ResearchPad - venules https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Automatic analysis of normative retinal oximetry images]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15756 Retinal oximetry is an important screening tool for early detection of retinal pathologies due to changes in the vasculature and also serves as a useful indicator of human-body-wide vascular abnormalities. We present an automatic technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules using dual-wavelength retinal oximetry images. The technique is based on segmenting an optic-disc-centered ring-shaped region of interest and subsequent analysis of the oxygen saturation levels. We show that the two dominant peaks in the histogram of the oxygen saturation levels correspond to arteriolar and venular oxygen saturations from which the arterio-venous saturation difference (AVSD) can be calculated. For evaluation, we use a normative database of Asian Indian eyes containing 44 dual-wavelength retinal oximetry images. Validations against expert manual annotations of arterioles and venules show that the proposed technique results in an average arteriolar oxygen saturation (SatO2) of 87.48%, venular SatO2 of 57.41%, and AVSD of 30.07% in comparison with the expert ground-truth average arteriolar SatO2 of 89.41%, venular SatO2 of 56.32%, and AVSD of 33.09%, respectively. The results exhibit high consistency across the dataset indicating that the automated technique is an accurate alternative to the manual procedure.

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<![CDATA[Retinal oximetry measures systemic hypoxia in central nervous system vessels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf96

Background

Determination of the blood oxyhemoglobin saturation in the retinal vessels of the eye can be achieved through spectrophotometric retinal oximetry which provides access to the state of oxyhemoglobin saturation in the central nervous system circulation. The purpose of this study was to test the capability of the Oxymap T1 oximeter to detect systemic hypoxemia and the effect of supplemental oxygen on retinal vessel oxyhemoglobin saturation.

Methods

Oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in retinal arterioles and venules was measured in 11 subjects with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on long term oxygen therapy. Measurements were made with and without their daily supplemental oxygen. Eleven healthy age and gender matched subjects were measured during ambient air breathing for comparison of oxyhemoglobin saturation in retinal arterioles and venules. Retinal arteriolar oxyhemoglobin saturation in COPD subjects inspiring ambient air was compared with finger pulse oximetry and blood samples from radial artery.

Results

COPD subjects had significantly lower oxyhemoglobin saturation during ambient air breathing than healthy controls in both retinal arterioles (87.2%±4.9% vs. 93.4%±4.3%, p = 0.02; n = 11) and venules (45.0%±10.3% vs. 55.2%±5.5%, p = 0.01). Administration of their prescribed supplemental oxygen increased oxyhemoglobin saturation in retinal arterioles (87.2%±4.9% to 89.5%±6.0%, p = 0.02) but not in venules (45.0%±10.3% to 46.7%±12.8%, p = 0.3). Retinal oximetry values were slightly lower than radial artery blood values (mean percentage points difference = -5.0±5.4, 95% CI: -15.68 to 5.67) and finger pulse oximetry values (-3.1±5.5, 95% CI: -14.05 to 7.84).

Conclusions

The noninvasive Oxymap T1 retinal oximetry detects hypoxemia in central nervous system vessels in patients with severe COPD compared with healthy controls. The instrument is sensitive to changes in oxygen breathing but displays slightly lower measures than finger pulse oximetry or radial artery measures. With further technological improvement, retinal oximetry may offer noninvasive “on-line” measurement of oxygen levels in central circulation in general anesthesia and critically ill patients.

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<![CDATA[Long-term consequences of developmental vascular defects on retinal vessel homeostasis and function in a mouse model of Norrie disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0268

Loss of Norrin signalling due to mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma gene causes severe vascular defects in the retina, leading to visual impairment and ultimately blindness. While the emphasis of experimental work so far was on the developmental period, we focus here on disease mechanisms that induce progression into severe adult disease. The goal of this study was the comprehensive analysis of the long-term effects of the absence of Norrin on vascular homeostasis and retinal function. In a mouse model of Norrie disease retinal vascular morphology and integrity were studied by means of in vivo angiography; the vascular constituents were assessed in detailed histological analyses using quantitative retinal morphometry. Finally, electroretinographic analyses were performed to assess the retinal function in adult Norrin deficient animals. We could show that the primary developmental defects not only persisted but developed into further vascular abnormalities and microangiopathies. In particular, the overall vessel homeostasis, the vascular integrity, and also the cellular constituents of the vascular wall were affected in the adult Norrin deficient retina. Moreover, functional analyses indicated to persistent hypoxia in the neural retina which was suggested as one of the major driving forces of disease progression. In summary, our data provide evidence that the key to adult Norrie disease are ongoing vascular modifications, driven by the persistent hypoxic conditions, which are ineffective to compensate for the primary Norrin-dependent defects.

