ResearchPad - visual-acuity https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The qualitative assessment of optical coherence tomography and the central retinal sensitivity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7697 To analyze the relationships between qualitative and quantitative parameters of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and the central retinal sensitivity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).Materials and methodsNinety-three eyes of 93 patients were finally enrolled, with a median age (quartile) of 58 (24.5) years. We assessed the patients using SD-OCT and the 10–2 program of a Humphry Field Analyzer (HFA). As a qualitative parameter, two graders independently classified the patients’ SD-OCT images into five severity grades (grades 1–5) based on the severity of damage to the photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) layer. As quantitative parameters, we measured the IS-ellipsoid zone (IS-EZ) width, IS/OS thickness, outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, central macular thickness (CMT, 1 and 3 mm) and macular cube (6 × 6 mm) volume and thickness. The central retinal sensitivity was defined by the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; logMAR), average sensitivities of the central 4 (foveal sensitivity [FS]) and 12 (macular sensitivity [MS]) points of the HFA 10–2 program and the mean deviation (MD) of the 10–2 program. Spearman’s correlation was used to assess the association between both qualitative and quantitative parameters and variables of the central retinal sensitivity. In addition, we performed a multiple regression analysis using these parameters to identify the parameters most strongly influencing the central retinal sensitivity.ResultsThe IS/OS severity grade was significantly correlated with the BCVA (ρ = 0.741, P < 0.001), FS (ρ = −0.844, P < 0.001), MS (ρ = −0.820, P < 0.001) and MD (ρ = −0.681, P < 0.001) and showed stronger correlations to them than any other quantitative parameters including the IS-EZ width, IS/OS thickness, ONL thickness, CMTs and macular cube volume/thickness. Furthermore, a step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that the IS/OS severity grade was more strongly associated with the BCVA (β = 0.659, P < 0.001), FS (β = −0.820, P < 0.001), MS (β = −0.820, P < 0.001) and MD (β = −0.674, P < 0.001) than any other quantitative parameters. The intraclass correlation coefficient between two graders indicated substantial correlation (κ = 0.70).DiscussionThe qualitative grading of OCT based on the severity of the IS/OS layer was simple and strongly correlated with the central retinal sensitivity in patients with RP. It may be useful to assess the central visual function in patients with RP, although there is some variation in severity within the same severity grade. ]]> <![CDATA[Long-term visual acuity in patients with optic pathway glioma treated during childhood with up-front BB-SFOP chemotherapy—Analysis of a French pediatric historical cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1959d5eed0c484b4d486

Background

Visual outcome is one of the main issues in the treatment of optic pathway glioma in childhood. Although the prognostic factors of low vision have been discussed extensively, no reliable indicators for visual loss exist. Therefore, we aimed to define initial and evolving factors associated with long-term vision loss.

Methods

We conducted a multicenter historical cohort study of children treated in France with up-front BB-SFOP chemotherapy between 1990 and 2004. Visual acuity performed at the long-term follow-up visit or within 6 months prior was analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of clinical and radiological factors on long-term visual outcome.

Findings

Of the 180 patients in the cohort, long-term visual acuity data were available for 132 (73.3%) patients (median follow-up: 14.2 years; range: 6.1–25.6). At the last follow-up, 61/132 patients (46.2%) had impaired vision, and 35 of these patients (57.3%) were partially sighted or blind. Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with a worse prognosis for long-term visual acuity were an age at diagnosis of < 1 year (OR 3.5 [95% CI: 1.1–11.2], p = 0.04), tumor extent (OR 4.7 [95% CI: 1.2–19.9], p = 0.03), intracranial hypertension requiring one or more surgical procedures (OR 5.6 [95% CI: 1.8–18.4], p = 0.003), and the need for additional treatment after initial BB-SFOP chemotherapy (OR 3.5 [95% CI: 1.1–11.9], p = 0.04). NF1 status did not appear as a prognostic factor, but in non-NF1 patients, a decrease in tumor volume with contrast enhancement after BB-SFOP chemotherapy was directly associated with a better visual prognosis (OR 0.8 [95% CI: 0.8–0.9], p = 0.04).

