ResearchPad - veterinary-science https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A network analysis of research productivity by country, discipline, and wealth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13855 Research productivity has been linked to a country’s intellectual and economic wealth. Further analysis is needed to assess the association between the distribution of research across disciplines and the economic status of countries.MethodsBy using 55 years of data, spanning 1962 to 2017, of Elsevier publications across a large set of research disciplines and countries globally, this manuscript explores the relationship and evolution of relative research productivity across different disciplines through a network analysis. It also explores the associations of those with economic productivity categories, as measured by the World Bank economic classification. Additional analysis of discipline similarities is possible by exploring the cross-country evolution of those disciplines.ResultsResults show similarities in the relative importance of research disciplines among most high-income countries, with larger idiosyncrasies appearing among the remaining countries. This group of high-income countries shows similarities in the dynamics of the relative distribution of research productivity over time, forming a stable research productivity cluster. Lower income countries form smaller, more independent and evolving clusters, and differ significantly from each other and from higher income countries in the relative importance of their research emphases. Country-based similarities in research productivity profiles also appear to be influenced by geographical proximity.ConclusionsThis new form of analyses of research productivity, and its relation to economic status, reveals novel insights to the dynamics of the economic and research structure of countries. This allows for a deeper understanding of the role a country’s research structure may play in shaping its economy, and also identification of benchmark resource allocations across disciplines for developing countries. ]]> <![CDATA[Forecasting the monthly incidence rate of brucellosis in west of Iran using time series and data mining from 2010 to 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13811 The identification of statistical models for the accurate forecast and timely determination of the outbreak of infectious diseases is very important for the healthcare system. Thus, this study was conducted to assess and compare the performance of four machine-learning methods in modeling and forecasting brucellosis time series data based on climatic parameters.MethodsIn this cohort study, human brucellosis cases and climatic parameters were analyzed on a monthly basis for the Qazvin province–located in northwestern Iran- over a period of 9 years (2010–2018). The data were classified into two subsets of education (80%) and testing (20%). Artificial neural network methods (radial basis function and multilayer perceptron), support vector machine and random forest were fitted to each set. Performance analysis of the models were done using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Root Error (MARE), and R2 criteria.ResultsThe incidence rate of the brucellosis in Qazvin province was 27.43 per 100,000 during 2010–2019. Based on our results, the values of the RMSE (0.22), MAE (0.175), MARE (0.007) criteria were smaller for the multilayer perceptron neural network than their values in the other three models. Moreover, the R2 (0.99) value was bigger in this model. Therefore, the multilayer perceptron neural network exhibited better performance in forecasting the studied data. The average wind speed and mean temperature were the most effective climatic parameters in the incidence of this disease.ConclusionsThe multilayer perceptron neural network can be used as an effective method in detecting the behavioral trend of brucellosis over time. Nevertheless, further studies focusing on the application and comparison of these methods are needed to detect the most appropriate forecast method for this disease. ]]> <![CDATA[Genetic Variability of 3′-Proximal Region of Genomes of Orf Viruses Isolated From Sheep and Wild Japanese Serows (<i>Capricornis crispus</i>) in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13015 Orf virus is a prototype species of the genus Parapoxvirus, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, family Poxviridae. Japanese orf viruses, infecting sheep and wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), have been considered to be genetically closely related based on the sequence identities of the open reading frames (ORFs) 11, 20, and 132 in their genomes. However, since the genome size of orf viruses is about 140 kbp long, genetic variation among Japanese orf viruses remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of ORFs 117, 119, 125, and 127 located in the 3′-proximal region of the viral genome using two strains from sheep and three strains from Japanese serows isolated from 1970 to 2007, and compared them with the corresponding sequences of reference orf viruses from other countries. Sequence analysis revealed that ORFs 125 and 127, which encode the inhibitor of apoptosis and viral interleukin (IL)-10, respectively, were highly conserved among the five Japanese orf viruses. However, high genetic variability with deletions or duplications was observed in ORFs 117 and 119, which encode granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-2 inhibition factor (GIF), and inducer of cell apoptosis, respectively, in one strain from sheep and two strains from Japanese serows. Our results suggest that genetic variability exists in Japanese orf viruses even in the same host species. This is the first report of genetic variability of orf viruses in Japan.