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<![CDATA[Retinal Oximetry with Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope in Infants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f0ab0ee8fa60b6e4eb

Purpose

Dual wavelength retinal oximetry has been developed for adults, but is not available for infants. Retinal oximetry may provide insight into the pathophysiology of oxygen-mediated diseases like retinopathy of prematurity. More insight in the oxygen metabolism of the retina in infants may provide valuable clues for better understanding and subsequent prevention or treatment of the disease. The measurements of oxygen saturation are obtained with two fundus images simultaneously captured in two different wavelengths of light. The comparison in light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin can be used to estimate the oxygen saturation within the retinal vessels by means of a software algorithm. This study aims to make retinal oximetry available for neonates. The first step towards estimating retinal oxygen saturation is determining the optical density ratio. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to image healthy newborn infants with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and determine the optical density ratio for retinal oximetry analysis.

Methods

Images of the retina of full-term healthy infants were obtained with an SLO, Optomap 200Tx (Optos), with two laser wavelengths (532nm and 633nm). The infant lay face down on the lower arm of the parent, while the parent supported the chest and chin with one hand, and stabilized the back with the other hand. No mydriatics or eyelid specula were used during this study. The images were analyzed with modified Oxymap Analyzer software for calculation of the Optical Density Ratio (ODR) and vessel width. The ODR is inversely and approximately linearly related to the oxygen saturation. Measurements were included from the superotemporal vessel pair. A paired t-test was used for statistical analysis.

Results

Fifty-nine infants, (58% female), were included with mean gestational age of 40 ± 1.3 weeks (mean ± SD) and mean post-natal age of 16 ± 4.8 days. A total of 28 images were selected for retinal oximetry analysis. The ODR was 0.256 ± 0.041 for the arterioles and 0.421 ± 0.089 for the venules (n = 28, p < 0.001). The measured vessel-width for the arterioles was 14.1 ± 2.7 pixels and for the venules 19.7 ± 3.7 pixels (n = 28, p < 0.001).

Conclusions

Retinal oximetry can be performed in newborn infants by combining an SLO and a dual-wavelength algorithm software. Sensitivity of the approach is indicated by the fact that the ODR measurements are significantly different between the arterioles and the venules. However, more variability in ODR is seen with the SLO approach in babies than is seen with conventional oximetry in adults. This approach is completely non-invasive, non-contact and even avoids the use of mydriatics or eyelid specula.

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<![CDATA[Diagnostic Performance of Magnifying Endoscopy for Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daecab0ee8fa60bbfa6a

Background

Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection using magnifying endoscopy offers advantages over conventional invasive and noninvasive tests.

Objective

This meta-analysis aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of magnifying endoscopy in the prediction of H. pylori infection.

Methods

A literature search of the PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Science Direct and the Cochrane Library databases was performed. A random-effects model was used to calculate the diagnostic efficiency of magnifying endoscopy for H. pylori infection. A summary receiver operator characteristic curve was plotted, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated.

Results

A total of 18 studies involving 1897 patients were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of magnifying endoscopy to predict H. pylori infection were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87–0.91] and 0.82 (95%CI 0.79–0.85), respectively, with an AUC of 0.9461. When targeting the gastric antrum, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.82 (95%CI 0.78–0.86) and 0.72 (95%CI 0.66–0.78), respectively. When targeting the gastric corpus, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.92 (95%CI 0.90–0.94) and 0.86 (95%CI 0.82–0.88), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity using magnifying white light endoscopy were 0.90 (95%CI 0.87–0.91) and 0.81 (95%CI 0.77–0.84), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity using magnifying chromoendoscopy were 0.87 (95%CI 0.83–0.91) and 0.85 (95%CI 0.80–0.88), respectively. The “pit plus vascular pattern” classification in the gastric corpus observed by magnifying endoscopy was able to accurately predict the status of H. pylori infection, as indicated by a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 0.96 (95%CI 0.94–0.97) and 0.91 (95%CI 0.87–0.93), respectively, with an AUC of 0.9872.

Conclusions

Magnifying endoscopy was able to accurately predict the status of H. pylori infection, either in magnifying white light endoscopy or magnifying chromoendoscopy mode. The “pit plus vascular pattern” classification in the gastric corpus is an optimum diagnostic criterion.

