ResearchPad - vibrio https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Transcriptome analysis of Catarina scallop (<i>Argopecten ventricosus</i>) juveniles treated with highly-diluted immunomodulatory compounds reveals activation of non-self-recognition system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14633 Marine bivalve hatchery productivity is continuously challenged by apparition and propagation of new diseases, mainly those related to vibriosis. Disinfectants and antibiotics are frequently overused to prevent pathogen presence, generating a potential negative impact on the environment. Recently, the use of highly diluted compounds with immunostimulant properties in marine organisms has been trailed successfully to activate the self-protection mechanisms of marine bivalves. Despite their potential as immunostimulants, little is known about their way of action. To understand their effect, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed with Argopecten ventricosus juveniles. The experimental design consisted of four treatments formulated from pathogenic Vibrio lysates at two dilutions: [(T1) Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus 1D; (T2) V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus 7C]; minerals [(T3) PhA+SiT 7C], scorpion venom [(T4) ViT 31C]; and one control (C1) hydro-alcoholic solution (ethanol 1%). The RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis showed a higher modulation of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in mantle tissue compared to gill tissue. The scallops that showed a higher number of DEG related to immune response in mantle tissue corresponded to T1 (V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus lysate) and T3 (Silicea terra® - Phosphoric acid®). The transcriptome analysis allowed understanding some interactions between A. ventricosus juveniles and highly-diluted treatments.

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<![CDATA[Field evaluation of a locally produced rapid diagnostic test for early detection of cholera in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2d4d5eed0c48441eb87

Background

Cholera remains a substantial health burden in Asia and Africa particularly in resource poor settings. The standard procedures to identify the etiological organism V. cholerae are isolation from microbiological culture from stool as well as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Both the processes are highly lab oriented, labor extensive, time consuming, and expensive. In an effort to control for outbreaks and epidemics; an effective, convenient, quick and relatively less expensive detection method is imperative, without compromising the sensitivity and specificity that exists at present. The objective of this component of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a locally produced rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for cholera diagnosis.

Methods

In Bangladesh, nationwide cholera surveillance is ongoing in 22 hospitals covering all 8 divisions of the country since June, 2016. In the surveillance, stool samples have been collected from patients presenting to hospitals with acute watery diarrhea. Crystal VCTM (Span diagnostics, India) and Cholkit (locally produced RDT) have been used to detect V. cholerae from stool samples. Samples have also been sent to the main laboratory at icddr,b where the culture based isolation is routinely performed. All the tests were carried out for both direct and enriched stool samples. RDT sensitivity and specificity were calculated using stool culture as the gold standard.

Results

A total of 7720 samples were tested. Among these, 5865 samples were solely tested with Crystal VC and 1355 samples with Cholkit whereas 381 samples were tested with both the RDTs. In comparison with culture, direct testing with Crystal VC showed a sensitivity of 72% (95% CI: 50.6% to 87.9%) and specificity of 86.8% (95% CI: 82.8% to 90.1%). After enrichment the sensitivity and specificity was 68% (95% CI: 46.5% to 85.1%) and 97.5% (95% CI: 95.3% to 98.8%) respectively. The direct Cholkit test showed sensitivity of 76% (95% CI: 54.9% to 90.6%) and specificity of 90.2% (95% CI: 86.6% to 93.1%).

Conclusion

This evaluation has demonstrated that the sensitivity and specificity of Cholkit is similar to the commercially available test, Crystal VC when used in field settings for detecting V. cholerae from stool specimens. The findings from this study suggest that the Cholkit could be a possible alternative for cholera endemic regions where V. cholerae O1 is the major causative organism causing cholera.

