ResearchPad - vitamins https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of purple sweet corn juice before and after boiling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7720 Sweet corn juice is becoming increasingly popular in China. In order to provide valuable health-related information to consumers, the nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of raw and boiled purple sweet corn juices were herein investigated. Sugars, antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed by conventional chemical methods. The viscosity and stability of juices were determined by Ubbelohde viscosity meter and centrifugation, respectively. Boiling process could elevate viscosity, stability and sugar content, and reduce antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity in corn juice. In addition, short time boiling efficiently reduced the degradation of anthocyanins during subsequent refrigeration. The content of amino acids, vitamin B1/B2 and E were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used for the analysis of fatty acids and aroma compounds. Several aroma compounds not previously reported in corn were identified, including 1-heptanol, 2-methyl-2-butenal, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene, and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. Interestingly, the boiling process had no apparent effect on the amino acids profile, but it caused a 45.8% loss of fatty acids in the juice by promoting the retention of fatty acids in the corn residue. These results provide detailed information that could be used for increasing consumers’ knowledge of sweet corn juice, further development of sweet corn juice by food producers, and maize breeding programs.

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<![CDATA[Digestibility of black soldier fly larvae (<i>Hermetia illucens</i>) fed to leopard geckos (<i>Eublepharis macularius</i>)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7714 Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae have been marketed as an excellent choice for providing calcium to reptiles without the need of dusting or gut loading. However, previous studies have indicated that they have limited calcium digestibility and are deficient in fat soluble vitamins (A, D3, and E). In this feeding and digestibility trial, 24 adult male leopard geckos were fed one of three diets for 4 months: 1) whole, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; 2) needle pierced, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; or 3) whole, non-gut loaded larvae. Fecal output from the geckos was collected daily and apparent digestibility was calculated for dry matter, protein, fat, and minerals. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients among groups. Most nutrients were well digested by the leopard geckos when compared to previous studies, with the exception of calcium (digestibility co-efficient 43%), as the calcium-rich exoskeleton usually remained intact after passage through the GI tract. Biochemistry profiles revealed possible deficits occurring over time for calcium, sodium, and total protein. In regards to vitamin A digestibility, plasma and liver vitamin A concentrations were significantly higher in the supplemented groups (plasma- gut loaded groups: 33.38 ± 7.11 ng/ml, control group: 25.8 ± 6.72 ng/ml, t = 1.906, p = 0.04; liver- gut loaded groups: 28.67 ± 18.90 μg/g, control group: 14.13 ± 7.41 μg/g, t = 1.951, p = 0.03). While leopard geckos are able to digest most of the nutrients provided by BSF larvae, including those that have been gut loaded, more research needs to be performed to assess whether or not they provide adequate calcium in their non-supplemented form.

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<![CDATA[Variation in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 in normal pregnancy with gestational age, sampling season, and complications: A longitudinal cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndf1a2733-e0b1-4fc7-90ad-b2bfa4368f5f

Introduction

Low levels of vitamin D in pregnancy have been associated with the risk of a variety of pregnancy outcomes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D concentrations throughout pregnancy in healthy women, and most guidelines recommend high vitamin D levels. In the present study, we investigated 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in healthy Caucasian Danish women in relation to season, gestational age and possible vitamin D-linked complications.

Materials and methods

Eight hundred and one healthy Caucasian Danish women with an expected normal pregnancy were recruited among 2147 women attending first trimester screening. Seven blood samplings were planned throughout the pregnancy and delivery period. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were calculated.

Results

A total of 3304 samples from 694 women were available for 25(OH)D measurements. The mean (25th-75th percentiles) concentrations of 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D3, and 25(OH)D2 were 54.6 (38.8–68.6) nmol/L, 52.2 (36.4–66.4) nmol/L, and 2.4 (2.2–2.2) nmol/L, respectively. Season was the strongest predictor of 25(OH)D concentration, with the lowest values observed in winter and spring, where only 42% and 41% of samples, respectively, were above 50 nmol/L. Nearly all women had values below the suggested optimal level of 75 nmol/L, independent of season. 25(OH)D peaked at gestational weeks 21–34. Plasma 25(OH)D2 levels were low in all seasons. Women with complications during pregnancy had higher 25(OH)D (estimated difference 9.8 nmol/L, standard error 2.7, p<0.001) than did women without complications, and women giving birth vaginally had lower 25(OH)D than did those delivering via elective (10.0 nmol/L, standard error 2.1, p<0.001) or emergency cesarean section (6.8 nmol/L, standard error 2.2, p<0.001).