Interpretation

Our study confirms that a large proportion of children with optic pathway glioma have poor long-term outcomes of visual acuity. These data suggest new prognostic factors for visual acuity, but these results need to be confirmed further by large- and international-scale studies.

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<![CDATA[High incidence and prevalence of visual problems after acute stroke: An epidemiology study with implications for service delivery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897734d5eed0c4847d26dc

Background

Visual problems are an under-reported sequela following stroke. The aim of this study is to report annual incidence and point prevalence of visual problems in an acute adult stroke population and to explore feasibility of early timing of visual assessment.

Methods and findings

Multi-centre acute stroke unit, prospective, epidemiology study (1st July 2014 to 30th June 2015). Orthoptists reviewed all patients with assessment of visual acuity, visual fields, ocular alignment, ocular motility, visual inattention and visual perception. 1033 patients underwent visual screening at a median of 3 days (IQR 2) and full visual assessment at a median of 4 days (IQR 7) after the incident stroke: 52% men, 48% women, mean age 73 years and 87% ischaemic strokes. Excluding pre-existent eye problems, the incidence of new onset visual sequelae was 48% for all stroke admissions and 60% in stroke survivors. Three quarters 752/1033 (73%) had visual problems (point prevalence): 56% with impaired central vision, 40% eye movement abnormalities, 28% visual field loss, 27% visual inattention, 5% visual perceptual disorders. 281/1033 (27%) had normal eye exams.

Conclusions

Incidence and point prevalence of visual problems in acute stroke is alarmingly high, affecting over half the survivors. For most, visual screening and full visual assessment was achieved within about 5 days of stroke onset. Crucial information can thus be provided on visual status and its functional significance to the stroke team, patients and carers, enabling early intervention.

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<![CDATA[Prenatal maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake and infant information processing at 4.5mo and 9mo: A longitudinal study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9ffd5eed0c48452a684

Previous research suggesting an association between maternal prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and infant cognition has yet to assess whether there is a critical trimester for the observed effects. We used a comprehensive Food Frequency Questionnaire to estimate DHA levels during both the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, in a sample of 125 pregnant women. Infants were assessed at 4.5 months and 9 months post-partum using specific tests of visual acuity, habituation, and visual attention. Based on maternal DHA levels during pregnancy, mothers were subdivided into high, medium, and low groups, and their infants compared for task performance using one-way ANOVAs with maternal DHA groups. On the 9 month visual acuity test, infants whose mothers were in the medium DHA group performed significantly better than those with mothers in the low or high DHA groups (p = 0.008). However, no significant finding was found for any of the other cognitive assessment measures. Despite a number of studies reporting a positive effect of higher DHA levels on cognitive development, this study fails to support those conclusions. We can, however, conclude that it appears to be DHA intake in the third trimester specifically, which is influencing the development of visual acuity towards the end of the first postnatal year.

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<![CDATA[Surgical management of intraocular lens dislocation: A meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe14d5eed0c484e5b438

Purpose

To compare the efficacy and safety of intraocular lens (IOL) repositioning and IOL exchange for the treatment of patients with IOL dislocation.

Methods

We systematically searched for relevant publications in English or Chinese in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, WHO International Clinical Trial Registration Platform, Clinical Trial.gov, China Biology Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database and grey literature sources. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE template for observational studies and the Cochrane template for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data were meta-analyzed using RevMan 5.3.

Results

The review included 14 English-language studies reporting 1 RCT and 13 retrospective case series involving 1,082 eyes. Average follow-up time was 13.7 months. Pooled analysis of 10 studies showed that the two procedures had a similarly effect on best corrected visual acuity (MD -0.00, 95%CI: -0.08 to 0.08, P = 0.99). Pooled analysis of nine studies showed no significant difference in incidence of IOL redislocation (RR 2.12, 95%CI 0.85 to 5.30, P = 0.11); pooled analysis of seven studies showed greater extent of incidence of cystoid macular edema in IOL exchange (RR 0.47, 95%CI 0.21 to 1.30, P = 0.06). Pooled analysis of three studies showed greater extent of incidence of anterior vitrectomy in IOL exchange (RR 0.11, 95%CI 0.04 to 0.33, P<0.0001). Pooled analysis of two studies showed greater postoperative spherical equivalents in IOL repositioning (MD 1.02, 95%CI 0.51 to 1.52, P<0.0001). pooled analysis suggested no significant differences between the two procedures in terms of intraocular pressure, endothelial cell density, surgically induced astigmatism, or incidence of retinal detachment, intraocular hemorrhage or pupillary block.