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<![CDATA[Bivalent oral cholera vaccination induces a memory B cell response to the V. cholerae O1-polysaccharide antigen in Haitian adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2c6d5eed0c48441eaae

The bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (BivWC) is being increasingly used to prevent cholera. The presence of O-antigen-specific memory B cells (MBC) has been associated with protective immunity against cholera, yet MBC responses have not been evaluated after BivWC vaccination. To address this knowledge gap, we measured V. cholerae O1-antigen MBC responses following BivWC vaccination. Adults in St. Marc, Haiti, received 2 doses of the BivWC vaccine, Shanchol, two weeks apart. Participants were invited to return at days 7, 21, 44, 90, 180 and 360 after the initial vaccination. Serum antibody and MBC responses were assessed at each time-point before and following vaccination. We observed that vaccination with BivWC resulted in significant O-antigen specific MBC responses to both Ogawa and Inaba serotypes that were detected by day 21 and remained significantly elevated over baseline for up to 12 months following vaccination. The BivWC oral cholera vaccine induces durable MBC responses to the V. cholerae O1-antigen. This suggests that long-term protection observed following vaccination with BivWC could be mediated or maintained by MBC responses.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy assessment of commercially available natural products and antibiotics, commonly used for mitigation of pathogenic Vibrio outbreaks in Ecuadorian Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei hatcheries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52ebd5eed0c4842bd266

Bacterial diseases cause high mortality in Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei postlarvae. Therefore, appropriate application of efficient therapeutic products is of vital importance for disease control. This study evaluated through in vitro analyses the antimicrobial effectiveness of commercial therapeutic products used for P. vannamei bacterial diseases and antibiotics against pathogenic Vibrio strains circulating in Ecuadorian hatcheries. Twenty strains were isolated from 31 larvae samples with high bacterial counts from 10 hatcheries collected during mortality events. The strains virulence was verified through challenge tests with Artemia franciscana nauplii and P. vannamei postlarvae. Through 16S rRNA sequence analysis, strains showed a great similarity to the Vibrio sequences reported as pathogens, with 95% belonging to the Harveyi clade. Through antibiograms and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in vitro tests we found that furazolidone, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, florfenicol, fosfomycin and enrofloxacin inhibited the growth of all or most of the strains. Less efficient antibiotics were penicillin, oxytetracycline and tetracycline. A multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of 0.23 showed some level of resistance to antibiotics, with two MAR prevalent patterns (Penicillin-Oxytetracycline and Penicillin-Oxytetracycline-Tetracycline). From a total of 16 natural products (five probiotics, nine organic acids and two essential oils), only three (one probiotic, one organic acid and one essential oil) were effective to control most of the strains. Shrimp producers can apply relatively simple in vitro analyses, such as those employed in this study, to help take adequate management decisions to reduce the impact of bacterial diseases and increase profit.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of bacterioplankton communities from a hatchery recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for juvenile sole (Solea senegalensis) production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c64487ed5eed0c484c2e7cd

There is a growing consensus that future technological developments of aquaculture systems should account for the structure and function of microbial communities in the whole system and not only in fish guts. In this study, we aimed to investigate the composition of bacterioplankton communities of a hatchery recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) used for the production of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles. To this end, we used a 16S rRNA gene based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing analyses to characterize the bacterioplankton communities of the RAS and its water supply. Overall, the most abundant orders were Alteromonadales, Rhodobacterales, Oceanospirillales, Vibrionales, Flavobacteriales, Lactobacillales, Thiotrichales, Burkholderiales and Bdellovibrionales. Although we found a clear distinction between the RAS and the water supply bacterioplankton communities, most of the abundant OTUs (≥50 sequences) in the hatchery RAS were also present in the water supply. These included OTUs related to Pseudoalteromonas genus and the Roseobacter clade, which are known to comprise bacterial members with activity against Vibrio fish pathogens. Overall, in contrast to previous findings for sole grow-out RAS, our results suggest that the water supply may influence the bacterioplankton community structure of sole hatchery RAS. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of aquaculture practices on RAS bacterioplankton communities and identification of the key drivers of their structure and diversity.