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<![CDATA[<i>Mycoplasma gallisepticum</i> Infection Impaired the Structural Integrity and Immune Function of Bursa of Fabricius in Chicken: Implication of Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13007 Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) induces a dysregulated immune response in the lungs and air ways of poultry. However, the mechanism of MG-induced immune dysregulation is still not completely understood. In the present study, the effect of MG-infection on chicken bursa of fabricius (BOF) is investigated. Histopathology, electron microscopy, TUNEL assay, qRT-PCR and western blot were employed to examine the hallmarks of oxidative stress and apoptosis. The data revealed that MG-infection induced oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant responses in BOF tissues compared to control group. Histopathological study showed pathological changes including reduction in lymphocytes and increased inflammatory cell infiltration in MG-infection group. Ultrastructural assessment represents obvious signs of apoptosis such as mitochondrial swelling, shrinkage of nuclear membrane and fragmentation of nucleus. Increased cytokine activities were observed in MG-infection group compared to control group. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein expression level of apoptosis-related genes were significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated in MG-infection group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay further confirmed that MG induced apoptosis in BOF tissues as TUNEL-stained positive nuclei were remarkably increased in MG-infection group. In addition, MG-infection significantly reduced the number of CD8+ lymphocytes in chicken BOF at day 7. Moreover, bacterial load significantly increased at day 3 and day 7 in MG-infection group compared to control group. These results suggested that MG-infection impaired the structural integrity, induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in chicken BOF tissues, which could be the possible causes of damage to immune function in chicken BOF.

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<![CDATA[Recurrent Hyperkalemia During General Anesthesia in a Dog]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10928 Objective: To describe the development of recurrent hyperkalemia in a dog that underwent general anesthesia at two different hospitals within a month. The definitive underlying cause of the hyperkalemia remains unknown.

Case summary: A 11 year-old male neutered Rottweiler underwent general anesthesia on two separate occasions at two different hospitals for ophthalmic surgery within a month and developed marked hyperkalemia on each occasion. The patient received similar drug protocols in both instances, including propofol, midazolam, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, and isoflurane inhalant anesthetic. The patient showed ECG changes consistent with hyperkalemia during the first anesthetic event, but not the second. No underlying cause of hyperkalemia was definitively identified. The patient responded to standard therapy for hyperkalemia on both occasions and serum potassium levels returned to normal. The patient was discharged from the hospital without further complications and post-operative rechecks showed persistently normal serum potassium levels.

New or unique information provided: Considering that there is a relationship between the development of severe hyperkalemia and propofol administration in human patients, it is possible that such a relationship exists in veterinary patients. However, numerous other diseases and medications can also lead to peri-operative hyperkalemia. Veterinary professionals should be aware that hyperkalemia can develop intra-operatively and remains be an important differential diagnosis in bradycardic patients under anesthesia that are not responding to traditional therapies.

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<![CDATA[Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on CD150/SLAM for the Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminant Virus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7866 Peste des petits ruminant (PPR) is an economically important severe viral disease of small ruminants that affects primarily the respiratory and digestive tract. Specific detection of the PPR virus (PPRV) antigen plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. In this study, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the recombinant goat signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) as the capture ligand was successfully developed for the detection of the PPRV antigen (PPRV SLAM-iELISA). The assay was highly specific for PPRV with no cross-reactions among foot and mouth disease virus, Orf virus, sheep pox virus, and goat pox virus and had a sensitivity with a detection limit of 1.56 × 101 TCID50/reaction (50 μl). Assessment of 136 samples showed that the developed PPRV SLAM-iELISA was well correlated with real-time RT-qPCR assays and commercially available sandwich ELISA for detection of PPRV and showed relative sensitivity and specificity of 93.75 and 100.83%, respectively. These results suggest that the developed PPRV SLAM-iELISA is suitable for specific detection of the PPRV antigen. This study demonstrated for the first time that the goat SLAM, the cellular receptor for PPRV, can be used for the development of a diagnostic method for the detection of PPRV.