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<![CDATA[Stepwise inhibition of T cell recruitment at post-capillary venules by orally active desulfated heparins in inflammatory arthritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdc9a5

Identification of the structure-function relationship of heparin, particularly between 2-O-, 6-O-, and N-sulfation and its anticoagulant or anti-inflammatory activities, is critical in order to evaluate the biological effects of heparin, especially in conjunction with modifications for oral formulation. In this study, we demonstrated that removal of 2-O, 6-O, or N-desulfation and their hydrophobic modifications have differential effects on the blocking of interactions between sLeX and P-and L-selectins, with highest inhibition by 6-O desulfation, which was consistent with their in vivo therapeutic efficacies on CIA mice. The 6-O desulfation of lower molecular weight heparin (LMWH) retained the ability of LMWH to interfere with T cell adhesion via selectin-sLeX interactions. Furthermore, 6DSHbD coated on the apical surface of inflamed endothelium directly blocked the adhesive interactions of circulating T cells, which was confirmed in vivo by suppressing T cell adhesion at post-capillary venular endothelium. Thus, in series with our previous study demonstrating inhibition of transendothelial migration, oral delivery of low anticoagulant LMWH to venular endothelium of inflamed joint tissues ameliorated arthritis by the stepwise inhibition of T cell recruitment and provides a rationale for the development of modified oral heparins as innovative agents for the treatment of chronic inflammatory arthritis.

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<![CDATA[Depth-dependent flow and pressure characteristics in cortical microvascular networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd070

A better knowledge of the flow and pressure distribution in realistic microvascular networks is needed for improving our understanding of neurovascular coupling mechanisms and the related measurement techniques. Here, numerical simulations with discrete tracking of red blood cells (RBCs) are performed in three realistic microvascular networks from the mouse cerebral cortex. Our analysis is based on trajectories of individual RBCs and focuses on layer-specific flow phenomena until a cortical depth of 1 mm. The individual RBC trajectories reveal that in the capillary bed RBCs preferentially move in plane. Hence, the capillary flow field shows laminar patterns and a layer-specific analysis is valid. We demonstrate that for RBCs entering the capillary bed close to the cortical surface (< 400 μm) the largest pressure drop takes place in the capillaries (37%), while for deeper regions arterioles are responsible for 61% of the total pressure drop. Further flow characteristics, such as capillary transit time or RBC velocity, also vary significantly over cortical depth. Comparison of purely topological characteristics with flow-based ones shows that a combined interpretation of topology and flow is indispensable. Our results provide evidence that it is crucial to consider layer-specific differences for all investigations related to the flow and pressure distribution in the cortical vasculature. These findings support the hypothesis that for an efficient oxygen up-regulation at least two regulation mechanisms must be playing hand in hand, namely cerebral blood flow increase and microvascular flow homogenization. However, the contribution of both regulation mechanisms to oxygen up-regulation likely varies over depth.

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<![CDATA[Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping-Based Microscopy of Magnetic Resonance Venography (QSM-mMRV) for In Vivo Morphologically and Functionally Assessing Cerebromicrovasculature in Rat Stroke Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0dab0ee8fa60bcad30

Abnormal cerebral oxygenation and vessel structure is a crucial feature of stroke. An imaging method with structural and functional information is necessary for diagnosis of stroke. This study applies QSM-mMRV (quantitative susceptibility mapping-based microscopic magnetic resonance venography) for noninvasively detecting small cerebral venous vessels in rat stroke model. First, susceptibility mapping is optimized and calculated from magnetic resonance (MR) phase images of a rat brain. Subsequently, QSM-mMRV is used to simultaneously provide information on microvascular architecture and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), both of which can be used to evaluate the physiological and functional characteristics of microvascular changes for longitudinally monitoring and therapeutically evaluating a disease model. Morphologically, the quantification of vessel sizes using QSM-mMRV was 30% smaller than that of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), which eliminated the overestimation of conventional SWI. Functionally, QSM-mMRV estimated an average SvO2 ranging from 73% to 85% for healthy rats. Finally, we also applied QSM to monitor the revascularization of post-stroke vessels from 3 to 10 days after reperfusion. QSM estimations of SvO2 were comparable to those calculated using the pulse oximeter standard metric. We conclude that QSM-mMRV is useful for longitudinally monitoring blood oxygen and might become clinically useful for assessing cerebrovascular diseases.