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<![CDATA[Bacteria associated with moon jellyfish during bloom and post-bloom periods in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c4ad5eed0c484bd154e

Jellyfish are a prominent component of the plankton community. They frequently form conspicuous blooms which may interfere with different human enterprises. Among the aspects that remain understudied are jellyfish associations with microorganisms having potentially important implications for organic matter cycling. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the bacterial community associated with live moon jellyfish (Aurelia solida, Scyohozoa) in the Adriatic Sea. Using 16S rRNA clone libraries and culture-based methods, we have analyzed the bacterial community composition of different body parts: the exumbrella surface, oral arms, and gastric cavity, and investigated possible differences in medusa-associated bacterial community structure at the time of the jellyfish population peak, and during the senescent phase at the end of bloom. Microbiota associated with moon jellyfish was different from ambient seawater bacterial assemblage and varied between different body parts. Betaproteobacteria (Burkholderia, Cupriavidus and Achromobacter) dominated community in the gastral cavity of medusa, while Alphaproteobacteria (Phaeobacter, Ruegeria) and Gammaproteobacteria (Stenotrophomonas, Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio) prevailed on ‘outer’ body parts. Bacterial community structure changed during senescent phase, at the end of the jellyfish bloom, showing an increased abundance of Gammaproteobacteria, exclusively Vibrio. The results of cultured bacterial isolates showed the dominance of Gammaproeteobacteria, especially Vibrio and Pseudoalteromonas in all body parts. Our results suggest that jellyfish associated bacterial community might have an important role for the host, and that anthropogenic pollution in the Gulf of Trieste might affect their community structure.

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<![CDATA[Performance of convolutional neural networks for identification of bacteria in 3D microscopy datasets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed74fd5eed0c484f13ed5

Three-dimensional microscopy is increasingly prevalent in biology due to the development of techniques such as multiphoton, spinning disk confocal, and light sheet fluorescence microscopies. These methods enable unprecedented studies of life at the microscale, but bring with them larger and more complex datasets. New image processing techniques are therefore called for to analyze the resulting images in an accurate and efficient manner. Convolutional neural networks are becoming the standard for classification of objects within images due to their accuracy and generalizability compared to traditional techniques. Their application to data derived from 3D imaging, however, is relatively new and has mostly been in areas of magnetic resonance imaging and computer tomography. It remains unclear, for images of discrete cells in variable backgrounds as are commonly encountered in fluorescence microscopy, whether convolutional neural networks provide sufficient performance to warrant their adoption, especially given the challenges of human comprehension of their classification criteria and their requirements of large training datasets. We therefore applied a 3D convolutional neural network to distinguish bacteria and non-bacterial objects in 3D light sheet fluorescence microscopy images of larval zebrafish intestines. We find that the neural network is as accurate as human experts, outperforms random forest and support vector machine classifiers, and generalizes well to a different bacterial species through the use of transfer learning. We also discuss network design considerations, and describe the dependence of accuracy on dataset size and data augmentation. We provide source code, labeled data, and descriptions of our analysis pipeline to facilitate adoption of convolutional neural network analysis for three-dimensional microscopy data.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Pyrogallol on Growth and Cytotoxicity of Wild-Type and katG Mutant Strains of Vibrio vulnificus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0aab0ee8fa60b77589

Vibrio vulnificus is a causative agent of fatal septicemia and necrotic wound infection and the pathogen infection became an important public health problem in many counties. Vibrio vulnificus causes RtxA1 toxin-induced acute cell death. We tried to identify natural products that inhibit the acute cytotoxicity of V. vulnificus using a lactate hydrogenase assay. A polyphenol pyrogallol protected HeLa cells from V. vulnificus-induced cytotoxicity. Pyrogallol also decreased the growth of V. vulnificus; this inhibitory effect was more significant during log phase than stationary phase. To further elucidate the inhibitory mechanism, pyrogallol-induced toxicity was compared between a V. vulnificus catalase-peroxidase mutant (katG) and the isogenic wild-type MO6-24/O strains. No growth was observed for the katG mutant in the presence of pyrogallol (50 μg/mL) even after 24 h, whereas the wild-type strain demonstrated growth recovery following a prolonged lag phase. Pyrogallol-mediated growth inhibition of the katG mutant strain was partially rescued by exogenous catalase treatment. These results indicate that the mechanism by which pyrogallol inhibits the growth and cytotoxicity of V. vulnificus likely involves polyphenol-induced prooxidant damage. Taken together, these results suggest that pyrogallol has potential for development as a new paradigm drug to treat infectious diseases.