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<![CDATA[Epitheliotropic Infections in Wildlife Ruminants From the Central Alps and Stelvio National Park]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7595 The mountain chain of the Alps, represents the habitat of alpine fauna where the red deer (Cervus elaphus) population is the outmost numerous, followed by the chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and the alpine ibex (Capra ibex) at higher altitudes. Previous reports showed the circulation of epitheliotropic viruses, belonging to the families Papillomaviridae and Poxviridae, causing skin and mucosal lesions in wild ruminants of the Stelvio National Park, situated in the area. To deepen our knowledge on the natural dynamics of the infections, a passive surveillance on all the cases of proliferative skin and mucosal lesions in wild ruminants was performed. Twenty-seven samples (11 chamois, 10 red deer and 6 ibex) collected from 2008 to 2018 were analyzed by negative staining electron microscopy, histology, and PCR followed by genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Results confirmed the spread of Parapoxvirus of Red Deer in New Zealand (PVNZ) in Italy, and its ability to cause severe lesions i.e., erosions and ulcers in the mouth. We showed for the first time a PVNZ/CePV1v (C. elaphus papillomavirus 1 variant) co-infection identified in one red deer. This result supports previous evidence on the ability of papillomavirus and parapoxvirus to mutually infect the same host tissue. Interestingly two ibex and one chamois showing orf virus (OV) skin lesions were shown to be co-infected with bovine papillomavirus type 1 and 2. The presence of bovine papillomavirus, in orf virus induced lesions of chamois and ibex raises the question of its pathogenetic role in these animal species. For the first time, OV/CePV1v co-infection was demonstrated in another chamois. CePV1v is sporadically reported in red deer throughout Europe and is considered species specific, its identification in a chamois suggests its ability of cross-infecting different animal species. Poxviruses and papillomavirus have been simultaneously detected also in the skin lesions of cattle, bird and human suggesting a possible advantageous interaction between these viruses. Taken together, our findings add further information on the epidemiology and pathogenetic role of epitheliotropic viruses in wild ruminants living in the central Alps and in Stelvio National Park.

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<![CDATA[Network Analysis of Swine Shipments in China: The First Step to Inform Disease Surveillance and Risk Mitigation Strategies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7535 China's pork industry has been dramatically changing in the last few years. Pork imports are increasing, and small-scale farms are being consolidated into large-scale multi-site facilities. These industry changes increase the need for traceability and science-based decisions around disease monitoring, surveillance, risk mitigation, and outbreak response. This study evaluated the network structure and dynamics of a typical large-scale multi-site swine facility in China, as well as the implications for disease spread using network-based metrics. Forward reachability paths were used to demonstrate the extent of epidemic spread under variable site and temporal disease introductions. Swine movements were found to be seasonal, with more movements at the beginning of the year, and fewer movements of larger pigs later in the year. The network was highly egocentric, with those farms within the evaluated production system demonstrating high connectivity. Those farms which would contribute the highest epidemic potential were identified. Among these, different farms contributed to higher expected epidemic spread at different times of the year. Using these approaches, increased availability of swine movement networks in China could help to identify priority locations for surveillance and risk mitigation for both endemic problems and transboundary diseases such as the recently introduced, and rapidly spreading, African swine fever virus.

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<![CDATA[Introduction and Application of the Interferon-γ Assay in the National Bovine Tuberculosis Control Program in South Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7415 Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease impacting both public health and the livestock industry. The interferon (IFN)-γ assay has been introduced as an ancillary test for diagnosing bovine tuberculosis to overcome limitations of the skin test. The objective of this study was to assess the IFN-γ assay in terms of diagnostics and as a nationwide surveillance program in South Korea. From 2012 to 2013, cattle (n = 120) with bovine tuberculosis and cattle (n = 426) from bovine tuberculosis free herds were subjected to the IFN-γ assay to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the assay, respectively, depending on various cut-offs (0–3.5). When optical density of the cut-off was 0.1, the sensitivity and specificity were found to be 81.7% (74.7–88.6) and 99.5% (98.9–100.0), respectively. After introducing the IFN-γ assay as part of the national control program, the IFN-γ assay and single caudal fold skin test data were collected from 47 regional veterinary services to compare the results of these two tests. Overall, the agreement between the IFN-γ assay and the single caudal fold skin test (n = 492,068) was 98.2%, and Cohen's kappa value for the two methods was 0.47. Serial and parallel use of the IFN-γ assay and skin test for the bovine tuberculosis control program were compared using samples (n = 91) from cattle confirmed as bovine tuberculosis positive in laboratories from 2014 to 2016. Parallel screening for bTB showed much higher sensitivity (86/91, 94.5%) than the following screening approaches: serial (47.2%, 43/91), single screening using CFT (63.7%, 58/91), or the IFN-γ assay (78.0%, 71/91). These results indicate that the IFN-γ assay and single caudal fold skin test are complementary to each other; therefore, parallel use of these two tests is considered a useful approach to reduce the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in South Korea.