Conclusion

IOL repositioning and exchange are safe and effective procedures for treating IOL dislocation. Neither procedure significantly affects best corrected visual acuity and IOL redislocation. IOL exchange was superior to repositioning in terms of postoperative SE, but IOL repositioning was associated with lower incidence of anterior vitrectomy, potentially lower incidence of cystoid macular edema.

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<![CDATA[The association of choroidal structure and its response to anti-VEGF treatment with the short-time outcome in pachychoroid neovasculopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14b7d5eed0c48467a726

Pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV) shares some anatomical features with other pachychoroid spectrum diseases, but little is known about the characteristics on the treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We investigated the effect of choroidal structure and responses to anti-VEGF on the prognosis of pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV) and other types of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (non-PNV). Twenty-one eyes with PNV and 34 eyes with non-PNV who had anti-VEGF treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) area at baseline was measured with fluorescein angiography (FAG). The luminal and stromal area in the choroid was measured by enhanced-depth-imaging (EDI) OCT at baseline and 1 month. The association between dry macula or LogMAR VA (visual acuity, VA) at 1 month and baseline values or changes in the luminal or stromal area at 1 month, baseline CNV area, or anti-VEGF drugs were analyzed in patients with or without PNV. In non-PNV, change of luminal area (coefficient = 7.0×10−5, p = 0.0001), baseline CNV area (coefficient = 0.18, p = 0.033), and aflibercept vs. ranibizumab (coefficient = 0.29, p = 0.0048) were chosen as predictors for dry macula by the model selection. Similarly, in non-PNV, change of luminal area (coefficient = 6.1×10−6, p = 0.033), baseline CNV area (coefficient = 0.034, p = 0.022), and aflibercept vs. ranibizumab (coefficient = 0.056, p = 0.0020) were chosen as predictors for greater VA improvement. In PNV, however, none of these factors was chosen as predictors for dry macula or VA improvement by the model selection. The result of the present study implied that structural response after anti-VEGF might be different between non-PNV and PNV in the treatment with anti-VEGF agents.

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<![CDATA[Axial length and its associations in a Russian population: The Ural Eye and Medical Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df355d5eed0c484581168

Purpose

To assess the normal distribution of axial length and its associations in a population of Russia.

Methods

The population-based Ural Eye and Medical Study included 5,899 (80.5%) individuals out of 7328 eligible individuals aged 40+ years. The participants underwent an ocular and systemic examination. Axial length was measured sonographically (Ultra-compact A/B/P ultrasound system, Quantel Medical, Cournon d'Auvergne, France).

Results

Biometric data were available for 5707 (96.7%) individuals with a mean age of 58.8±10.6 years (range:40–94 years; 25%, 50%, 75% quartile: 51.0, 58.0, 66.0 years, respectively). Mean axial length was 23.30±1.10 mm (range: 19.02–32.87mm; 95% confidence interval (CI): 21.36–25.89; 25%, 50%, 75% quartile: 22.65mm, 23.23mm, 23.88mm, resp.). Prevalences of moderate myopia (axial length:24.5-<26.5mm) and high myopia (axial length >26.5mm) were 555/5707 (8.7%;95%CI:9.0,10.5) and 78/5707 (1.4%;95%CI:1.1,1.7), respectively. Longer axial length (mean:23.30±1.10mm) was associated (correlation coefficient r2:0.70) with older age (P<0.001;standardized regression coefficient beta:0.14), taller body height (P<0.001;beta:0.07), higher level of education (P<0.001;beta:0.04), higher intraocular pressure (P<0.001;beta:0.03), more myopic spherical refractive error (P<0.001;beta:-0.55), lower corneal refractive power (P<0.001;beta:-0.44), deeper anterior chamber depth (P<0.001;beta:0.20), wider anterior chamber angle (P<0.001;beta:0.05), thinner peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (P<0.001;beta:-0.04), higher degree of macular fundus tessellation (P<0.001;beta:0.08), lower prevalence of epiretinal membranes (P = 0.01;beta-0.02) and pseudoexfoliation (P = 0.007;beta:-0.02) and higher prevalence of myopic maculopathy (P<0.001;beta:0.08). In that model, prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (any type: P = 0.84; early type: P = 0.46), diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.16), and region of habitation (P = 0.27) were not significantly associated with axial length.