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<![CDATA[A σE-Mediated Temperature Gauge Controls a Switch from LuxR-Mediated Virulence Gene Expression to Thermal Stress Adaptation in Vibrio alginolyticus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daeaab0ee8fa60bbf099

In vibrios, the expression of virulence factors is often controlled by LuxR, the master quorum-sensing regulator. Here, we investigate the interplay between LuxR and σE, an alternative sigma factor, during the control of virulence-related gene expression and adaptations to temperature elevations in the zoonotic pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. An rpoE null V. alginolyticus mutant was unable to adapt to various stresses and was survival-deficient in fish. In wild type V. alginolyticus, the expression of LuxR-regulated virulence factors increased as the temperature was increased from 22°C to 37°C, but mutants lacking σE did not respond to temperature, indicating that σE is critical for the temperature-dependent upregulation of virulence genes. Further analyses revealed that σE binds directly to -10 and -35 elements in the luxR promoter that drive its transcription. ChIP assays showed that σE binds to the promoter regions of luxR, rpoH and rpoE at high temperatures (e.g., 30°C and 37°C). However, at higher temperatures (42°C) that induce thermal stress, σE binding to the luxR promoter decreased, while its binding to the rpoH and rpoE promoters was unchanged. Thus, the temperature-dependent binding of σE to distinct promoters appears to underlie a σE-controlled switch between the expression of virulence genes and adaptation to thermal stress. This study illustrates how a conserved temperature response mechanism integrates into quorum-sensing circuits to regulate both virulence and stress adaptation.

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<![CDATA[Structural and biochemical studies on Vibrio cholerae Hsp31 reveals a novel dimeric form and Glutathione-independent Glyoxalase activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbc36

Vibrio cholerae experiences a highly hostile environment at human intestine which triggers the induction of various heat shock genes. The hchA gene product of V. cholerae O395, referred to a hypothetical intracellular protease/amidase VcHsp31, is one such stress-inducible homodimeric protein. Our current study demonstrates that VcHsp31 is endowed with molecular chaperone, amidopeptidase and robust methylglyoxalase activities. Through site directed mutagenesis coupled with biochemical assays on VcHsp31, we have confirmed the role of residues in the vicinity of the active site towards amidopeptidase and methylglyoxalase activities. VcHsp31 suppresses the aggregation of insulin in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Through crystal structures of VcHsp31 and its mutants, grown at various temperatures, we demonstrate that VcHsp31 acquires two (Type-I and Type-II) dimeric forms. Type-I dimer is similar to EcHsp31 where two VcHsp31 monomers associate in eclipsed manner through several intersubunit hydrogen bonds involving their P-domains. Type-II dimer is a novel dimeric organization, where some of the intersubunit hydrogen bonds are abrogated and each monomer swings out in the opposite directions centering at their P-domains, like twisting of wet cloth. Normal mode analysis (NMA) of Type-I dimer shows similar movement of the individual monomers. Upon swinging, a dimeric surface of ~400Å2, mostly hydrophobic in nature, is uncovered which might bind partially unfolded protein substrates. We propose that, in solution, VcHsp31 remains as an equilibrium mixture of both the dimers. With increase in temperature, transformation to Type-II form having more exposed hydrophobic surface, occurs progressively accounting for the temperature dependent increase of chaperone activity of VcHsp31.

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<![CDATA[Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafbab0ee8fa60bc4a0c

Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them.