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<![CDATA[Risk Factors for Canine Osteoarthritis and Its Predisposing Arthropathies: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7413 Osteoarthritis is a common clinical and pathological end-point from a range of joint disorders, that ultimately lead to structural and functional decline of the joint with associated lameness and pain. Increasing understanding of the risk factors associated with osteoarthritis will assist in addressing the significant threat it poses to the welfare of the dog population and implementing preventive measures. Presented here, is the first comprehensive systematic review and evaluation of the literature reporting risk factors for canine osteoarthritis. This paper aimed to systematically collate, review and critically evaluate the published literature on risk factors for canine osteoarthritis and its predisposing conditions such as developmental joint dysplasias, cruciate ligament degeneration, and patellar luxation. Peer-reviewed publications were systematically searched for both osteoarthritis and predisposing arthropathies on Web of Science and PubMed following PRISMA (2009) guidelines, using pre-specified combinations of keywords. Sixty-two papers met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated and graded on reporting quality. Identified risk factors included both modifiable factors (neuter status and body weight) for which intervention can potentially affect the risk of occurrence of osteoarthritis, and unmodifiable factors (sex, breed, and age) which can be used to identify individuals most “at risk.” Osteoarthritis in dogs frequently develops from predisposing arthropathies, and therefore risk factors for these are also important to consider. Papers evaluated in this study were rated as medium to high-quality; gap analysis of the literature suggests there would be significant benefit from additional research into the interactions between and relative weighting of risk factors. There are a number of examples where research outcomes are conflicting such as age and sex; and further investigation into these factors would be beneficial to attain greater understanding of the nature of these risks. Comprehensively collating the published risk factors for osteoarthritis and its predisposing conditions offers opportunities to identify possible means for control and reduction within the population through preventative methods and control strategies. These factors are highlighted here, as well as current literature gaps where further research is warranted, to aid future research direction.

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<![CDATA[Performance of Online Somatic Cell Count Estimation in Automatic Milking Systems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7409 Somatic cell count (SCC) is one of the most important and widely used mastitis diagnostics. For detecting (sub)clinical mastitis, online SCC related measurements are more and more used in automatic milking systems (AMS). Sensors such as an automated online California Mastitis Test (O-CMT) allow for high frequency screening of high SCC cows within a herd, which makes it potentially powerful to identify episodes of mastitis. However, the performance of O-CMT measurements, as compared to SCC determined in the laboratory (L-SCC), has only scarcely been described. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the agreement between the O-CMT measurement averaged over different time windows and the corresponding L-SCC measurements; (2) to determine the optimal time window for averaging O-CMT as compared to L-SCC; (3) to explore the added value of time-series of frequent O-CMT measurements in individual cow udder health monitoring compared to L-SCC measurements. Data were collected from 50 farms in 6 different countries that were equipped with AMS using O-CMT measurements and also performed regular L-SCC testing. We found that the overall concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) between O-CMT and L-SCC was 0.53 but differed substantially between farms. The CCC between O-CMT and L-SCC improved when averaging O-CMT over multiple milkings, with an optimal time-window of 24 h. Exploration of time series of daily O-CMT recordings show that this is an effective screening tool to find episodes of high SCC. Altogether, we conclude that although O-CMT agrees moderately with L-SCC, because of its high measurement frequency, it is a promising on-farm tool for udder health monitoring.