Conclusions

Mean axial length in this typically multi-ethnic Russian study population was comparable with values from populations in Singapore and Beijing. In contrast to previous studies, axial length was not significantly related with the prevalences of age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy or region of habitation.

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<![CDATA[Effects of playing position, pitch location, opposition ability and team ability on the technical performance of elite soccer players in different score line states]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633972d5eed0c484ae67a3

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of playing position, pitch location, team ability and opposition ability on technical performance variables (pass, cross, corner, free kick accuracy) of English Premier League Soccer players in difference score line states. A validated automatic tracking system (Venatrack) was used to code player actions in real time for passing accuracy, cross accuracy, corner accuracy and free kick accuracy. In total 376 of the 380 games played during the 2011–12 English premier League season were recorded, resulting in activity profiles of 570 players and over 35’000 rows of data. These data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Multi-level regression revealed a “u” shaped association between passing accuracy and goal difference (GD) with greater accuracy occurring at extremes of GD e.g., when the score was either positive or negative. The same pattern was seen for corner accuracy away from home e.g., corner accuracy was lowest when the score was close with the lowest accuracy at extremes of GD. Although free kicks were not associated with GD, team ability, playing position and pitch location were found to predict accuracy. No temporal variables were found to predict cross accuracy. A number of score line effects were present across the temporal factors which should be considered by coaches and managers when preparing and selecting teams in order to maximise performance. The current study highlighted the need for more sensitive score line definitions in which to consider score line effects.

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<![CDATA[Latanoprost could exacerbate the progression of presbyopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca29cd5eed0c48441e76d

Purpose

Prostaglandin analogues (PG) reduce intra-ocular pressure by enhancing uveoscleral flow at the ciliary body, which controls accommodation via the ciliary muscle. We investigated the effect of PG on accommodation and presbyopia progression in glaucoma patients.

Methods

We conducted a clinic-based, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria were bilateral phakic patients aged 40–69 years with best corrected visual acuity better than 20/30. Exclusion criteria were any disease affecting vision other than glaucoma and history of ocular surgery. Subjects with no prescription or vision-affecting disease served as controls (n = 260). The glaucoma patients were prescribed eye drops containing 0.005% latanoprost for more than six months (n = 23). We measured the binocular near add power at a distance of 30 cm in both groups and compared the results using Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results

The mean age (± SD) of the control subjects was 51.5 ± 5.2 years and 39% were male. Similarly, the glaucoma patients had a mean age of 51.0 ± 7.2 years and 39% were male. There were no significant differences in age, gender, intra-ocular pressure, spherical equivalent, astigmatism, or anisometropia between groups. Survival analysis indicated that the glaucoma patients in this study reached the endpoint (near add power of +3.00 D) significantly earlier than control patients (P = 0.0001; generalized Wilcoxon test).

Conclusions

Exacerbation of presbyopia progression in glaucoma patients is a potential side effect of latanoprost eyedrops.

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<![CDATA[The Light Sword Lens - A novel method of presbyopia compensation: Pilot clinical study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8fdd5eed0c48496f5bb

Purpose

Clinical assessment of a new optical element for presbyopia correction–the Light Sword Lens.