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<![CDATA[The RNA Chaperone Hfq Is Involved in Colony Morphology, Nutrient Utilization and Oxidative and Envelope Stress Response in Vibrio alginolyticus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da40ab0ee8fa60b89918

Hfq is a global regulator that is involved in environmental adaptation of bacteria and in pathogenicity. To gain insight into the role of Hfq in Vibrio alginolyticus, an hfq deletion mutant was constructed in V. alginolyticus ZJ-T strain and phenotypically characterized. Deletion of hfq led to an alteration of colony morphology and reduced extracellular polysaccharide production, a general impairment of growth in both rich medium and minimal media with different carbon sources or amino acids, enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress and to several antibiotics. Furthermore, a differential transcriptomic analysis showed significant changes of transcript abundance for 306 protein coding genes, with 179 genes being up regulated and 127 down-regulated. Several of these changes could be related to the observed phenotypes of the mutant. Transcriptomic data also provided evidence for the induction of the extracytoplasmic stress response in absence of Hfq. Altogether, these findings point to broad regulatory functions for Hfq in V. alginolyticus cells, likely to underlie an important role in pathogenicity.

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<![CDATA[Structure, Regulation, and Inhibition of the Quorum-Sensing Signal Integrator LuxO]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daffab0ee8fa60bc5f29

In a process called quorum sensing, bacteria communicate with chemical signal molecules called autoinducers to control collective behaviors. In pathogenic vibrios, including Vibrio cholerae, the accumulation of autoinducers triggers repression of genes responsible for virulence factor production and biofilm formation. The vibrio autoinducer molecules bind to transmembrane receptors of the two-component histidine sensor kinase family. Autoinducer binding inactivates the receptors’ kinase activities, leading to dephosphorylation and inhibition of the downstream response regulator LuxO. Here, we report the X-ray structure of LuxO in its unphosphorylated, autoinhibited state. Our structure reveals that LuxO, a bacterial enhancer-binding protein of the AAA+ ATPase superfamily, is inhibited by an unprecedented mechanism in which a linker that connects the catalytic and regulatory receiver domains occupies the ATPase active site. The conformational change that accompanies receiver domain phosphorylation likely disrupts this interaction, providing a mechanistic rationale for LuxO activation. We also determined the crystal structure of the LuxO catalytic domain bound to a broad-spectrum inhibitor. The inhibitor binds in the ATPase active site and recapitulates elements of the natural regulatory mechanism. Remarkably, a single inhibitor molecule may be capable of inhibiting an entire LuxO oligomer.

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<![CDATA[Development of Stable Vibrio cholerae O1 Hikojima Type Vaccine Strains Co–Expressing the Inaba and Ogawa Lipopolysaccharide Antigens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0eab0ee8fa60bcb1d6

We describe here the development of stable classical and El Tor V. cholerae O1 strains of the Hikojima serotype that co–express the Inaba and Ogawa antigens of O1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mutation of the wbeT gene reduced LPS perosamine methylation and thereby gave only partial transformation into Ogawa LPS on the cell surface. The strains express approximately equal amounts of Inaba– and Ogawa–LPS antigens which are preserved after formalin–inactivation of the bacteria. Oral immunizations of both inbred and outbred mice with formalin–inactivated whole–cell vaccine preparations of these strains elicited strong intestinal IgA anti–LPS as well as serum vibriocidal antibody responses against both Inaba and Ogawa that were fully comparable to the responses induced by the licensed Dukoral vaccine. Passive protection studies in infant mice showed that immune sera raised against either of the novel Hikojima vaccine strains protected baby mice against infection with virulent strains of both serotypes. This study illustrates the power of using genetic manipulation to improve the properties of bacteria strains for use in killed whole–cell vaccines.