Conclusion

The 25(OH)D concentrations vary with both season and gestational age. Healthy women had lower 25(OH)D concentrations than recommended, without an association with an increased risk of pregnancy complications. Guidelines for vitamin D in pregnancy may require revision.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of Acute Serum Iron, Non-Transferrin-Bound Iron, and Gastrointestinal Symptoms with 3-Week Consumption of Iron-Enriched Aspergillus oryzae Compared with Ferrous Sulfate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0c53e78b-808b-4a71-b5f3-f79d5b5a7121

ABSTRACT

Background

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a widespread nutritional deficiency, and iron supplementation, especially with ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), is the most common strategy to treat IDA; however, compliance is often poor with daily FeSO4 owing to negative side effects. In a previous study, iron from iron-enriched Aspergillus oryzae [Ultimine® Koji Iron (ULT)] was absorbed similarly to FeSO4.

Objectives

The main objective of this study was to assess the safety of consuming ULT in terms of increasing non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) and gastrointestinal distress.

Methods

Young female participants (n  = 16) with serum ferritin <40 μg/L were randomly assigned to a double-blind, 9-wk crossover study with a 3-wk placebo/washout period between treatments. Oral FeSO 4 and ULT supplements containing 65 mg Fe were administered daily for 21 consecutive days. On day 1, serum iron (SI), percentage transferrin saturation (%TS), and NTBI were measured for 8 h on the first day of iron consumption. Changes in biochemical indicators were evaluated after 3 wk consumption. Side effects questionnaires were completed weekly on 2 randomly selected weekdays and 1 weekend day for the entire study.

Results

SI, %TS, and NTBI were all markedly higher during hours 2–8 (< 0.001) with FeSO4 than with ULT. Oxidative stress, inflammatory, and kidney and liver function markers remained unchanged with both supplementations compared with placebo. Changes in iron status markers were not significantly different among the 3 treatments. Individual or global side effects were not significantly different among all treatments. Even when common side effects of nausea, constipation, and diarrhea were combined, FeSO4 treatment had a significantly higher effect than ULT (P = 0.04) and placebo (P = 0.004) only at week 3, but the difference was not significant between ULT and placebo.

Conclusions

Low NTBI production and fewer common gastrointestinal side effects with ULT suggest that it is a safe oral iron supplement to treat IDA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04018300.

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<![CDATA[Evidence of a Role for One-Carbon Metabolism in Blood Pressure: Can B Vitamin Intervention Address the Genetic Risk of Hypertension Owing to a Common Folate Polymorphism?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na4160e60-9fee-49a4-a263-7f7364b4b312

ABSTRACT

Hypertension in adulthood is recognized as the leading risk factor contributing to mortality worldwide, primarily from cardiovascular disease, whereas hypertension in pregnancy leads to serious adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. This article explores the under-recognized role of one-carbon metabolism in blood pressure (BP) and the potential for folate-related B vitamins to protect against hypertension. Genome-wide association studies and clinical studies provide evidence linking the 677C→T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with BP and increased risk of hypertension and hypertension in pregnancy. A novel role for riboflavin (the MTHFR cofactor) has recently emerged, however, with evidence from randomized trials that supplemental riboflavin can lower BP specifically in adults with the variant MTHFR 677TT genotype. Further studies are required to elucidate the biological mechanisms linking one-carbon metabolism with BP and explore the effect of riboflavin in modulating the genetic risk of hypertension in early and later life.