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<![CDATA[The Effects of Different Oil Sources on Performance, Digestive Enzymes, Carcass Traits, Biochemical, Immunological, Antioxidant, and Morphometric Responses of Broiler Chicks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7401 This research evaluate the influence of different oil sources, namely fish oil (FO), coconut oil (CocO), canola oil (CanO), or a mixture of the three oils (MTO)—included at 1.5% in broiler diets—compared to a no oil-supplemented diet. Hence, 250 unsexed, 1-day-old Cobb chicks were weighed and randomly allocated into five dietary treatment groups of 50 chicks each and five replicates per group. Oil-supplemented diets significantly increased the growth, improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR), and decreased the abdominal fat percentage compared to the control diet. Amylase was significantly elevated due to feeding the FO- or CocO-supplemented-diet compared to the control diet, whereas lipase increased due to offering CocO- and CanO-enriched diet; chymotrypsin increased due to different oil sources. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased markedly due to offering an oil-supplemented diet, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio, and malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased. Blood plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM significantly increased due to feeding CocO, CanO, or MTO compared to the control group, whereas FO increased IgG only. FO- and CanO-containing diets resulted in the highest increase in α2-globulin and γ-globulin. The antibody titer to avian influenza (HIAI) and Newcastle disease (HIND) were significantly elevated due to CocO supplementation compared to the control group. The bursa follicle length and width and thymus cortex depth were increased considerably due to the FO-supplemented diet compared to the control, but the follicle length:width ratio decreased. The villus height:depth ratio was significantly elevated due to both the CanO and MTO diets. The antioxidant status improved considerably due to the addition of CocO and CanO. Both CanO and MTO similarly increased plasma T3, T4, and the T3:T4 ratio. In conclusion, oil supplementations at 1.5% enhanced growth performance and immune status, improved the blood lipid profile and antioxidants status, and the effect of the oil sources depends on the criteria of response.

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<![CDATA[Pathogenicity and Molecular Typing of Fowl Adenovirus-Associated With Hepatitis/Hydropericardium Syndrome in Central China (2015–2018)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7399 In central China, a large number of broiler and layer flocks have suffered from outbreaks of severe hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome (HHS). This resulted in huge economic losses to the poultry industry, from 2015 to 2018. To identify the specific pathogen and study its pathogenicity, 195 samples from Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, Hunan, and Henan provinces in central China were collected. The samples were screened for the adenovirus hexon gene, and neighbor joining was used for the phylogenetic reconstruction of the sequences. Among the collected samples, 122 were found to be positive for fowl adenovirus (FAdV) by PCR, and 73 isolates were obtained. The predominant viral serotype was serotype 4 (FAdV-4), which was found in 48 isolates, while 24 were serotype 10 (FAdV-10), and one was serotype 2 (FAdV-2). The CH/HBTF /1710 isolate was selected for further experiment and inoculated into 33-day-old specific pathogen-free chickens via intramuscular injection or oral administration to evaluate pathogenicity. It was found that the mortality for chickens infected by intramuscular injection or oral administration was 70 and 60%, respectively. Necropsy revealed mild to severe hepatitis and hydropericardium at 5 and 7 days after infection. Ancestor analyses indicated that all of the FAdV-4 strains obtained in this study shared a common Indian precursor and had a close genetic relationship with the JSJ13, SDSX, HN/151025, and SDDM-15 strains common in China.

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<![CDATA[Dataset of endometrial blood flow from pregnant and non-pregnant mares on day 7 and 8 post-ovulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfc52ebe6-2a1b-490d-a202-06a7372d5c55 This article provides the dataset for the use of power Doppler ultrasound to assess the equine uterus from the recent research article titled “Power Doppler can detect the presence of 7-8 days conceptuses prior to flushing in an equine embryo transfer program”(1). The vascularization of the endometrium was objectively assessed in mares by quantification of pixels in bitmap format (BMP) using computer assisted analysis of images. Fifty-two mares were examined on days 7 (26 mares) and 8 (26 mares) post-ovulation prior to performing flushing procedures for embryo recovery. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Youden's J statistics were used to evaluate the value of the suggested variable in terms of its diagnostic value for identification of early pregnancy and to establish cut-off values allowing differentiation between pregnant and non-pregnant mares on days 7 and 8 post-ovulation.