Methods

Healthy dominant eyes of 34 presbyopes were examined for visual performance in 3 trials: reference (with lens for distance correction); stenopeic (distance correction with a pinhole ϕ = 1.25 mm) and Light Sword Lens (distance correction with a Light Sword Lens). In each trial, visual acuity was assessed in 7 tasks for defocus from 0.2D to 3.0D while contrast sensitivity in 2 tasks for defocus 0.3D and 2.5D. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol and Pelli-Robson method were applied. Within visual acuity and contrast sensitivity results degree of homogeneity through defocus was determined. Reference and stenopeic trials were compared to Light Sword Lens results. Friedman analysis of variance, Nemenyi post-hoc, Wilcoxon tests were used, p-value < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results

In Light Sword Lens trial visual acuity was stable in tested defocus range [20/25–20/32], Stenopeic trial exhibited a limited range of degradation [20/25–20/40]. Light Sword Lens and reference trials contrast sensitivity was high [1.9–2.0 logCS] for both defocus cases, but low in stenopeic condition [1.5–1.7 logCS]. Between-trials comparisons of visual acuity results showed significant differences only for Light Sword Lens versus reference trials and in contrast sensitivity only for Light Sword Lens versus stenopeic trials.

Conclusions

Visual acuity achieved with Light Sword Lens correction in presbyopic eye is comparable to stenopeic but exhibits none significant loss in contrast sensitivity. Such correction method seems to be very promising for novel contact lenses and intraocular lenses design.

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<![CDATA[Changes in axial length in accommodative esotropia patients with minimal hyperopic correction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6448aed5eed0c484c2eb5b

Purpose

To compare the changes of spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) and axial length (AL) for three years in hyperopic children with minimal undercorrection according to the presence of accommodative esotropia (AE).

Methods

A total of 67 hyperopic children were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups and matched by initial age upon examination; esotropic eyes with AE (AE group), fellow eyes with AE (FE group), and right eyes without esotropia (HE group). Changes of SER and AL were serially measured every six months for three years and collected data were compared among the groups.

Results

All three groups underwent significant myopic shift and AL elongation during the follow-up period. However, the least amount of change was found in the AE group. The AE group (-0.96 ± 1.38D) exhibited significantly less change in SER compared to the HE group (-1.76 ± 1.11D) and the FE group (-1.57 ± 1.33D) (both p<0.001). Meanwhile, smaller changes of AL were noticeable in the AE group (0.62 ± 0.88mm) compared to the other two groups (HE 0.99 ± 0.29mm; p<0.001, FE 0.73 ± 0.65mm; p = 0.04). The SER and AL changes were not significantly different between the HE group and FE group.

Conclusions

Esotropic eyes with AE patients with minimal undercorrection exhibited little negative shift of SER and AL elongation compared to not only hyperopic eyes without AE but also fellow eyes with AE.

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<![CDATA[Spatial visual function in anomalous trichromats: Is less more?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217ddd5eed0c48479472c

Color deficiency is a common inherited disorder affecting 8% of Caucasian males with anomalous trichromacy (AT); it is the most common type of inherited color vision deficiency. Anomalous trichromacy is caused by alteration of one of the three cone-opsins’ spectral sensitivity; it is usually considered to impose marked limitations for daily life as well as for choice of occupation. Nevertheless, we show here that anomalous trichromat subjects have superior basic visual functions such as visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), and stereo acuity, compared with participants with normal color vision. Both contrast sensitivity and stereo acuity performance were correlated with the severity of color deficiency. We further show that subjects with anomalous trichromacy exhibit a better ability to detect objects camouflaged in natural gray scale figures. The advantages of color-deficient subjects in spatial vision performance could explain the relatively high prevalence of color-vision polymorphism in humans.

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<![CDATA[Trinucleotide repeat expansion length as a predictor of the clinical progression of Fuchs’ Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6cbd5eed0c484ef3e0d

Purpose

To determine if CTG18.1 TNR expansion length prognosticates the clinical progression of Fuchs’ Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD).