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<![CDATA[The association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with elevated serum ferritin levels in normal weight, overweight and obese Canadians]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acc82d5eed0c48498f8c4

In light of the growing body of literature suggesting a beneficial effect of vitamin D on inflammatory response, we hypothesized that vitamin D affects serum ferritin (SF), a biomarker of inflammation. The objective of the present study is to examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with elevated SF concentrations indicative of inflammation as no earlier study has done so. Data from 5550 Canadian adults who participated in the 2012/2013 and the 2014/2015 Canadian Health Measures Surveys were analysed. We observed that 9.4% of Canadian adults have elevated SF concentrations and that 35.6% were vitamin D insufficient. Among Canadians with under/normal body weights, those with serum 25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L relative to those with serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L, were substantially less at risk for elevated SF concentrations (OR = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.89; p = 0.034). We did not observe this association for overweight and obese Canadians. Canadians of older age, non-white ethnicity, males, those with income above $100,000, those who consumed alcohol, and those with high total cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressures were more likely to have elevated SF concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L is likely to provoke anti-inflammatory benefits, but intervention studies that achieve high 25(OH)D concentrations and with long follow up are needed to establish the role of vitamin D on SF.

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<![CDATA[Quantitation of 5-methyltetraydrofolic acid in plasma for determination of folate status and clinical studies by stable isotope dilution assays]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c785012d5eed0c484007c22

Folates play a key role in the prevention of neural tube defects in newborns. Thus, it is important to reliably determine the bioavailability of folates from various foods. Accurate analytical methods are essential for quantifying blood-folates, especially in human studies. Here, we present the development and validation of a sensitive method using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for determining various folates in plasma. Moreover, this study reports the applicability of the developed method to a human pilot study using strawberries as a test food. Validation of the assay revealed the precision, sensitivity, and accuracy of the method in determining the predominant 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in plasma. This method was also applicable for the screening of individual folate status using finger prick blood and for monitoring the post-absorptive plasma-concentration curve. Moreover, the human study revealed a high recovery of strawberry folates with a calculated relative bioavailability of 96.2%. Thus, the developed method enables prospective bioavailability studies. This work also confirmed, via human studies, that strawberries are a rich and natural source of folates that are available for human metabolism.

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<![CDATA[Detailed characterization of the solution kinetics and thermodynamics of biotin, biocytin and HABA binding to avidin and streptavidin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c818e96d5eed0c484cc260a

The high affinity (KD ~ 10−15 M) of biotin for avidin and streptavidin is the essential component in a multitude of bioassays with many experiments using biotin modifications to invoke coupling. Equilibration times suggested for these assays assume that the association rate constant (kon) is approximately diffusion limited (109 M-1s-1) but recent single molecule and surface binding studies indicate that they are slower than expected (105 to 107 M-1s-1). In this study, we asked whether these reactions in solution are diffusion controlled, which reaction model and thermodynamic cycle describes the complex formation, and if there are any functional differences between avidin and streptavidin. We have studied the biotin association by two stopped-flow methodologies using labeled and unlabeled probes: I) fluorescent probes attached to biotin and biocytin; and II) unlabeled biotin and HABA, 2-(4’-hydroxyazobenzene)-benzoic acid. Both native avidin and streptavidin are homo-tetrameric and the association data show no cooperativity between the binding sites. The kon values of streptavidin are faster than avidin but slower than expected for a diffusion limited reaction in both complexes. Moreover, the Arrhenius plots of the kon values revealed strong temperature dependence with large activation energies (6–15 kcal/mol) that do not correspond to a diffusion limited process (3–4 kcal/mol). Accordingly, we propose a simple reaction model with a single transition state for non-immobilized reactants whose forward thermodynamic parameters complete the thermodynamic cycle, in agreement with previously reported studies. Our new understanding and description of the kinetics, thermodynamics, and spectroscopic parameters for these complexes will help to improve purification efficiencies, molecule detection, and drug screening assays or find new applications.

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<![CDATA[Molecular features of steroid-binding antidins and their use for assaying serum progesterone]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe5fd5eed0c484e5b998

Chicken avidin (Avd) and streptavidin from Streptomyces avidinii are extensively used in bionanotechnology due to their extremely tight binding to biotin (Kd ~ 10−15 M for chicken Avd). We previously reported engineered Avds known as antidins, which have micro- to nanomolar affinities for steroids, non-natural ligands of Avd. Here, we report the 2.8 Å X-ray structure of the sbAvd-2 (I117Y) antidin co-crystallized with progesterone. We describe the creation of new synthetic phage display libraries and report the experimental as well as computational binding analysis of progesterone-binding antidins. We introduce a next-generation antidin with 5 nM binding affinity for progesterone, and demonstrate the use of antidins for measuring progesterone in serum samples. Our data give insights on how to engineer and alter the binding preferences of Avds and to develop better molecular tools for modern bionanotechnological applications.

