ResearchPad - viewpoint https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Management of acute kidney injury in patients with COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13628 The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly evolved into a global pandemic. Most patients with COVID-19 have mild symptoms, but about 5% develop severe symptoms, which can include acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and multiple organ failure. Kidney involvement is frequent, with clinical presentation ranging from mild proteinuria to progressive acute kidney injury (AKI) necessitating renal replacement therapy (RRT). An understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanisms of kidney damage and AKI in the setting of critical illness and COVID-19 is emerging, although further research is needed to identify patients at risk of AKI and to guide management strategies. As no specific treatment options exist for AKI secondary to COVID-19, intensive care is largely supportive. Current approaches to prevention and management of AKI, and identification of potential indications for use of RRT and sequential extracorporeal therapies, are based mainly on clinical experience, and AKI strategies are adapted empirically to patients with COVID-19. International collaborative and cross-disciplinary research is needed to obtain adequate evidence to support current clinical approaches and to develop new approaches to management.

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<![CDATA[The non-specific and sex-differential effects of vaccines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13131 Peter Aaby was trained as an anthropologist but has built a large health surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau since 1978, focusing on the high levels of child mortality there. Crowding and intensive exposure to measles were key determinants of child mortality. This led to vaccine research and the discovery of the non-specific effects of measles vaccine.

Christine Stabell Benn is a professor in global health at the University of Southern Denmark. She conducts epidemiological and immunological studies of vaccines and vitamin A, with a focus on their real-life effects on overall health in Africa and Denmark. She formulated the hypothesis that these health interventions with immunomodulatory effects interact, often in a sex-differential manner.

Katie L. Flanagan is Director of Infectious Diseases for north/north-west Tasmania, an adjunct professor at the University of Tasmania and RMIT University and an adjunct associate professor at Monash University. She is Honorary Secretary of the Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases (ASID), Chair of the ASID Vaccination Special Interest Group and a member of the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation. Her current research focuses on using systems vaccinology to study the sex-differential and non-targeted effects of vaccines.

Sabra L. Klein is a professor of molecular microbiology and immunology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA. She is an expert on sex and gender differences in immune responses and susceptibility to infection. She is the immediate past president of the Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, a principal investigator of the Johns Hopkins Specialized Center for Research Excellence in sex and age differences in immunity to influenza and a co-director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Women’s Health, Sex, and Gender Research.

Tobias R. Kollmann is a paediatric infectious disease clinician and systems vaccinologist at Telethon Kids Institute and Perth Children’s Hospital in Perth, Australia. His expertise centres on newborn infectious diseases, immune ontogeny and early-life vaccine responses, using cutting-edge technology and analytics to extract the most information out of the typically small biological samples obtainable in early life.

David J. Lynn is Director of the Computational and Systems Biology Program and an EMBL Australia group leader at the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute. He is also a professor at the Flinders University College of Medicine and Public Health. He leads a research programme in systems immunology, investigating how pathogenic and commensal microorganisms modulate the immune system in different contexts, including vaccination.

Frank Shann worked as a paediatrician in Papua New Guinea and then for 20 years was Director of Intensive Care at the Royal Children’s Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. He is a professorial fellow in the Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, engaged in research on the non-specific effects of vaccines.

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<![CDATA[Access to lifesaving medical resources for African countries: COVID-19 testing and response, ethics, and politics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12974 <![CDATA[Health Disparities and the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic in the USA]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12818 <![CDATA[Rethinking the Role of Radiation Therapy in the Management of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11730 Radiation has been relegated to a palliative role in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Contemporary radiation techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), and image-guided radiation therapy, enable conformal treatment that controls local disease with minimal morbidity. Recent studies from multiple institutions support the role of radiation in the ablative treatment of oligometastatic disease and control of locally recurrent and metastatic disease. Effective local treatment with radiation complements the role of systemic therapy in the management of EOC; reduces symptoms and disease burden, and may contribute to a prolonged drug free interval.

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<![CDATA[COVID-19: Living through Another Pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9351 Novel beta-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the pathogenic agent responsible for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a globally pandemic infectious disease. Due to its high virulence and the absence of immunity among the general population, SARS-CoV-2 has quickly spread to all countries. This pandemic highlights the urgent unmet need to expand and focus our research tools on what are considered “neglected infectious diseases” and to prepare for future inevitable pandemics. This global emergency has generated unprecedented momentum and scientific efforts around the globe unifying scientists from academia, government and the pharmaceutical industry to accelerate the discovery of vaccines and treatments. Herein, we shed light on the virus structure and life cycle and the potential therapeutic targets in SARS-CoV-2 and briefly refer to both active and passive immunization modalities, drug repurposing focused on speed to market, and novel agents against specific viral targets as therapeutic interventions for COVID-19.

