug alone.

]]>
<![CDATA[Colonization prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Group B Streptococcus in pregnant women over a 6-year period in Dongguan, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafc6bf463d7e7d7e2e875f

This study investigated the prevalence of recto-vaginal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pregnant women in Dongguan, China. Recto-vaginal swabs were collected from pregnant women at gestational age 35–37 weeks between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2014. Isolates were serotyped by latex-agglutination and were tested against seven antimicrobials by disk diffusion. Of 7,726 pregnant women who completed GBS testing, 636 (8.2%) were GBS carriers. Of 153 GBS isolates available for typing, 6 serotypes (Ia, Ib, III, V, VI and VIII) were identified with type III being predominant, while 9 (5.9%) were non-typable isolates. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ceftriaxone, linezolid and vancomycin, whereas 52.4% were resistant to clindamycin, 25.9% were resistant to levofloxacin and 64.9% were resistant to erythromycin. This study showed the recto-vaginal colonization prevalence of GBS in Dongguan is significant. Due to 100% susceptibility to penicillin of all GBS samples, penicillin remains the first recommendation for treatment and prevention against GBS infection. Susceptibility testing should be performed for women allergic to penicillin in order to choose the most appropriate antibacterial agents for treatment and prevention of vertical transmission to neonates. In addition, we suggest establishing standard processes for GBS culture and identification in China as early as possible.

]]>
<![CDATA[Prevalence and Characterization of Oxacillin Susceptible mecA-Positive Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis in India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9dab0ee8fa60ba4974

Bovine mastitis caused by multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a huge problem reported worldwide, resulting in prolonged antibiotic treatment and death of livestock. The current study is focused on surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility along with genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the pathogenic S. aureus strains causing mastitis in India. One hundred and sixty seven milk samples were collected from mastitis-affected cows from different farms in India resulting in thirty nine isolated S. aureus strains. Antibiotic sensitivity profiling revealed the majority of the strains (n = 24) to be multidrug resistant and eleven strains showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs = 2μg/ml). All strains were oxacillin sensitive, but 19 strains were positive for the mecA gene, which revealed the occurrence of oxacillin susceptible mecA positive strains (OS-MRSA) for the first time from India. Additionally, 32 strains were positive for the pvl gene, a virulence determinant; of these 17 were also OS-MRSA strains. Molecular characterization based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec classification revealed strains belonging to different groups. Moreover, strains showed spa types (t2526, t9602) and MLST sequence types, ST-72, ST-88 and ST-239 which have been earlier reported in human infections. The prevalence of OS-MRSA strains indicates the importance of including both the genetic and phenotypic tests in characterizing S. aureus strains. Increased genotypic variability with strain related to human infections and pvl positive isolates indicates a worrisome situation with the possibility of bilateral transfer.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Six Strategies to Treat Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0cab0ee8fa60b77d2d

Objective

To assess the cost-effectiveness of six treatment strategies for patients diagnosed with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Canada: 1. oral metronidazole; 2. oral vancomycin; 3.oral fidaxomicin; 4. fecal transplantation by enema; 5. fecal transplantation by nasogastric tube; and 6. fecal transplantation by colonoscopy.

Perspective

Public insurer for all hospital and physician services.

Setting

Ontario, Canada.

Methods

A decision analytic model was used to model costs and lifetime health effects of each strategy for a typical patient experiencing up to three recurrences, over 18 weeks. Recurrence data and utilities were obtained from published sources. Cost data was obtained from published sources and hospitals in Toronto, Canada. The willingness-to-pay threshold was $50,000/QALY gained.

Results

Fecal transplantation by colonoscopy dominated all other strategies in the base case, as it was less costly and more effective than all alternatives. After accounting for uncertainty in all model parameters, there was an 87% probability that fecal transplantation by colonoscopy was the most beneficial strategy. If colonoscopy was not available, fecal transplantation by enema was cost-effective at $1,708 per QALY gained, compared to metronidazole. In addition, fecal transplantation by enema was the preferred strategy if the probability of recurrence following this strategy was below 8.7%. If fecal transplantation by any means was unavailable, fidaxomicin was cost-effective at an additional cost of $25,968 per QALY gained, compared to metronidazole.

Conclusion

Fecal transplantation by colonoscopy (or enema, if colonoscopy is unavailable) is cost-effective for treating recurrent CDI in Canada. Where fecal transplantation is not available, fidaxomicin is also cost-effective.

]]>
<![CDATA[Documenting Penicillin Allergy: The Impact of Inconsistency]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f8ab0ee8fa60b71127

Background

Allergy documentation is frequently inconsistent and incomplete. The impact of this variability on subsequent treatment is not well described.

Objective

To determine how allergy documentation affects subsequent antibiotic choice.

Design

Retrospective, cohort study.

Participants

232,616 adult patients seen by 199 primary care providers (PCPs) between January 1, 2009 and January 1, 2014 at an academic medical system.

Main Measures

Inter-physician variation in beta-lactam allergy documentation; antibiotic treatment following beta-lactam allergy documentation.

Key Results

15.6% of patients had a reported beta-lactam allergy. Of those patients, 39.8% had a specific allergen identified and 22.7% had allergic reaction characteristics documented. Variation between PCPs was greater than would be expected by chance (all p<0.001) in the percentage of their patients with a documented beta-lactam allergy (7.9% to 24.8%), identification of a specific allergen (e.g. amoxicillin as opposed to “penicillins”) (24.0% to 58.2%) and documentation of the reaction characteristics (5.4% to 51.9%). After beta-lactam allergy documentation, patients were less likely to receive penicillins (Relative Risk [RR] 0.16 [95% Confidence Interval: 0.15–0.17]) and cephalosporins (RR 0.28 [95% CI 0.27–0.30]) and more likely to receive fluoroquinolones (RR 1.5 [95% CI 1.5–1.6]), clindamycin (RR 3.8 [95% CI 3.6–4.0]) and vancomycin (RR 5.0 [95% CI 4.3–5.8]). Among patients with beta-lactam allergy, rechallenge was more likely when a specific allergen was identified (RR 1.6 [95% CI 1.5–1.8]) and when reaction characteristics were documented (RR 2.0 [95% CI 1.8–2.2]).