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<![CDATA[Functional analysis finds differences on the muscle transcriptome of pigs fed an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet with or without antioxidant supplementations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe15d5eed0c484e5b456

Supplementing pig diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may produce meat products with an increased n-3 fatty acid content, and the combined antioxidants addition could prevent lipid oxidation in the feed. However, to date, the effects of these bioactive compounds at the molecular level in porcine skeletal muscle are mostly unknown. This study aimed to analyse changes in the Longissimus thoracis transcriptome of 35 pigs fed three diets supplemented with: linseed (L); linseed, vitamin E and Selenium (LES) or linseed and plant-derived polyphenols (LPE). Pigs were reared from 80.8 ± 5.6 kg to 151.8 ± 9.9 kg. After slaughter, RNA-Seq was performed and 1182 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were submitted to functional analysis. The L vs LES comparison did not show differences, while L vs LPE showed 1102 DEGs and LES vs LPE 80 DEGs. LPE compared to the other groups showed the highest number of up-regulated genes involved in preserving muscle metabolism and structure. Results enlighten that the combined supplementation of bioactive lipids (n-3 PUFA from linseed) with plant extracts as a source of polyphenols increases, compared to the only addition of linseed, the expression of genes involved in mRNA metabolic processes and transcriptional regulation, glucose uptake and, finally, in supporting muscle development and physiology. These results improve the knowledge of the biological effect of bioactive compounds in Longissimus thoracis muscle, and sustain the growing interest over their use in pig production.

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<![CDATA[Solanum lycopersicum GOLDEN 2-LIKE 2 transcription factor affects fruit quality in a light- and auxin-dependent manner]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75a8d5eed0c4843cff97

Plastids are organelles responsible for essential aspects of plant development, including carbon fixation and synthesis of several secondary metabolites. Chloroplast differentiation and activity are highly regulated by light, and several proteins involved in these processes have been characterised. Such is the case of the GOLDEN 2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors, which induces the expression of genes related to chloroplast differentiation and photosynthesis. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome harbours two copies of this gene, SlGLK1 and SlGLK2, each with distinct expression patterns. While the former predominates in leaves, the latter is mainly expressed in fruits, precisely at the pedicel region. During tomato domestication, the selection of fruits with uniform ripening fixed the mutation Slglk2, nowadays present in most cultivated varieties, what penalised fruit metabolic composition. In this study, we investigated how SlGLK2 is regulated by light, auxin and cytokinin and determined the effect of SlGLK2 on tocopherol (vitamin E) and sugar metabolism, which are components of the fruit nutritional and industrial quality. To achieve this, transcriptional profiling and biochemical analysis were performed throughout fruit development and ripening from SlGLK2, Slglk2, SlGLK2-overexpressing genotypes, as well as from phytochrome and hormonal deficient mutants. The results revealed that SlGLK2 expression is regulated by phytochrome-mediated light perception, yet this gene can induce chloroplast differentiation even in a phytochrome-independent manner. Moreover, auxin was found to be a negative regulator of SlGLK2 expression, while SlGLK2 enhances cytokinin responsiveness. Additionally, SlGLK2 enhanced chlorophyll content in immature green fruits, leading to an increment in tocopherol level in ripe fruits. Finally, SlGLK2 overexpression resulted in higher total soluble solid content, possibly by the regulation of sugar metabolism enzyme-encoding genes. The results obtained here shed light on the regulatory network that interconnects SlGLK2, phytohormones and light signal, promoting the plastidial activity and consequently, influencing the quality of tomato fruit.