Methods

This was a prospective cohort study. A total of 51 patients with newly diagnosed FECD were recruited and followed-up over a period of 12 years, from November 2004 to April 2016. Baseline clinical measurements included central corneal thickness (CCT), endothelial cell density (ECD) and CTG18.1 TNR expansion length from peripheral leukocytes, with yearly repeat measurements of CCT and ECD. A patient was defined to have experienced significant clinical progression and to have developed Threshold Disease if any of these criteria were fulfilled in either eye: a) CCT increased to >700μm, b) ECD decreased to <700 cells/mm2, or c) underwent keratoplasty for treatment of FECD.

Results

Patients were categorized as having at least one allele whose maximum allele length was equal to or greater than 40 repeats (L≥40, n = 22, 43.1%), or having both alleles shorter than 40 repeats (L<40). Threshold Disease rates at the 5-year time point were 87.5% for the L≥40 group and 47.8% for the L<40 group (p = 0.012). This difference narrowed and was no longer statistically significant at the 8-years (92.9% vs 78.9%, p = 0.278) and 10-years (92.9% vs 84.2%, p = 0.426) time points.

Conclusions

L≥40 patients are at greater risk of FECD progression and development of Threshold Disease within the first 5 years following diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Environmental factors in school classrooms: How they influence visual task demand on children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7e2d5eed0c484386b6b

Background

The key visual factors in a classroom environment include the legibility, angle subtended at the eye, illumination, contrast, and colour of the visual task. The study evaluated the visual environmental factors in the school classrooms.

Materials and methods

The distance Visual Acuity (VA) demand was evaluated based on the size of visual task i.e. the smallest size of chalkboard writing and its viewing distance. The environmental factors which can have an effect on the visibility in classrooms such as illuminance on the chalkboard and at student’s desk, chalkboard contrast, light sources and the student’s perception of their classroom visual environment were measured. To quantify the distance VA demand and to compare with a standard high contrast VA chart measure, a validation of the measurements was performed by chalkboard simulation experiment. The “acuity reserve” to be included to the measured distance VA demand was evaluated.

Results

We included twenty-nine classrooms of eight schools. The median distance VA threshold demand was 0.28 logMAR(0.25,0.45). The median illuminance on front desk position and chalkboard contrast was 130 lux(92,208) and 40(36,50) respectively with 62% classrooms having low illumination (<150lux). The acuity reserve evaluated to be included to the distance VA demand was 0.13logMAR and 0.29 logMAR in classrooms with optimal and low chalkboard illumination respectively which was based on the results of the simulation experiment. The median distance VA demand including the acuity reserve was 0.09 logMAR(-0.03,0.23) [Snellen Equivalent: 20/25(20/19,20/34)].

Conclusion

The study findings highlight the increased visual task demand in school classrooms and the need for appropriate seating arrangements in classrooms based on the visual acuity of children. The study emphasises regular audit of the classroom environment along with the school eye screening.

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<![CDATA[Visual field defects and changes in central retinal artery occlusion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b79ad5eed0c4844905f6

Objectives

To investigate the characteristics and temporal changes in visual field defects (VFDs) in eyes with acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO).

Design

Retrospective, observational case series

Methods

A total of 119 patients diagnosed with acute non-arteritic CRAO through examination with Goldmann perimetry were included among the patients who visited Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between January 2009 and December 2016. They were treated with either conservative treatments or intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT). The baseline features and temporal changes of visual field examination results and the association with clinical parameters including visual acuity, optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings, and the CRAO stages.

Results

All of the 119 patients showed visual field defect and suffered unilateral acute CRAO. We observed five characteristic VFDs: peripheral constriction only (8%), paracentral scotoma (3%), central and cecocentral scotoma (19%), temporal island (59%), and no visual field (10%). Severe VFDs were associated with severe CRAO stages, poor baseline BCVA, delayed retinal arterial perfusion, and severe retinal morphologic changes on OCT. We found improvements in the visual field in 39% of all cases during the follow-up periods. Mild CRAO stages, good baseline BCVA, mild retinal morphologic changes, and mild initial VFDs were significantly associated with visual field improvement.