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<![CDATA[Induction of immunomodulatory miR-146a and miR-155 in small intestinal epithelium of Vibrio cholerae infected patients at acute stage of cholera]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf7a

The potential immunomodulatory role of microRNAs in small intestine of patients with acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection was investigated. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from study-participants at the acute (day 2) and convalescent (day 21) stages of disease, and from healthy individuals. Levels of miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-375 and target gene (IRAK1, TRAF6, CARD10) and 11 cytokine mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. The cellular source of microRNAs in biopsies was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The ability of V. cholerae bacteria and their secreted products to cause changes in microRNA- and mRNA levels in polarized tight monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. miR-146a and miR-155 were expressed at significantly elevated levels at acute stage of V. cholerae infection and declined to normal at convalescent stage (P<0.009 versus controls; P = 0.03 versus convalescent stage, pairwise). Both microRNAs were mainly expressed in the epithelium. Only marginal down-regulation of target genes IRAK1 and CARD10 was seen and a weak cytokine-profile was identified in the acute infected mucosa. No elevation of microRNA levels was seen in ETEC infection. Challenge of tight monolayers with the wild type V. cholerae O1 strain C6706 and clinical isolates from two study-participants, caused significant increase in miR-155 and miR-146a by the strain C6706 (P<0.01). One clinical isolate caused reduction in IRAK1 levels (P<0.05) and none of the strains induced inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, secreted factors from these strains caused markedly increased levels of IL-8, IL-1β, and CARD10 (P<0.001), without inducing microRNA expression. Thus, miR-146a and miR-155 are expressed in the duodenal epithelium at the acute stage of cholera. The inducer is probably the V. cholerae bacterium. By inducing microRNAs the bacterium can limit the innate immune response of the host, including inflammation evoked by its own secreted factors, thereby decreasing the risk of being eliminated.

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<![CDATA[Worldwide Occurrence of Integrative Conjugative Element Encoding Multidrug Resistance Determinants in Epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db34ab0ee8fa60bd267e

In the last decades, there has been an increase of cholera epidemics caused by multidrug resistant strains. Particularly, the integrative and conjugative element (ICE) seems to play a major role in the emergence of multidrug resistant Vibrio cholerae. This study fully characterized, by whole genome sequencing, new ICEs carried by multidrug resistant V. cholerae O1 strains from Nigeria (2010) (ICEVchNig1) and Nepal (1994) (ICEVchNep1). The gene content and gene order of these two ICEs are the same, and identical to ICEVchInd5, ICEVchBan5 and ICEVchHai1 previously identified in multidrug resistant V. cholerae O1. This ICE is characterized by dfrA1, sul2, strAB and floR antimicrobial resistance genes, and by unique gene content in HS4 and HS5 ICE regions. Screening for ICEs, in publicly available V. cholerae genomes, revealed the occurrence and widespread distribution of this ICE among V. cholerae O1. Metagenomic analysis found segments of this ICE in marine environments far from the direct influence of the cholera epidemic. Therefore, this study revealed the epidemiology of a spatio-temporal prevalent ICE in V. cholerae O1. Its occurrence and dispersion in V. cholerae O1 strains from different continents throughout more than two decades can be indicative of its role in the fitness of the current pandemic lineage.

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<![CDATA[Identification and Initial Characterization of Prophages in Vibrio campbellii]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da79ab0ee8fa60b97f7f

Phages are bacteria targeting viruses and represent the most abundant biological entities on earth. Marine environments are exceptionally rich in bacteriophages, harboring a total of 4x1030 viruses. Nevertheless, marine phages remain poorly characterized. Here we describe the identification of intact prophage sequences in the genome of the marine γ-proteobacterium Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 (formerly known as V. harveyi ATCC BAA-1116), which presumably belong to the family of Myoviridae. One prophage was found on chromosome I and shows significant similarities to the previously identified phage ΦHAP-1. The second prophage region is located on chromosome II and is related to Vibrio phage kappa. Exposure of V. campbellii to mitomycin C induced the lytic cycle of two morphologically distinct phages and, as expected, extracellular DNA from induced cultures was found to be specifically enriched for the sequences previously identified as prophage regions. Heat stress (50°C, 30 min) was also found to induce phage release in V. campbellii. Notably, promoter activity of two representative phage genes indicated heterogeneous phage induction within the population.

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<![CDATA[Determinants of severe dehydration from diarrheal disease at hospital presentation: Evidence from 22 years of admissions in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf28e

Background

To take advantage of emerging opportunities to reduce morbidity and mortality from diarrheal disease, we need to better understand the determinants of life-threatening severe dehydration (SD) in resource-poor settings.