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<![CDATA[Stereotypic Behavior in Sows Is Related to Emotionality Changes in the Offspring]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5a131b4f-ecf9-4f0c-abbb-4c4bedef90f9

Some effects of expressing stereotypic behavior have not yet been elucidated. During gestation, the environment has the potential to interfere with offspring development and to have prenatal or longer-term consequences. We tested the hypothesis that the occurrence of stereotypic behavior during gestation could affect the phenotype of the offspring. Twenty-eight pregnant sows were studied by comparing two groups differing in the amount of stereotypy shown. We analyzed emotionality in the offspring from sows showing high or low stereotypy frequency using the open field and novel object tests. In the open field test, piglets from sows with a high rate of stereotypies walked more in central sectors (p < 0.0001) and lateral sectors (p = 0.04) than piglets from sows with a low rate of stereotypies. In the novel object test, the offspring from low stereotypy sows vocalized more (p = 0.008). We demonstrate for the first time that the stereotypic behavior by the mother during gestation changes the phenotype of the offspring, in particular, their emotionality.

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<![CDATA[Eradication of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus and the Wildlife-Livestock Interface]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3fd0e44d-ea15-4498-9419-475309efde5b

Growing evidence suggests that multiple wildlife species can be infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), with important consequences for the potential maintenance of PPRV in communities of susceptible hosts, and the threat that PPRV may pose to the conservation of wildlife populations and resilience of ecosystems. Significant knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of PPRV across the ruminant community (wildlife and domestic), and the understanding of infection in wildlife and other atypical host species groups (e.g., camelidae, suidae, and bovinae) hinder our ability to apply necessary integrated disease control and management interventions at the wildlife-livestock interface. Similarly, knowledge gaps limit the inclusion of wildlife in the FAO/OIE Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR, and the framework of activities in the PPR Global Eradication Programme that lays the foundation for eradicating PPR through national and regional efforts. This article reports on the first international meeting on, “Controlling PPR at the livestock-wildlife interface,” held in Rome, Italy, March 27–29, 2019. A large group representing national and international institutions discussed recent advances in our understanding of PPRV in wildlife, identified knowledge gaps and research priorities, and formulated recommendations. The need for a better understanding of PPRV epidemiology at the wildlife-livestock interface to support the integration of wildlife into PPR eradication efforts was highlighted by meeting participants along with the reminder that PPR eradication and wildlife conservation need not be viewed as competing priorities, but instead constitute two requisites of healthy socio-ecological systems.

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<![CDATA[Molecular Characterization of Haemaphysalis Species and a Molecular Genetic Key for the Identification of Haemaphysalis of North America]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd2a97415-76dc-480c-828d-e24a6f19ec27

Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae), the Asian longhorned tick, is native to East Asia, but has become established in Australia and New Zealand, and more recently in the United States. In North America, there are other native Haemaphysalis species that share similar morphological characteristics and can be difficult to identify if the specimen is damaged. The goal of this study was to develop a cost-effective and rapid molecular diagnostic assay to differentiate between exotic and native Haemaphysalis species to aid in ongoing surveillance of H. longicornis within the United States and help prevent misidentification. We demonstrated that restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can be used to differentiate H. longicornis from the other Haemaphysalis species found in North America. Furthermore, we show that this RFLP assay can be applied to Haemaphysalis species endemic to other regions of the world for the rapid identification of damaged specimens. The work presented in this study can serve as the foundation for region specific PCR-RFLP keys for Haemaphysalis and other tick species and can be further applied to other morphometrically challenging taxa.

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<![CDATA[Differences in the Search Behavior of Cancer Detection Dogs Trained to Have Either a Sit or Stand-Stare Final Response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6b9dbcb8-67ac-4acf-8279-4bae439ffc20