Conclusions

The five characteristic types of VFDs and their improvement in eyes with CRAO are associated with baseline features related to the severity of retinal ischemia. We suggest that the underlying mechanisms of VFDs involve the balance between the retinal arterial perfusion and the ischemic vulnerability of each retinal area.

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<![CDATA[An opposing function of paralogs in balancing developmental synapse maturation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2eb7d5eed0c484d9b3e3

The disc-large (DLG)–membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins forms a central signaling hub of the glutamate receptor complex. Among this family, some proteins regulate developmental maturation of glutamatergic synapses, a process vulnerable to aberrations, which may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. As is typical for paralogs, the DLG-MAGUK proteins postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 and PSD-93 share similar functional domains and were previously thought to regulate glutamatergic synapses similarly. Here, we show that they play opposing roles in glutamatergic synapse maturation. Specifically, PSD-95 promoted, whereas PSD-93 inhibited maturation of immature α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid–type glutamate receptor (AMPAR)–silent synapses in mouse cortex during development. Furthermore, through experience-dependent regulation of its protein levels, PSD-93 directly inhibited PSD-95’s promoting effect on silent synapse maturation in the visual cortex. The concerted function of these two paralogs governed the critical period of juvenile ocular dominance plasticity (jODP), and fine-tuned visual perception during development. In contrast to the silent synapse–based mechanism of adjusting visual perception, visual acuity improved by different mechanisms. Thus, by controlling the pace of silent synapse maturation, the opposing but properly balanced actions of PSD-93 and PSD-95 are essential for fine-tuning cortical networks for receptive field integration during developmental critical periods, and imply aberrations in either direction of this process as potential causes for neurodevelopmental disorders.

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<![CDATA[Effect of anterior capsule polish on visual function: A meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4f7ad5eed0c484d75cec

Purpose

To investigate the relationship between anterior capsule polish and visual function.

Methods

Data were obtained from Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, WanFang, VIP and CNKI up to the end of May 2018, without any date or language restrictions for trials. The modified Jadad scale and the newcastle-ottawa scale were used to assess the quality of included studies. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) were used as outcome variables. Data on anterior capsule polish were pooled using weighted, random-effect meta-analysis.

Results

One randomized controlled trial and 4 observational cohort studies involving 2533 patients were included in the analyses. There was a statistically significant difference of UCVA (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.41–2.61) between the polish group and the control group, indicating that anterior capsule polish improved UCVA. Further studies with continuous data also suggested that anterior capsule polish was associated with good UCVA (MD 0.11, 95% CI 0.06–0.16). Posterior capsule opacification rate for 1-year or longer follow-up were extracted for 2561 eyes in 3 studies. Posterior capsule opacification rate was lower in the anterior capsule polish group according to summary odds ratio on PCO rate (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.24–0.73).

Conclusions

Anterior capsule polish prevents complication of modern cataract surgery and benefits on visual function in short term follow-up period.

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<![CDATA[Spectral domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunctive tool for screening Behçet uveitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1966d1d5eed0c484b52faa

Background

This study investigated the association of central macular thickness (CMT) and macular volume (MV) with severity of Behçet uveitis in the absence of macular edema (ME).

Methods

This retrospective, interventional study included a total 131 treatment-naïve Behçet patients with varying degree of uveitis in the absence of ME. The mean CMT and MV were obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD ODT). The patients were classified according to the anatomical classification of Behçet uveitis. The main outcome measure was comparison of mean CMT and MV with the types of Behçet uveitis.

Results

Sixty patients (45.8%) with no uveitis, 41 patients (31.3%) with anterior uveitis, 18 patients (13.7%) with posterior uveitis, and 12 patients (9.2%) with panuveitis. The mean CMT were 261.6±22.2 μm in no uveitis, 268.1±17.8 μm in anterior uveitis, 306.4±32.9 μm in posterior uveitis, and 300.4±44.0 μm in panuveitis (P < 0.001). The mean MV was 8.7±0.3 mm3 in those without uveitis, 8.8±0.3 mm3 in anterior uveitis, 9.9±1.1 mm3 in those with posterior uveitis, and 9.7±0.4 mm3 in panuveitis (P < 0.001). Types of Behçet uveitis was the only significant factor correlated with the mean CMT (B = 18.170, β = 0.408, P < 0.001) and the mean MV (B = 0.328, β = 0.652, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

The mean CMT and MV were significantly thicker in the Behçet uveitis with posterior involvement. SD OCT can be used for an adjunctive tool for screening Behçet uveitis, especially for the presence of posterior involvement.