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<![CDATA[Biochemical metabolic levels and vitamin D receptor FokⅠ gene polymorphisms in Uyghur children with urolithiasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2681d5eed0c484289bc2

Because of lacking studies of urolithiasis in children, we detected the biochemical metabolic levels and FokⅠ polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in Uyghur children with urolithiasis, and evaluated the associations of biochemical metabolic levels with FokⅠ genotypes. We included 142 Uyghur children (108 males) under age 14 years with a diagnosis of urolithiasis and 238 Uyghur children (154 males) under age 14 years without a history of urolithiasis as controls. Baseline information and data for serum and urine parameters were obtained from medical records. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to analyze the VDR FokⅠ polymorphisms. In univariate analyses adjusting for age and sex, carbon dioxide combining power (CO2CP) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.19), serum magnesium (Mg) (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.03–1.56) and serum chlorine (Cl) (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.97) were related to Uyghur children urolithiasis risk. A multiple logistic regression model showed CO2CP (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09–1.26), levels of uric acid (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.01) and serum sodium (Na) (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.99) were associated with pediatric urolithiasis. The risk of urolithiasis was increased with the F versus f allele overall (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.01–2.00) and for males (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02–2.27). However, metabolic levels did not differ by FokⅠ genotypes. In our population, CO2CP and levels of uric acid and serum Na as well as polymorphism of the F allele of the VDR FokⅠ may provide important clues to evaluate the risk of urolithiasis in Uyghur children.

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<![CDATA[Multiple micronutrient status and predictors of anemia in young children aged 12-23 months living in New Delhi, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730acd5eed0c484f37e90

Anemia has been identified as a severe public health concern among young children in India, however, information on the prevalence of anemia attributed to micronutrient deficiencies is lacking. We aimed to assess multiple micronutrient status (iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin D, folate and vitamin B12) in young Indian children and to investigate the role of these seven micronutrients and other non-nutritional factors on hemoglobin concentrations and anemia. One-hundred and twenty children aged 12 to 23 months were included in a cross-sectional nutritional assessment survey, of which 77 children provided a blood sample. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), total body iron, zinc, selenium, retinol binding protein (RBP), folate, vitamin B12 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured, and adjusted for inflammation using C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), where appropriate. Predictors for hemoglobin and anemia were identified in multiple regression models. Most of the children were classified as anemic, of which 86 to 93% was associated with iron deficiency depending on the indicator applied. Deficiencies of folate (37%), and notably vitamin D (74%) were also common; fewer children were classified with deficiencies of vitamin B12 (29%), zinc (25%), and vitamin A (17%) and selenium deficiency was nearly absent. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies were common with over half (57%) deficient in three or more micronutrients, and less than 10% of children were classified with adequate status for all the micronutrients measured. Iron status was found to be the only nutritional factor statistically significantly inversely associated with anemia (P = 0.003) in multivariate analysis after controlling for sex. A coordinated multi-micronutrient program is urgently needed to combat the co-existing micronutrient deficiencies in these young children to improve micronutrient status and reduce the high burden of childhood anemia.

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<![CDATA[Demand and supply factors of iron-folic acid supplementation and its association with anaemia in North Indian pregnant women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b529cd5eed0c4842bcc9d

Anaemia prevalence in pregnant women of India declined from 57.9% to 50.3% from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 to NFHS-4. However, over the course of that decade, the uptake of iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation for 100 days of pregnancy improved by only 15%. To understand demand side risk factors of anaemia specifically related to IFA intake, an in-depth survey was conducted on pregnant women (n = 436) in 50 villages and wards of Sirohi district of Rajasthan, India. At the demand side, consistent IFA consumption in the previous trimester was inversely and strongly associated with anaemia (OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.55). Reasons for inconsistent consumption included not registering to antenatal clinic, not receiving IFA tablets from the health worker and perceived lack of need. At the supply side, an analysis of IFA stock data at various levels of the health care (n = 168) providers from primary to tertiary levels showed that 14 out of 52 villages surveyed did not have access to IFA tablets. The closest availability of an IFA tablet for 16 villages, was more than 5 km away. To improve the uptake of IFA supplementation and thereby reduce iron deficiency anaemia in pregnant women, a constant supply of IFA at the village or sub-centre level, where frontline workers can promote uptake, should be ensured.

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<![CDATA[Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of Opuntia stricta cladodes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feb5d5eed0c48413531a

Background

The Opuntia spp. have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries. It is used in the management of diseases that involves oxidative stress, especially diabetes, obesity and cancer. Opuntia stricta (Haw) is one of the relatively unknown species in South Africa where it is regarded more as a weed. Because of this, not much is known about its chemical composition.

Aim

To determine the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of Opuntia stricta cladodes.