Conclusions

Provider documentation of beta-lactam allergy is highly variable, and details of the allergy are infrequently documented. Classification of a patient as beta-lactam allergic and incomplete documentation regarding the details of the allergy lead to beta-lactam avoidance and use of other antimicrobial agents, behaviors that may adversely impact care quality and cost.

]]>
<![CDATA[A 99mTc-Labelled Tetrazine for Bioorthogonal Chemistry. Synthesis and Biodistribution Studies with Small Molecule trans-Cyclooctene Derivatives]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da14ab0ee8fa60b7aa6a

A convenient strategy to radiolabel a hydrazinonicotonic acid (HYNIC)-derived tetrazine with 99mTc was developed, and its utility for creating probes to image bone metabolism and bacterial infection using both active and pretargeting strategies was demonstrated. The 99mTc-labelled HYNIC-tetrazine was synthesized in 75% yield and exhibited high stability in vitro and in vivo. A trans-cyclooctene (TCO)-labelled bisphosphonate (TCO-BP) that binds to regions of active calcium metabolism was used to evaluate the utility of the labelled tetrazine for bioorthogonal chemistry. The pretargeting approach, with 99mTc-HYNIC-tetrazine administered to mice one hour after TCO-BP, showed significant uptake of radioactivity in regions of active bone metabolism (knees and shoulders) at 6 hours post-injection. For comparison, TCO-BP was reacted with 99mTc-HYNIC-tetrazine before injection and this active targeting also showed high specific uptake in the knees and shoulders, whereas control 99mTc-HYNIC-tetrazine alone did not. A TCO-vancomycin derivative was similarly employed for targeting Staphylococcus aureus infection in vitro and in vivo. Pretargeting and active targeting strategies showed 2.5- and 3-fold uptake, respectively, at the sites of a calf-muscle infection in a murine model, compared to the contralateral control muscle. These results demonstrate the utility of the 99mTc-HYNIC-tetrazine for preparing new technetium radiopharmaceuticals, including those based on small molecule targeting constructs containing TCO, using either active or pretargeting strategies.

]]>
<![CDATA[An Integrated Metabolomic and Microbiome Analysis Identified Specific Gut Microbiota Associated with Fecal Cholesterol and Coprostanol in Clostridium difficile Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da41ab0ee8fa60b8a2e0

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is characterized by dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and a profound derangement in the fecal metabolome. However, the contribution of specific gut microbes to fecal metabolites in C. difficile-associated gut microbiome remains poorly understood. Using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 16S rRNA deep sequencing, we analyzed the metabolome and microbiome of fecal samples obtained longitudinally from subjects with Clostridium difficile infection (n = 7) and healthy controls (n = 6). From 155 fecal metabolites, we identified two sterol metabolites at >95% match to cholesterol and coprostanol that significantly discriminated C. difficile-associated gut microbiome from healthy microbiota. By correlating the levels of cholesterol and coprostanol in fecal extracts with 2,395 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, we identified 63 OTUs associated with high levels of coprostanol and 2 OTUs correlated with low coprostanol levels. Using indicator species analysis (ISA), 31 of the 63 coprostanol-associated bacteria correlated with health, and two Veillonella species were associated with low coprostanol levels that correlated strongly with CDI. These 65 bacterial taxa could be clustered into 12 sub-communities, with each community containing a consortium of organisms that co-occurred with one another. Our studies identified 63 human gut microbes associated with cholesterol-reducing activities. Given the importance of gut bacteria in reducing and eliminating cholesterol from the GI tract, these results support the recent finding that gut microbiome may play an important role in host lipid metabolism.

]]>
<![CDATA[Predominance of Clostridium difficile Ribotypes 017 and 078 among Toxigenic Clinical Isolates in Southern Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa6ab0ee8fa60ba797c

Ribotypes and toxin genotypes of clinical C. difficile isolates in Taiwan are rarely reported. A prospective surveillance study from January 2011 to January 2013 was conducted at the medical wards of a district hospital in southern Taiwan. Of the first toxigenic isolates from 120 patients, 68 (56.7%) of 120 isolates possessed both tcdA and tcdB. Of 52 (43.3%) with tcdB and truncated tcdA (tcdA-/tcdB+), all were ribotype 017 and none had binary toxin or tcdC deletion. Eighteen (15%) toxigenic isolates harbored binary toxins (cdtA and cdtB) and all had tcdC deletion, including Δ39 (C184T) deletion (14 isolates), Δ18 in-frame deletion (3 isolates), and Δ18 (Δ117A) deletion (1 isolate). Eleven of 14 isolates with Δ39 (C184T) deletion belonged to the ribotype 078 family, including ribotype 127 (6 isolates), ribotype 126 (4 isolates), and ribotype 078 (1 isolate). Among 8 patients with consecutive C. difficile isolates, these isolates from 6 (75%) patients were identical, irrespective of the presence or absence of diarrhea, suggestive of persistent fecal carriage or colonization. In conclusion in southern Taiwan, ribotype 017 isolates with a tcdA-/tcdB+ genotype were not uncommon and of C. difficile isolates with binary toxin, the ribotype 078 family was predominant.

]]>