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<![CDATA[Morning boost on individuals’ psychophysiological wellbeing indicators with supportive, dynamic lighting in windowless open-plan workplace in Malaysia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c305a1bd5eed0c484ba8af9

Workplace architectural lighting conditions that are biologically dim during the day are causing healthy individuals to experience light-induced health and performance-related problems. Dynamic lighting was reported beneficial in supporting individuals’ psychological behavior and physiological responses during work period in Europe. It has yet to be investigated in workplaces with minimal/no natural daylight contribution in tropical Malaysia. Hence, an exploratory experimental study was initiated in an experimental windowless open-plan workplace in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang. The aim was to identify dynamic lighting configurations that were more supportive of a morning boosting effect than the control constant lighting, to support dayshift individuals’ psychophysiological wellbeing indicators during the peak morning work period. The immediate impact of a 2-hour morning exposure to overhead white LED (6500 K) with different horizontal illuminance levels and oscillations (lighting patterns) were investigated on physiological indicator limited to urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, and psychological indicators for alertness, mood, visual comfort, cognitive and visual task performance. Not all of the investigated dynamic lighting configurations were supportive of a morning boost. Only configurations 500increased to750 and 500increased to1000 lx therapeutically supported most of the indicators. Both these configurations suppressed urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, and improved alertness, cognitive performance, positive affect, and visual comfort better than ‘visit 1: 500constant500’ lx (control). The increasing oscillation was observed more beneficial for the morning boost in tropical Malaysia, which is in reverse to that specified in the human rhythmic dynamic lighting protocol developed by researchers from the Netherlands for application during winter. The findings from this study present the feasibility of dynamic architectural lighting acting as an environmental therapeutic solution in supporting the individuals’ psychophysiological wellbeing indicators in windowless open-plan workplace in tropical Malaysia. Further investigations on the two prospective configurations are recommended to determine the better supportive one for the morning boosting effect in Malaysia.

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<![CDATA[Recommendation for ophthalmic care in German preschool health examination and its adherence: Results of the prospective cohort study ikidS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed77ed5eed0c484f1426b

Background

Each child in Germany undergoes a preschool health examination including vision screening and recommendations for further ophthalmic care. This study investigated the frequency of and adherence to these recommendations.

Methods

A population-based prospective cohort study was performed in the area of Mainz-Bingen (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany). All preschoolers were examined at the statutory preschool health examination, which includes vision testing (Rodenstock vision screener) with available correction in the last preschool year. Based on the results, recommendations for further ophthalmic care were given to the parents. Six weeks prior to school entry, parents were surveyed concerning ophthalmic health care visits, diagnoses, and treatments. Ophthalmic care recommendation frequency and its adherence were investigated using logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders.

Results

1226 children were included in this study, and 109 children received a recommendation for ophthalmic care based on the preschool health examination. At the follow-up, 84% of children who had received a recommendation had visited an ophthalmologist within the preceding year compared to 47% of children who had not received a recommendation. The recommendation for ophthalmic care was clearly associated with a higher number of ophthalmological visits (odds ratio = 7.63; 95% confidence interval: 3.96–14.7). In a subgroup analysis, adherence to a recommendation was lower in children with migrant background (OR = 2.26; 95%-CI: 0.64–7.90, compared to: OR = 11.6; 95%-CI: 4.95–27.4) and in those with low socio-economic status.

Conclusions

Adherence to preschool recommendations for ophthalmic care is high in German preschoolers. However, a migrant background and low socio-economic status may reduce this adherence.

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