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<![CDATA[Normative Values of Retinal Oxygen Saturation in Rhesus Monkeys: The Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP) Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db25ab0ee8fa60bd024d

Objective

To study the normal values of the retinal oxygen saturation in Rhesus monkeys and to evaluated repeatability and reproducibility of retinal oxygen saturation measurements.

Methods

Eighteen adult Rhesus macaque monkeys were included in this experimental study. An Oxymap T1 retinal oximeter (Oxymap, Reykjavik, Iceland) was used to perform oximetry on all subjects. Global arterial (SaO2) and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), arteriovenous difference in SO2 were measured. In the first examination, each eye was imaged three times. At the following two examinations, each eye was imaged once. All examinations were finished in one month. P values were calculated to evaluate the difference between the measurements during three visits by performing an ANOVA. Intra-visit and inter-visit intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined.

Results

At baseline, the average SaO2 and SvO2 were 89.48 ± 2.64% and 54.85 ± 2.18%, respectively. The global A-V difference was 34.63 ± 1.91%. The difference between the three visits was not significant (p>0.05). The highest A-V difference in SO2 and lowest saturations were found in the inferotemporal quadrant. Intra-session and inter-visit repeatability were both high. For all oxygen saturation parameters, the ICC values of the intra-session repeatability ranged between 0.92 and 0.96. As found previously, a relatively high ICC value for inter-visit repeatability also was found for all oxygen saturation measurements, ranging between 0.86 and 0.94, with the lowest values in the infero-nasal quadrant.

Conclusions

Our study is the first to describe retinal SO2 in healthy Rhesus monkeys. In normal monkey eyes, the reproducibility and repeatability of retinal oximetry oxygen saturation measurements were high in the retinal arterioles and venules. Our results support that Oxymap T1 retinal oximetry is a suitable and reliable technique in monkey studies.

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<![CDATA[Evidence of Flicker-Induced Functional Hyperaemia in the Smallest Vessels of the Human Retinal Blood Supply]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa2ab0ee8fa60ba6323

Regional changes in blood flow are initiated within neural tissue to help fuel local differences in neural activity. Classically, this response was thought to arise only in larger arterioles and venules. However, recently, it has been proposed that a) the smallest vessels of the circulation make a comparable contribution, and b) the response should be localised intermittently along such vessels, due to the known distribution of contractile mural cells. To assess these hypotheses in human neural tissue in vivo, we imaged the retinal microvasculature (diameters 3–28 μm) non-invasively, using adaptive optics, before and after delivery of focal (360 μm) patches of flickering visible light. Our results demonstrated a definite average response in 35% of all vessel segments analysed. In these responding vessels, the magnitude of proportional dilation (mean ± SEM for pre-capillary arterioles 13 ± 5%, capillaries 31 ± 8%, and post-capillary venules 10 ± 3%) is generally far greater than the magnitudes we and others have measured in the larger retinal vessels, supporting proposition a) above. The dilations observed in venules were unexpected based on previous animal work, and may be attributed either to differences in stimulus or species. Response heterogeneity across the network was high; responses were also heterogeneous along individual vessels (45% of vessel segments showed demonstrable locality in their response). These observations support proposition b) above. We also observed a definite average constriction across 7% of vessel segments (mean ± SEM constriction for capillaries -16 ± 3.2%, and post-capillary venules -18 ± 12%), which paints a picture of dynamic redistribution of flow throughout the smallest vessel networks in the retina in response to local, stimulus-driven metabolic demand.

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<![CDATA[Platelets Guide Leukocytes to Their Sites of Extravasation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab0ab0ee8fa60bab30b

Effective immune responses require the directed migration of leukocytes from the vasculature to the site of injury or infection. How immune cells “find” their site of extravasation remains largely obscure. Here, we identified a previously unrecognized role of platelets as pathfinders guiding leukocytes to their exit points in the microvasculature: upon onset of inflammation, circulating platelets were found to immediately adhere at distinct sites in venular microvessels enabling these cellular blood components to capture neutrophils and, in turn, inflammatory monocytes via CD40-CD40L-dependent interactions. In this cellular crosstalk, ligation of PSGL-1 by P-selectin leads to ERK1/2 MAPK-dependent conformational changes of leukocyte integrins, which promote the successive extravasation of neutrophils and monocytes to the perivascular tissue. Conversely, blockade of this cellular partnership resulted in misguided, inefficient leukocyte responses. Our experimental data uncover a platelet-directed, spatiotemporally organized, multicellular crosstalk that is essential for effective trafficking of leukocytes to the site of inflammation.

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