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<![CDATA[How materials can beat a virus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9331 <![CDATA[The time is now: expedited HIV differentiated service delivery during the COVID‐19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N678aa220-4d89-40b1-8240-59587ec08e31 <![CDATA[Primary Care Providers: Discuss COVID-19-Related Goals of Care with Your Vulnerable Patients Now]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N195b58bd-d646-4654-96b8-5bd2ae7d5579 <![CDATA[Preparedness and Lessons Learned from the Novel Coronavirus Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndae6bb1f-b458-4cbd-9483-fcd34869612d In a short span, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has captured global consciousness by significantly affecting the day-to-day life of humans and emerged as a public health emergency. Undoubtedly, it indicates that lessons learnt from the past epidemics of coronaviruses such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), had not enough and thus left us ill-prepared to deal with the challenges that COVID-19 pandemic is currently posing. Currently, as a global pandemic, COVID-19 poses major challenges and thus forcing the entire world to lockdown. However, the disease has prepared humankind in facing such outbreaks at present as well as in the future. Besides, it has also taught numerous lessons that are worth considering and implementing to make the world a better reality.

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<![CDATA[Digesting the crisis: autophagy and coronaviruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N14e3723f-733f-4d90-9494-31489cab3f33 Autophagy is a catabolic pathway with multifaceted roles in cellular homeostasis. This process is also involved in the antiviral response at multiple levels, including the direct elimination of intruding viruses (virophagy), the presentation of viral antigens, the fitness of immune cells, and the inhibition of excessive inflammatory reactions. In line with its central role in immunity, viruses have evolved mechanisms to interfere with or to evade the autophagic process, and in some cases, even to harness autophagy or constituents of the autophagic machinery for their replication. Given the devastating consequences of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the question arises whether manipulating autophagy might be an expedient approach to fight the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In this piece, we provide a short overview of the evidence linking autophagy to coronaviruses and discuss whether such links may provide actionable targets for therapeutic interventions.

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<![CDATA[Sex Differences in Mortality From COVID-19 Pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Naca62fe8-36a1-4319-a1e6-0c1cfa8de335 <![CDATA[Lessons learned from HIV can inform our approach to COVID‐19 stigma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc7b9f12a-d826-4ed5-b5fc-3d1db769549e <![CDATA[Defining the dance: quantification and classification of endoplasmic reticulum dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2678f99f-e428-42e4-98c3-2618e131f835 ]]> <![CDATA[Brexit and health security: why we need to protect our global networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc57a0229-fe8f-4cca-bc54-fcf9973ed1ed

As the United Kingdom (UK) negotiates its separation from the European Union (EU), it is important to remember the public health mechanisms that are directly facilitated via our relationship with the EU. One such mechanism is the UK’s role within the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Global health protection is an area that is currently experiencing an unprecedented wave of innovation, both technologically and ideologically, and we must therefore ensure that our future relationship with ECDC is one that facilitates full involvement with the global health security systems of the future.

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<![CDATA[Environmental Engineers and Scientists Have Important Roles to Play in Stemming Outbreaks and Pandemics Caused by Enveloped Viruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3c02f60f-2edf-420f-a363-c1f74d8adffc ]]> <![CDATA[An Imperative Need for Research on the Role of Environmental Factors in Transmission of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N74d48fa9-8129-487d-8f05-c29a2924af7c ]]> <![CDATA[Can a Paper-Based Device Trace COVID-19 Sources with Wastewater-Based Epidemiology?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3bd3619a-d361-4309-b7f7-c53686f0e8f1 ]]> <![CDATA[Evidence of the COVID-19 Virus Targeting the CNS: Tissue Distribution, Host–Virus Interaction, and Proposed Neurotropic Mechanisms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf2bed9ab-fe4c-4928-971f-34663f52ce35

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The recent outbreak of coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has gripped the world with apprehension and has evoked a scare of epic proportion regarding its potential to spread and infect humans worldwide. As we are in the midst of an ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, scientists are struggling to understand how it resembles and differs from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) at the genomic and transcriptomic level. In a short time following the outbreak, it has been shown that, similar to SARS-CoV, COVID-19 virus exploits the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to gain entry inside the cells. This finding raises the curiosity of investigating the expression of ACE2 in neurological tissue and determining the possible contribution of neurological tissue damage to the morbidity and mortality caused by COIVD-19. Here, we investigate the density of the expression levels of ACE2 in the CNS, the host–virus interaction and relate it to the pathogenesis and complications seen in the recent cases resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak. Also, we debate the need for a model for staging COVID-19 based on neurological tissue involvement.

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<![CDATA[Using Consumer Perceptions of a Voice-Activated Speaker Device as an Educational Tool]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N67fee0bb-3aab-4975-b97b-a92e5a95b4bf

Voice-activated smart speakers, with their ease of setup, low cost, and versatility, could be an affordable and accessible way to improve health and mental health outcomes. In 2018, there were a total of 320 comments generated from verified purchases of a voice-activated smart speaker. These comments revealed there could be potential benefits of reducing loneliness and social isolation for adult users, especially for the older population. However, further research is warranted to determine whether using such devices would be harmful to children’s physical or mental development.

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