Methods

The phytochemical composition of acetone, aqueous and ethanol extract of cladodes of Opuntia stricta (Haw), as well as the vitamins A, C and E of its dried weight cladodes and the antioxidant activities, were evaluated using standard in vitro methods. The anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities were evaluated using cell-based assays. The phytochemical composition and vitamins were determined spectrophotometrically, while the antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and phosphomolybdenum (total) antioxidant activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined using RAW 264.7 cells, while cytotoxicity was determined using U937 cells.

Results

The phytochemical composition showed a significant difference in the various extracts. The total phenolics were higher than other phytochemicals in all the extracts used. All the extracts displayed antioxidant activity, while most of the extracts showed anti-inflammatory activity. Only one extract showed cytotoxicity, and it was mild.

Conclusion

The results show that the Opuntia stricta is rich in polyphenolic compounds and has good antioxidant activity as well as anti-inflammatory activities.

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<![CDATA[Dietary and non-dietary determinants of linear growth status of infants and young children in Ethiopia: Hierarchical regression analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6448c0d5eed0c484c2ed4a

Introduction

Childhood growth faltering remains a major public health problem in developing countries. We aimed to identify the distal, underlying, and proximal dietary and non-dietary factors associated with length-for-age (LFA) of infants and young children in Ethiopia.

Methods

We used a nationally representative sample of 2,932 children aged 6–23 months from the Ethiopian demographic and health survey (EDHS) conducted in 2016. Hierarchical regression analysis was done to identify the factors associated with LFA.

Findings

Pastoral residence (adjusted β (aβ) = -0.56, 95%CI = -0.82, -0.31, P<0.001) and poorest household wealth category (aβ = -0.57, 95%CI = -0.66, -0.48, P<0.001) were the basic factors negatively associated with LFA. Among underlying factors, maternal wasting (aβ = -0.43, 95%CI = -0.58, -0.28, P<0.001), and unimproved toilet facility (aβ = -0.48, 95%CI = -0.73, -0.23, P<0.001) were negatively associated with LFA. Proximal factors found positively associated with LFA were dietary diversity (aβ = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.043, 0.136, P<0.001), meal frequency (aβ = 0.04, 95%CI = 0.00, 0.08, P = 0.042), and vitamin A supplementation (aβ = 0.16, 95%CI = 0.03, 0.29, P = 0.020). Male sex (aβ = -0.26, 95%CI = -0.39, -0.14, P<0.001), age (aβ = -0.12, 95%CI = -0.13, -0.10, P = 0.001), small birth size (aβ = -0.45, 95%CI = -0.62, -0.29, P<0.001), and not currently breastfeeding (aβ = -0.29, 95%CI = -0.47, -0.11, P = 0.003) were negatively associated with LFA.

Conclusion

LFA was associated with various influences at distal, underlying, and proximal levels. A multi-pronged approach, addressing the various factors comprehensively, would represent an important consideration to promote linear growth in early childhood in Ethiopia.

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<![CDATA[Intervention against hypertension in the next generation programmed by developmental hypoxia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c477d5eed0c4845e87d3

Evidence derived from human clinical studies and experimental animal models shows a causal relationship between adverse pregnancy and increased cardiovascular disease in the adult offspring. However, translational studies isolating mechanisms to design intervention are lacking. Sheep and humans share similar precocial developmental milestones in cardiovascular anatomy and physiology. We tested the hypothesis in sheep that maternal treatment with antioxidants protects against fetal growth restriction and programmed hypertension in adulthood in gestation complicated by chronic fetal hypoxia, the most common adverse consequence in human pregnancy. Using bespoke isobaric chambers, chronically catheterized sheep carrying singletons underwent normoxia or hypoxia (10% oxygen [O2]) ± vitamin C treatment (maternal 200 mg.kg−1 IV daily) for the last third of gestation. In one cohort, the maternal arterial blood gas status, the value at which 50% of the maternal hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen (P50), nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity were determined. In another, naturally delivered offspring were raised under normoxia until early adulthood (9 months). Lambs were chronically instrumented and cardiovascular function tested in vivo. Following euthanasia, femoral arterial segments were isolated and endothelial function determined by wire myography. Hypoxic pregnancy induced fetal growth restriction and fetal oxidative stress. At adulthood, it programmed hypertension by enhancing vasoconstrictor reactivity and impairing NO-independent endothelial function. Maternal vitamin C in hypoxic pregnancy improved transplacental oxygenation and enhanced fetal antioxidant capacity while increasing NO bioavailability, offsetting constrictor hyper-reactivity and replenishing endothelial function in the adult offspring. These discoveries provide novel insight into mechanisms and interventions against fetal growth restriction and adult-onset programmed hypertension in an animal model of complicated pregnancy in a species of similar temporal developmental milestones to humans.