Methodology/findings

We analyzed records of patients admitted with acute diarrheal disease over twenty-two years at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (1993–2014). Patients presenting with and without SD were compared by multivariable logistic regression models, which included socio-demographic factors and pathogens isolated. Generalized additive models evaluated non-linearities between age or household income and SD. Among 55,956 admitted patients, 13,457 (24%) presented with SD. Vibrio cholerae was the most common pathogen isolated (12,405 patients; 22%), and had the strongest association with SD (AOR 4.77; 95% CI: 4.41–5.51); detection of multiple pathogens did not exacerbate SD risk. The highest proportion of severely dehydrated patients presented in a narrow window only 4–12 hours after symptom onset. Risk of presenting with SD increased sharply from zero to ten years of age and remained high throughout adolescence and adulthood. Adult women had a 38% increased odds (AOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.30–1.46) of SD compared to adult men. The probability of SD increased sharply at low incomes. These findings were consistent across pathogens.

Conclusions/significance

There remain underappreciated populations vulnerable to life-threatening diarrheal disease that include adult women and the very poor. In addition to efforts that address diarrheal disease in young children, there is a need to develop interventions for these other high-risk populations that are accessible within 4 hours of symptom onset.

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<![CDATA[ToxR Antagonizes H-NS Regulation of Horizontally Acquired Genes to Drive Host Colonization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafcab0ee8fa60bc50ea

The virulence regulator ToxR initiates and coordinates gene expression needed by Vibrio cholerae to colonize the small intestine and cause disease. Despite its prominence in V. cholerae virulence, our understanding of the direct ToxR regulon is limited to four genes: toxT, ompT, ompU and ctxA. Here, we determine ToxR’s genome-wide DNA-binding profile and demonstrate that ToxR is a global regulator of both progenitor genome-encoded genes and horizontally acquired islands that encode V. cholerae’s major virulence factors and define pandemic lineages. We show that ToxR shares more than a third of its regulon with the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS, and antagonizes H-NS binding at shared binding locations. Importantly, we demonstrate that this regulatory interaction is the critical function of ToxR in V. cholerae colonization and biofilm formation. In the absence of H-NS, ToxR is no longer required for V. cholerae to colonize the infant mouse intestine or for robust biofilm formation. We further illustrate a dramatic difference in regulatory scope between ToxR and other prominent virulence regulators, despite similar predicted requirements for DNA binding. Our results suggest that factors in addition to primary DNA structure influence the ability of ToxR to recognize its target promoters.

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<![CDATA[The Vibrio cholerae Minor Pilin TcpB Initiates Assembly and Retraction of the Toxin-Coregulated Pilus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da51ab0ee8fa60b8df33

Type IV pilus (T4P) systems are complex molecular machines that polymerize major pilin proteins into thin filaments displayed on bacterial surfaces. Pilus functions require rapid extension and depolymerization of the pilus, powered by the assembly and retraction ATPases, respectively. A set of low abundance minor pilins influences pilus dynamics by unknown mechanisms. The Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) is among the simplest of the T4P systems, having a single minor pilin TcpB and lacking a retraction ATPase. Here we show that TcpB, like its homolog CofB, initiates pilus assembly. TcpB co-localizes with the pili but at extremely low levels, equivalent to one subunit per pilus. We used a micropillars assay to demonstrate that TCP are retractile despite the absence of a retraction ATPase, and that retraction relies on TcpB, as a V. cholerae tcpB Glu5Val mutant is fully piliated but does not induce micropillars movements. This mutant is impaired in TCP-mediated autoagglutination and TcpF secretion, consistent with retraction being required for these functions. We propose that TcpB initiates pilus retraction by incorporating into the growing pilus in a Glu5-dependent manner, which stalls assembly and triggers processive disassembly. These results provide a framework for understanding filament dynamics in more complex T4P systems and the closely related Type II secretion system.

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