Recent literature has demonstrated that dogs have the potential to detect, and communicate the presence of, various human diseases. However, there is a lack of investigation into whether commonplace training differences within the field could influence a dog's behavior during a biomedical detection task. Here we report on the behavior of four dogs trained to alert to blood plasma samples taken from individuals with ovarian cancer. One hundred trials per dog were selected from routine video recordings collected over a period of 13 months. Videos were coded frame by frame to quantify sample checking, alerting behavior, and durations of alert. Dogs had previously been trained to elicit a final response behavior once they had located the target odor. Two dogs had a “sit” response while the other two had a “stand-stare” response. Alert behavior was categorized as true positive (a correct alert to a cancer sample) or false positive (an incorrect alert to biological and non-biological controls and distractors). Hesitations were also recorded, where the dog either checks the sample twice or, spends a longer duration of time sniffing the sample than a true pass without carrying out their final response. Results show individual variation in the total frequency of false alerts elicited. However, the rate of hesitations appears to be influenced by alert style, with stand-stare dogs carrying out 40 and 32, respectively (total = 72) and sit dogs carrying out 7 and 8, respectively (total = 15). The stand-stare dogs had a non-significant difference in the duration of their true and false positive alerts. In contrast, the sit dogs showed a significant difference (p < 0.001), maintaining their false alerts for, on average, two times the duration of their true alerts. Stand-stare dogs increased the duration of time spent in contact with the port when plasma samples were present, whereas sit dogs spent on average 0.3 s in contact with the port regardless of what sample type it contained. These findings suggest that the type of operant response a biomedical detection dog has been trained may influence their sample checking and response behavior.

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<![CDATA[Ex-vivo Mechanical Testing of Novel Laryngeal Clamps Used for Laryngeal Advancement Constructs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc1f8694b-59c9-487c-9ef8-4c1272e3362c

Rostral laryngeal advancement, also known as laryngeal tie-forward, is used to treat horses for intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate and has a morbidity rate of about 6%. We hypothesized that a novel laryngeal clamp would prevent morbidity associated with the sutures tearing through the thyroid cartilage. Larynges (n = 35 horses) were used for ex vivo testing. For uniaxial testing, 15 equine larynges were tested in one of three laryngeal tie-forward constructs [standard laryngeal tie-forward; modified laryngeal tie-forward using a suture-button; and modified laryngeal tie-forward using a laryngeal clamp]. For biaxial testing, 20 larynges were tested in one of two treatment groups: laryngeal tie-forward and laryngeal tie-forward using a laryngeal clamp. Constructs were tested in single cycle-to-failure. Statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA for uniaxial testing and t-tests for biaxial testing. The laryngeal tie-forward using a laryngeal clamp construct was superior to laryngeal tie-forward and laryngeal tie-forward using a suture-button constructs in resistance to pullout in uniaxial testing. The laryngeal tie-forward using a laryngeal clamp presented a significantly different method of failure than the standard laryngeal tie-forward in the biaxial testing. Failure modes for each construct were primarily by suture failure at the clamp (laryngeal tie-forward using a laryngeal clamp), suture pullout through the thyroid cartilage, or, less commonly, tearing of the cricothyroid ligament (laryngeal tie-forward). In uniaxial testing, the laryngeal tie-forward using a laryngeal clamp failed most commonly due to tearing of the cricothyroid ligament, whereas the standard laryngeal tie-forward and the laryngeal tie-forward using a suture-button failed due to the tearing of the cartilage. The laryngeal clamps provided greater stiffness, load at yield, and tensile stress at yield than did the standard construct. Laryngeal clamps may offer an alternative to standard methods of anchoring the thyroid cartilage when performing the laryngeal tie-forward procedure. Further testing and clinical trials are needed to elucidate the utility of the laryngeal tie-forward using a laryngeal clamp.

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<![CDATA[Presumed Primary Bacterial Rhinosinusitis-Associated Optic Neuritis in a Cat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne999b477-5683-48fa-80f8-20a2257a3769

Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is a common illness in children and can lead to complications such as preseptal/orbital cellulitis, orbital/subdural/cerebral abscessation, osteomyelitis, meningitis, and optic neuritis with blindness. Primary bacterial infections leading to rhinosinusitis in cats is rare and descriptive reports are lacking. The current report describes a cat with Escherichia coli and Actinomyces spp. infections causing severe chronic rhinosinusitis and subsequent loss of vision. Treatment with antibiotics and prednisolone coincided with a complete resolution of nasal disease-related clinical signs and substantial improvement in vision. This is the first description of a cat with presumed severe primary bacterial rhinosinusitis resulting in optic neuritis and loss of vision.

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