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<![CDATA[Metabolic consequences of discretionary fortified beverage consumption containing excessive vitamin B levels in adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61b7d4d5eed0c484938015

Over the past decade, there has been a substantial increase in the number of beverage products containing added vitamins and minerals. Often viewed as a healthier choice by consumers, the metabolic impacts of excessive vitamin consumption are relatively unknown, especially in children. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a widely available, vitamin fortified beverage (5h Energy Decaffeinated) on insulin sensitivity, metabolic hormones and serum metabolomic responses in adolescents. Twenty adolescents (13-19y, 10M/10F) completed two randomized trials, consuming either coloured water as placebo (PL) or a vitamin fortified, sugar free beverage (FB, 1.5ml/kg) 40min prior to a modified oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 1.75g/kg glucose). Samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120min during the OGTT. No differences in blood glucose response were observed between the treatments. However, compared to PL, postprandial plasma C-peptide and insulin excursion was significantly greater with FB, resulting in a 28% decline in the insulin sensitivity index. This was accompanied by elevated GLP-1, glucagon and PYY responses with FB compared to PL. Serum metabolomics (1H-NMR) analysis also revealed perturbations to vitamin B-linked one carbon metabolism flux with FB consumption that became more pronounced over time. These included a transient reduction in homocysteine flux accompanied by increases in betaine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, choline, folate and taurine. Although these impacts are likely short-lived, results show that beverages fortified with excessive amounts of vitamins are not metabolically inert, but likely result in greater insulin secretion, differential gut hormone secretion and elevated one-carbon flux to process the excessive vitamin loads.

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<![CDATA[Optimization of extraction of antioxidant polysaccharide from Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm and its cytotoxic activity against murine lymphoid cancer cell line]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b784d5eed0c48449027e

The purpose of this study was to optimize the extraction method for polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm and to assess the antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials of polysaccharide. In this investigation, polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm were extricated by utilizing the hot water. One-single factor and response surface methodology was established to optimize the extraction conditions for polysaccharide from Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Examination of antioxidant activity of Pleurotus ostreatus polysaccharide (POP) was directed by utilizing 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) techniques. Cytotoxicity of POP was evaluated using an MTT assay. The experimental data were fitted to a quadratic equation utilizing multiple regression investigations, and the ideal conditions were as per the following: water/crude material proportion, 26.04 mL/g; an extraction time of 62.08 minutes; and an extraction temperature 70.5°C. Under such conditions, the polysaccharide yield was 5.32 ± 0.12% with the anticipated yield. POP showed good scavenging activity against DPPH radical (p<0.001, EC50 = 1036.38 μg/mL, R2 = 0.8313) and ABTS radicals (p<0.001, EC50 = 824.37 μg/mL, R2 = 0.8223), with a dose (p<0.001)-and-time (p<0.001) dependent cytotoxic potential on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line in vitro. This demonstrated that polysaccharides (POP) had certain cancer prevention agent exercises. In this manner, these examinations give reference to additionally research and reasonable improvement of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm polysaccharide and POP may prove a useful therapeutic agent, due to its robust antioxidant and cytotoxic activity.

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<![CDATA[Identification of calnexin as a diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 interacting protein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0124d5eed0c484038a83

Triacylglycerol synthesis is catalyzed by acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2). DGAT2 is an integral membrane protein that is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and interacts with lipid droplets. Using BioId, a method to detect proximal and interacting proteins, we identified calnexin as a DGAT2-interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays confirmed this finding. We found that calnexin-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts had reduced intracellular triacylglycerol levels and fewer large lipid droplets (>1.0 μm2 area). Despite the alterations in triacylglycerol metabolism, in vitro DGAT2 activity, localization and protein stability were not affected by the absence of calnexin.

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